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1.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e037, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321055

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between number of cavitated dental caries in adolescents and family cohesion, drug use, sociodemographic factors and visits to the dentist. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 746 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years from Campina Grande, Brazil. The parents answered a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic data, and the adolescents answered questionnaires on drug use, type of family cohesion and visits to the dentist. Two examiners underwent training and calibration exercises (K > 0.80) to diagnose dental caries using the Nyvad criteria. A directed acyclic graph was created to select the variables to be controlled in the statistical model. Associations between the independent variables and the outcome were determined using robust Poisson Regression analysis for complex samples (α = 5%). Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The prevalence of dental caries and cavitated lesions among the adolescents was 92.8% and 41.6%, respectively. The following variables remained associated with the number of cavitated lesions in the multivariate analysis: disengaged (RR: 6.30; 95%CI: 1.24-31.88; p = 0.028 ), separated (RR: 4.80; 95%CI: 1.03-22.35; p = 0.046) and connected (RR: 5.23; 95%CI: 1.27-21.59; p = 0.024) levels of family cohesion, and high social class (RR: 0.55; 95%CI: 0.39-0.76; p = 0.001). In conclusion, this paper posits that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic status, and those whose family cohesion was classified as disengaged, separated or connected, had a larger number of cavitated lesions.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/epidemiología , Relaciones Familiares , Clase Social , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Padres , Distribución de Poisson , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 39, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321056

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine and map the consequences of chronic pain in adulthood. METHOD: Documents addressing the impact of chronic pain on the psychological and social spheres of people suffering from chronic pain, published in Spanish and English between 2013 and 2018, were included. Those who addressed pharmacological treatments, chronic pain resulting from surgical interventions or who did not have access to the full text were excluded. Finally, 28 documents from the 485 reviewed were included. RESULTS: Studies show that pain is related to high rates of limitation in daily activities, sleep disorders and anxiety-depression spectrum disorders. People in pain have more problems to get the workday done and to maintain social relationships. Chronic pain is also associated with worse family functioning. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that limitations in the ability to perform activities of daily living, sleep, psychological health, social and work resources and family functioning are lines of interest in published articles. However, knowledge gaps are detected in areas such as the influence of having suffered pain in childhood or adolescence, the consequences of non-fulfillment of working hours and gender inequalities.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico/psicología , Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/psicología , Adulto Joven
4.
Nursing ; 50(4): 56-62, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195879

RESUMEN

Caring for older patients with neurocognitive disorders can be challenging, especially when family members disagree regarding optimal care. This article explores the role and utilization of mediators in the healthcare setting.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Familiares , Trastornos Neurocognitivos/enfermería , Relaciones Profesional-Familia , Anciano , Humanos , Negociación , Rol Profesional
5.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e-1272, fev.2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1051246

RESUMEN

Introdução: a hanseníase é uma doença secular mantida por muitos anos como incurável, levando à segregação do doente. Os mecanismos excludentes contra o leproso tinham a premissa de proteger a população sadia, ao mesmo tempo em que se constituíam como empecilhos à manutenção do vínculo familiar. Objetivo: analisar o efeito do tratamento compulsório da hanseníase em hospitais-colônias nas relações familiares, na perspectiva daquele que possui parentesco com um ex-doente. Método: estudo qualitativo, utilizando-se da história oral temática. A colônia foi composta pelos 52 familiares de ex-doentes de hanseníase e a rede por 10 colaboradores, de ambos os sexos, com idade de 44 a 76 anos. Utilizou-se a entrevista, com questões abrangentes, submetida à análise temática de conteúdo. A pesquisa foi aprovada com Parecer de nº 650.654/2014. Resultados: mediante a análise, emergiram três categorias: desestruturação da organização familiar, distanciamento familiar e alteração no suporte familiar, os quais abordam as consequências nas relações familiares, estabelecidas mediante a experiência de se ter um parente acometido pela lepra e vitimado pelo internamento compulsório em hospitais-colônias. O distanciamento modificou as relações e o vínculo familiar entre os ex-doentes de lepra tratados em ambiente asilar e seus familiares. Conclusão: as histórias narradas relatam danos vivenciados no passado como consequência da ruptura familiar sofrida pelos colaboradores do estudo frente à política adotada como profilaxia e controle da lepra. Diante dessa parte do histórico da doença relatada no presente estudo, e de suas características epidemiológicas, torna-se relevante considerar a subjetividade dos indivíduos com hanseníase, proporcionando cuidado integral.(AU)


Introduction: leprosy is a secular disease maintained for many years as incurable, leading to segregation of the patient. The exclusionary mechanisms against the leper had the premise of protecting the healthy population, while they constituted obstacles to the maintenance of the family bond. Objective: to analyze the effect of compulsory leprosy treatment in hospital-colonies on family relationships, from the perspective of those who are related to a ex-patient. Method: qualitative study, using thematic oral history. The colony was composed of 52 relatives of ex-leprosy patients and the network of 10 collaborators, of both sexes, aged 44 to 76 years. The interview was used, with comprehensive questions, submitted to thematic content analysis. The survey was approved with Opinion No. 650,654/2014...(AU)


Introducción: la lepra es una enfermedad secular considerada durante muchos años como incurable, segregando al paciente. Los mecanismos de exclusión contra el leproso tenían la premisa de proteger a la población sana, al mismo tiempo que constituían obstáculos para el mantenimiento del vínculo familiar. Objetivo: analizar el efecto del tratamiento obligatorio de la lepra en hospitales-colonias sobre las relaciones familiares, desde la perspectiva de alguien relacionado con un ex paciente. Método: estudio cualitativo, utilizando historia oral temática. La colonia estaba compuesta por 52 familiares de ex pacientes de lepra y la red de 10 colaboradores, de ambos sexos, de 44 a 76 años. Se utilizó la entrevista con preguntas amplias, sometidas a análisis de contenido temático. La encuesta fue aprobada con el dictamen No. 650,654 / 2014. Resultados: a través del análisis surgieron tres categorías: desestructuración de la organización familiar, distanciamiento familiar y cambios en el apoyo familiar, que enfocan las consecuencias en las relaciones familiares, establecidas a través de la experiencia de tener un familiar afectado por la lepra y victimizado por la internación obligatoria en hospitalescolonias. El distanciamiento alteró las relaciones y el vínculo entre los ex pacientes con lepra tratados en un entorno de asilo y sus familiares. Conclusión: las historias narradas reportan daños sufridos en el pasado como consecuencia de la ruptura familiar de los participantes del estudio ante la política adoptada como profilaxis y control de la lepra. En vista de esta parte de la historia de la enfermedad reportada en el presente estudio, y de sus características epidemiológicas, resulta relevante considerar la subjetividad de las personas con lepra, brindando atención integral.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Relaciones Familiares , Hospitalización , Lepra , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Enfermería de la Familia
6.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 13(1): 1-10, jan.-abr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090453

RESUMEN

O processo de individualização em gêmeos se mostra mais complexo se comparado com filhos singulares, envolvendo maiores questões em relação à separação entre o bebê e a mãe, também entre os próprios cogêmeos. Devido ao aumento de nascimentos de gêmeos, o assunto é atual, porém ainda são poucos os estudos na área. O trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a produção científica brasileira sobre o processo de individualização em gêmeos na atualidade. Para isso, realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica integrativa em bases de dados online, de artigos e teses referentes à temática. Foram selecionados e analisados 14 trabalhos científicos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Verificou-se dificuldade em estudar o processo de individualização em gêmeos devido a algumas de suas particularidades, como a genética e ambiente de criação compartilhados, intensificando, consequentemente, as ideações e práticas culturais sobre o desenvolvimento gemelar. Assim, entende-se a necessidade de estudos mais aprofundados.


The process of individualization of twins appears to be more complex when compared with individual children, involving major issues regarding the separation between the baby and the mother and also among the twins themselves. Because of the increase in births of twins, this is a current subject, although there are still few studies in the area. This study aimed to investigate the Brazilian scientific production about the individualization process in twins today. For this, an integrative literature review of online databases was conducted, including papers and theses concerning the subject. A total of 14 scientific studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected and analyzed. While studying the process of individualization of twins, some challenges appeared, mainly due to particularities like shared genetics and raising environment, which consequently intensify the ideation and cultural practices related to the growth of twins. Thus, further studies are considered necessary.


Asunto(s)
Gemelos , Individualidad , Psicología Social , Relaciones entre Hermanos , Relaciones Familiares
7.
J Lesbian Stud ; 24(1): 1-11, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131741

RESUMEN

Most studies of planned lesbian motherhood via donor insemination (DI) have sampled lesbian mothers in individualistic societies where adults have relatively distant connection to their family of origin. Our study examined the experiences of biological and non-biological lesbian mothers in five families who had children through DI after disclosing their motherhood status to their family networks in Portugal, a familistic society. The first theme identified by thematic analysis-"But why do you want to have a child?"-encapsulated the reactions of biological mothers' family of origin to the announcement of motherhood. Disclosure was mostly met by a shocked response in the family, rooted in the belief that lesbian women should not have children. The second theme-"But you weren't pregnant, how is this your child?"-summarized the reactions of non-biological mothers' family of origin to the disclosure of motherhood status as they considered refusing to recognize their grandchild in the absence of biological connection. Prejudice against lesbian-mother family formation was associated with the specific intersection of lesbianism and motherhood, but relationships between the mothers and their families were largely repaired because of familistic values.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad Femenina , Inseminación Artificial Heteróloga , Madres , Revelación de la Verdad , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Relaciones Familiares , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Portugal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género
8.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 159-173, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403564

RESUMEN

Studies of adults who experienced sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) have documented a range of health risks. To date, there is little research on SOCE among adolescents and no known studies of parents' role related to SOCE with adolescents. In a cross-sectional study of 245 LGBT White and Latino young adults (ages 21-25), we measured parent-initiated SOCE during adolescence and its relationship to mental health and adjustment in young adulthood. Measures include being sent to therapists and religious leaders for conversion interventions as well as parental/caregiver efforts to change their child's sexual orientation during adolescence. Attempts by parents/caregivers and being sent to therapists and religious leaders for conversion interventions were associated with depression, suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, less educational attainment, and less weekly income. Associations between SOCE, health, and adjustment were much stronger and more frequent for those reporting both attempts by parents and being sent to therapists and religious leaders, underscoring the need for parental education and guidance.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad/psicología , Padres , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Relaciones Familiares , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Padres/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio , Adulto Joven
9.
Poiésis (En línea) ; 38(Ene.-Jun.): 84-103, 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095744

RESUMEN

Este artículo de revisión documental parte del interés de los investigadores por comprender cuál es la influencia que tiene la comunicación en el sistema familiar, teniendo presente algunos de sus elementos fundamentales, el contexto sociohistórico y el abordaje de la familia a nivel terapéutico. Para efectos de esta investigación, se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo con una metodología hermenéutica, sustentada en la modalidad estado del arte y estrategia documental, posibilitando el análisis de diferentes textos que permitieron la comprensión de la temática a abordar. Se halla que la comunicación se convierte en un agente fundamental para la estructura familiar; a partir de ella, se crean y fortalecen lazos significativos al interior de la familia, reforzando las relaciones interpersonales que facilitan el intercambio de emociones, sentimientos, ideas, pensamientos y creencias, influyendo en las habilidades personales, familiares y sociales. Se constituye así como un punto de convergencia en las realidades familiares, el abordaje terapéutico, donde se ponen de manifiesto las dinámicas internas de las mismas, develando el entramado comunicacional y exponiendo las subjetividades de cada subsistema, en relación con sus vivencias vinculares e interaccionales; esto comprendiendo que la familia presenta variaciones según el contexto histórico y cultural en el cual se encuentre, tales como la estructura familiar, hábitos y estilos de vida, así como las formas de relacionarse. Igualmente se encuentra que las tecnologías de la comunicación e información (TIC) cumplen un papel significativo en la interacción del sistema, pues estas se perciben como una dicotomía a nivel relacional en las familias contemporáneas. Finalmente, se concluye que cada familia es única desde su forma de constitución hasta su momento actual; además, cada integrante que forma parte del sistema es importante en la totalidad de este, por tanto, se establece como un reto para el profesional psicosocial ofrecer un abordaje holístico a la familia, teniendo presente su particularidad y su forma de interacción, tanto a nivel interno como externo


This review article emerges from researchers' interest in understanding the influence of communication in the family system, taking into account some of its fundamental elements, the socio-historical context and the approach to the family at the therapeutic level. For the purposes of this research, the qualitative approach was used and the hermeneutics as research method, supported on the state of the art modality and documentary research strategy, permitting the analysis of different texts that allowed the understanding of the subject to be addressed. It is found that communication becomes a fundamental agent for family structure; thanks to it, significant bonds are created and strengthened within the family, fortifying interpersonal relationships that facilitate the exchange of emotions, feelings, ideas, thoughts and beliefs, influencing personal, family and social skills. It is thus established as a point of convergence in family realities, the approach in therapy, where the internal dynamics of families are unveiled, revealing the communicational framework and exposing the subjectivities of each subsystem, in relation to their bonding and interactional experiences; understanding that families portray variations according to the historical and cultural context, such as family structure, habits and lifestyles, as well as ways of interacting. It is also found that information and communication technologies (ICT) play a significant role in the interaction of the system as these are perceived as a dichotomy at the relational level in contemporary families. Finally, it is concluded that each family is unique from its constitution to its current moment; moreover, each member of the system is thoroughly important in it; therefore, offering a holistic approach to the family becomes a challenge for the psychosocial professional, taking into account their particularity and their type of interaction, both at the internal and external level


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Relaciones Familiares , Familia/psicología , Terapia Familiar , Relaciones Interpersonales
10.
Poiésis (En línea) ; 38(Ene.-Jun.): 140-161, 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095748

RESUMEN

En el presente trabajo se busca cavilar acerca de la violencia filio-parental, como parte de una realidad que, desde una mirada en referencia a las ciencias sociales y humanas, amerita una reflexión, una intervención y un espacio para dar a conocer por qué ocurre la dinámica de violencia de hijos a padres, y a hoy cuáles han sido los diferentes abordajes en cuanto al concepto de familia, razón por la cual se hace necesario emprender un conocimiento en lo que implica las peculiaridades que comprenden las familias en su interior, el fenómeno de la violencia filio-parental y su posible intervención. Esta investigación documental se realizó con base en un enfoque hermenéutico, donde a partir de los hallazgos, se pretende analizar, comprender e interpretar la realidad de la violencia filio-parental desde diferentes autores que apuntan al tema de investigación, logrando concebir de manera clara cuál es la dinámica que se ejerce dentro de la familia. Se divide entonces en tres partes: descripción, identificación e intervención, desde las dinámicas internas de las familias, partiendo de las clasificaciones que existen de violencia familiar, logrando resignificar el lugar que tiene la familia en la sociedad; por último, se recogen algunas reflexiones en referencia a la intervención de la violencia filio-parental.


This paper is intended to provide a reflection on child-to-parent violence, as part of a reality that, from the point of view of social and human sciences, deserves a reflection, an intervention and a space to make visible the reasons why it occurs, and up to date which have been the different approaches to the concept of family. All these makes it necessary to undertake a process knowledge constructions in the implication of the peculiarities that are comprised inside the families, the phenomenon of child-to-parent violence and its possible intervention. This documentary research was carried out following a hermeneutical approach. Based on the findings, it is intended to analyze, understand and interpret the reality of child-to-parent violence from different authors who address the research topic, leading to clearly understand the dynamic that is exercised within the family. It is divided into three parts: description, identification and intervention, within the internal dynamics of families, based on the classifications of family violence, leading to provide a new sense to the place that family has in society; finally, some reflections are collected in reference to the intervention of child-to-parent violence.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Violencia Doméstica , Conflicto Familiar/psicología , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Relaciones Padre-Hijo
11.
Poiésis (En línea) ; 38(Ene.-Jun.): 63-83, 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095666

RESUMEN

El proceso de divorcio es un acontecimiento que involucra a todo el sistema familiar, llegando a experimentar distintas emociones, sentimientos y sucesos que se presentan antes, durante y después del mismo. Así las cosas, se espera, mediante la investigación, identificar las diferentes miradas del sistema familiar y cómo el profesional que se encuentra en el espacio terapéutico atraviesa al proceso de divorcio. Para ello, se implementó un enfoque cualitativo y un método hermenéutico, que permitirán profundizar de forma detallada los hechos y entender las distintas realidades. Finalmente, se logró mostrar cómo se concibe el proceso de divorcio desde la terapia familiar y la vivencia de sus actores; además de generar conocimientos que aporten a la formación profesional y que puedan beneficiar a otras familias.


The divorce process is an occurrence that involves the entire family system, getting to experience different emotions, feelings and issues that occur before, during and after it. In this context and through research, there is the intention to identify the different views of the family system and how the professional in the therapeutic space experiences the divorce process. In order to achieve the set purposes, a qualitative approach and a hermeneutical method were implemented, which will allow to deepen the issues in detail and understand the different realities. Finally, it was possible to evidence how the divorce process is conceived within family therapy and the experience of its actors; besides generating knowledge that contribute to vocational training and that can be of benefit to other families.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio , Psicología/métodos , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Terapia Familiar
12.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 14: [1-9], 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1095936

RESUMEN

Objetivo: avaliar a sobrecarga (objetiva e subjetiva) vivenciada pelos familiares cuidadores de indivíduos com esquizofrenia. Método: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo, com 15 familiares que cuidavam diretamente ou indiretamente do indivíduo com esquizofrenia em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial. Analisaram-se os dados por meio da estatística não paramétrica. Resultados: evidenciou-se sobrecarga objetiva dos familiares no preparo das refeições (60%), acompanhamento do paciente no transporte (66,7%), administração do dinheiro do paciente (80%), acompanhamento nas consultas médicas (60%), em relação à supervisão de comportamentos problemáticos (33,3%), comportamento suicida (33,3%) e excesso de cigarros, alimentos e líquidos (33,3%). Conclusão: avaliaram-se as principais sobrecargas objetivas e subjetivas vivenciadas pelos cuidadores de indivíduos com esquizofrenia, possibilitando assim, contribuir para a reflexão dos serviços sobre intervenções necessárias.(AU)


Objective: to evaluate the overload (objective and subjective) experienced by family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia. Method: this is a quantitative, descriptive study with 15 family members who directly or indirectly cared for the individual with schizophrenia in a Psychosocial Care Center. Data was analyzed using nonparametric statistics. Results: there was objective overload of family members in the preparation of meals (60%), patient followup in transportation (66.7%), administration of patient money (80%), follow-up at medical appointments (60%), supervision of problem behaviors (33.3%), suicidal behavior (33.3%) and excess cigarettes, food and liquids (33.3%). Conclusion: the main objective and subjective overloads experienced by caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia were evaluated, thus contributing to the reflection of the services on necessary interventions.(AU)


Objetivo: evaluar la sobrecarga (objetiva y subjetiva) experimentada por los cuidadores familiares de personas con esquizofrenia. Método: este es un estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo con 15 miembros de la familia que cuidaron directa o indirectamente al individuo con esquizofrenia en un Centro de Atención Psicosocial. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadísticas no paramétricas. Resultados: hubo sobrecarga objetiva de miembros de la familia en la preparación de comidas (60%), seguimiento del paciente en transporte (66.7%), administración del dinero del paciente (80%), seguimiento en citas médicas (60%), supervisión de conductas problemáticas (33.3%), conductas suicidas (33.3%) y exceso de cigarrillos, alimentos y líquidos (33.3%). Conclusión: se evaluaron las principales sobrecargas objetivas y subjetivas experimentadas por los cuidadores de individuos con esquizofrenia, contribuyendo así a la reflexión de los servicios sobre las intervenciones necesarias.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Esquizofrenia , Cuidadores , Cuidadores/psicología , Impacto Psicosocial , Enfermos Mentales , Relaciones Familiares , Servicios de Salud Mental , Epidemiología Descriptiva
13.
Nurs Res ; 69(1): E1-E8, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given a marked increase in the number of grandparents who play a caregiving role for their grandchildren, there is a parallel urgency for more research involving grandparent-grandchild dyads. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe methodological challenges we encountered when conducting grandparent-grandchild dyadic research, some of which were challenges specific to working with dyads where the grandparents were caregivers to the child participants and others, which were challenges of a sort that might be encountered in any research involving data collection with multigenerational family units and, in particular, multigenerational family units including older adults. METHODS: During and after an observational study conducted by the researchers involving grandparent-grandchild dyads, we explored challenges we encountered and strategies for improving our research outcomes. RESULTS: We found several challenges specific to grandparent-grandchild dyads, including complications with reaching legal guardians to obtain permission for child participants; collecting accelerometer data from grandchildren was difficult, particularly if the grandparents did not live with their grandchildren; and participants who had various preferences for data collection methods. We also found challenges that might be found with any family context dyadic research, particularly involving older adults and across multiple generations, including relatively low follow-up response rates from those grandparents who initially expressed interest and a need for an extended data collection period. We employed targeted strategies to overcome those obstacles, and in this article, we describe the outcomes of those strategies. DISCUSSION: Recommendations from our results include the following: (a) find a way to involve the parents and/or legal guardian as early as possible, (b) have multiple team members involved in recruitment/data collection, (c) be flexible about data collection methods, (d) use flexible scheduling, and (e) use multiple simultaneous recruitment activities/multiple advertisement channels. Additional strategies include enhancing children's sense of control during the consent process, simplifying study procedures, considering usability when creating online data surveys, and identifying power dynamics within the families. CONCLUSION: The insights we gained will be useful for informing future family context dyadic research, in particular, research involving grandparent-grandchild dyads.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Cuidadores/psicología , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Abuelos/psicología , Padres/psicología , Selección de Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
South Med J ; 112(12): 626-633, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796974

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Social support for physical activity (PA) has been shown to enhance PA levels in adolescents. Although social support has been examined extensively in the literature, less is known about the role of social support for PA for high school adolescents in rural southern Appalachia. PA is important because adolescent obesity is greater in Appalachia than in the rest of the United States. METHODS: This was a qualitative secondary analysis of focus groups conducted in 2013-2014 among parents, teachers, and high school students (N = 77) in 6 counties across rural southern Appalachia. Beets' typology of social support was used to categorize themes. RESULTS: Participants discussed instrumental supports, including providing transportation and paying fees, enrolling child in recreation/sports, and providing PA equipment at home. Performing PA with adolescents and modeling, watching/supervising, and prioritizing PA were identified as conditional supports. Several motivational supports were identified: encouragement, force, and the admiration of people who are active. Participants also identified key informational supports, including discussing the importance/health benefits of PA, how to be physically active, and general advice/information. Barriers to PA engagement (eg, body image issues, bullying, competitive nature of PA opportunities) and the role of referent groups (eg, family, peers, teachers) emerged as important concepts in the discussion. CONCLUSION: This study identifies opportunities and practical ways for families and schools to provide, build, and strengthen supports for PA among adolescents in rural Appalachia.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Población Rural , Apoyo Social , Estudiantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Región de los Apalaches , Relaciones Familiares , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Educación en Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Grupo Paritario , Deportes/economía
15.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1185-1197, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804121

RESUMEN

Individual development and relationships are embedded in a sociohistorical context. In the present study, we examined how relationship functioning of heterosexual couples differs across historical time in 3 population-based samples. We used data from the Swiss Social Stratification, Cohesion and Conflict in Contemporary Families Study (COUPLES: waves 1998 vs. 2011), the Swiss Household Panel (SHP: waves 2000 vs. 2016), and the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS: 1996-1997 vs. 2008-2009), each including a different measure of relationship functioning (COUPLES: conflict, SHP: practical and emotional support, and, BHPS: relationship satisfaction). We also examined the role of age and other correlates. Using propensity score matching methods, we selected couples in both waves matched by age, relationship duration, and region within each study (COUPLES: 174 couples per wave, mean age = 30 in men and 27 in women; SHP: 1,071 couples per wave, mean age = 47 in men and 44 in women; and, BHPS: 316 couples per wave, mean age = 36 in men and 33 in women). Our results revealed that while women and men in the later wave reported more frequent conflict, women in the later wave reported more emotional and practical support from their partner, resulting in a smaller gender gap over historical time, and men in the later wave reported higher relationship satisfaction. Taken together, this pattern of historical differences is largely consistent with what would be expected based on increased egalitarianism. We discuss the role of societal change in shaping romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 99-124, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019278

RESUMEN

Abstract The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy in Nursing, Human Medicine and Psychology students. The study's sample consisted of 599 students, from both genders, and from different cycles of their university studies. Their ages ranged between 21 and 25 years. To assess them, the Dysfunctional Parenting Styles Scale by Parker, et al. (1979) was used, previously adapted to Peruvian population. The participants were also evaluated with the Personal and Professional Empathy Scale designed by Yaraskavitch (2009), and completed a socio-demographic data sheet created ad hoc. General results showed no significant relationships between the dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy total scores. In contrast, considering the father figure, an inverse relationship between the authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and the personal and professional cognitive empathy was found, while the indifference - negligence dysfunctional parenting style was inversely associated with the emotive personal empathy. As to the mother figure, there is a significant and direct relationship between authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and personal and professional emotive empathy. It was also found that regarding gender, women have higher levels of empathy. With respect to professional degree courses, Nursing students have a higher level of empathy than Medicine and Psychology students, while Medicine students have more dysfunctional parenting styles than the Nursing and Psychology groups. Finally, students that had taken personal development courses showed a higher level of empathy.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a relação entre os estilos parentais disfuncionais e a empatia em estudantes universitários de Lima, além de comparações de acordo com a carreira profissional (Enfermagem, Medicina Humana e Psicologia). A amostra foi composta por 599 estudantes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 21 e 25 anos, a quem foi aplicada a Escala de Estilos Parentais Disfuncionais -de Parker et a. (1979)-, a Escala de Empatia Pessoal e Profissional -desenhada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para os fins do estudo, e uma ficha sociodemográfica elaborada pelos autores. Os resultados mostram uma relação não significativa entre as pontuações totais de estilos parentais disfuncionais e de empatia, mas obteve-se uma relação inversa entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritário-controlador" com as dimensões "empatia pessoal cognitiva" e "empatia profissional cognitiva", e uma relação direta entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional materno com as dimensões "empatia pessoal emotiva" e "empatia profissional emotiva". Além disso, com respeito ao gênero, as mulheres apresentaram maior nível de empatia e, de acordo com o curso, os estudantes de Enfermaria apresentaram maiores níveis de empatia, enquanto os de Medicina mostraram mais estilos parentais disfuncionais. Finalmente, os estudantes que fizeram cursos de desenvolvimento pessoal em sua formação profissional apresentaram maior nível de empatia.


Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la relación entre los estilos parentales disfuncionales y la empatía en estudiantes universitarios de Lima, además de comparaciones según su carrera profesional (Enfermería, Medicina Humana y Psicología). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 599 estudiantes de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 21 y 25 años, a quienes se les aplicó la Escala de Estilos Parentales Disfuncionales -de Parker et al. (1979)-, la Escala de Empatía Personal y Profesional -diseñada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para los fines del estudio, y una ficha sociodemográfica elaborada por los autores. Los resultados muestran una relación no significativa entre los puntajes totales de estilos parentales disfuncionales y de empatía, aunque se obtuvo una relación inversa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritario-controlador" con las dimensiones "empatía personal cognitiva" y "empatía profesional cognitiva", y una relación directa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional materno con las dimensiones "empatía personal emotiva" y "empatía profesional emotiva"; además de que, respecto al género, las mujeres presentaron mayor nivel de empatía, y, según carrera, los estudiantes de Enfermería presentaron mayores niveles de empatía, mientras que los de Medicina mostraron más estilos parentales disfuncionales. Finalmente, los estudiantes que llevaron a cabo cursos de desarrollo personal en su formación profesional presentaron un mayor nivel de empatía.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Empatía , Ciencias de la Salud , Relaciones Familiares
17.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: e26923, jan.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1052537

RESUMEN

Objetivos: identificar e analisar os processos de exclusão e inclusão social que acontecem na família da pessoa com transtorno mental. Método: utilizou-se a abordagem qualitativa como metodologia de pesquisa. Os sujeitos desta investigação foram 17 usuários de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, da cidade de São Paulo, e 12 pessoas de sua rede social. Para a coleta de dados foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas e, para apuração dos dados, foi utilizada a análise do discurso. Resultados: identificou-se que a exclusão social dos usuários na família pode ocorrer pela ruptura e distanciamento ou de uma maneira mais sutil. Porém, na medida em que os usuários são valorizados e encontraram um papel na família, se estabelecem relações de troca e de ajuda mútua. Conclusão: os relacionamentos se constroem em um processo dialético, passando por conflitos e situações de reciprocidade


Objectives: to identify and to analyze the processes of social exclusion and inclusion that happen in the family of the person with mental disorder. Method: qualitative approach was used as a research methodology. Subjects of this investigation were 17 users of a Psychosocial Care Center, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in addition to 12 people from their social networks. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were realizes and, for data analysis, it was the discourse analysis technique. Results: Social exclusion of users of a Psychosocial Care Center in the family can occur due to social disruption and distance, or in a more subtle way. However, to the extent that users are valued and find a role in the family, relationships of exchange and mutual help are established. Conclusion: relationships are developed in a dialectical process, going through conflicts and situations of reciprocity, with the family being the main social inclusion network of these people.


Objetivos: identificar y analizar los procesos de exclusión e inclusión social que ocurren en la familia de la persona con trastorno mental. Método:se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo como metodología de investigación. Las personas de esta investigación fueron 17 usuarios de un Centro de Atención Psicosocial, en la ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil, además de 12 personas de sus redes sociales. Para la recopilación de datos, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y, para el análisis de datos, fue la técnica de análisis del discurso. Resultados: la exclusión social de los usuarios de un Centro de Atención Psicosocial en la familia puede ocurrir debido a la interrupción social y la distancia, o de una manera más sutil. Sin embargo, en la medida en que los usuarios sean valorados y encuentren un papel en la familia, se establecen relaciones de intercambio y ayuda mutua. Conclusión: las relaciones se desarrollan en un proceso dialéctico, pasando por conflictos y situaciones de reciprocidad, siendo la familia la principal red de inclusión social de estas personas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Salud Mental , Relaciones Familiares , Participación Social , Relaciones Interpersonales , Trastornos Mentales , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
ABCS health sci ; 44(3): 213-216, 20 dez 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047758

RESUMEN

INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo relata possíveis fatores para a recorrência de infarto agudo do miocárdio de um paciente atendido em unidade coronariana sob a perspectiva familiar. RELATO DE CASO: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, do tipo relato de caso. Os dados foram coletados através de uma entrevista piloto semiestruturada, realizada com um familiar de uma paciente que se encontrava internada na unidade coronariana com recorrência de Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio (IAM). O familiar relatou que a intensa atividade física realizada pela paciente, o consumo excessivo de álcool e a não adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso contribuíram para o segundo quadro de IAM. A familiar mencionou que as orientações recebidas durante a alta foram somente em torno dos medicamentos prescritos, destacando a ausência de orientações acerca das alterações no estilo de vida, em especial à equipe de enfermagem. CONCLUSÃO: O presente relato revelou que as orientações durante a alta não estão sendo efetivas na prevenção da recorrência de IAM e ressalta a necessidade de repensar o papel dos profissionais de enfermagem em relação às orientações prestadas, como forma de facilitar a adesão do paciente ao tratamento medicamentoso e às mudanças no estilo de vida.


INTRODUCTION: This study reports the possible factors for the recurrence of acute myocardial infarction of a patient attended in the coronary care unit in the perspective of relatives. CASE REPORT: This is a descriptive study, with qualitative approach, of the case report type. The data were collected through a semi-structured pilot interview, conducted with a member of the patient family, who was hospitalized in the coronary care unit with the recurrence of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). The relative reported that the intense physical activity performed by the patient, the excessive consumption of alcohol and non-adherence to drug therapy, have contributed to the second event of AMI. The same mentioned that the guidance received during the high, were only around for medicines prescribed, highlighting the absence of guidance about the changes in life style and the realization of the same by health care professionals, in particular nursing staff. CONCLUSION: The present report revealed that the guidelines during the high are not being effective in the prevention of the recurrence of AMI, and highlights the need to rethink the role of professional nursing in relation to the guidelines provided, as a way of facilitating the patient's adherence to medication treatment and changes in lifestyle.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Informes de Casos , Familia , Prevención de Enfermedades , Relaciones Familiares , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento , Promoción de la Salud , Infarto del Miocardio
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877950

RESUMEN

The quality of family relationships is important for individual and family well-being. Improving family relationships is also an important goal in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Little is known about factors associated with the improvement of family relationships among MMT clients. This study aimed to identify factors associated with family relationship improvement in MMT. We retrospectively analyzed existing data from 2006 to 2014 at 15 MMT clinics in Guangdong, China, including 2171 subjects with 4691 follow-ups. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the association between living status transitions, behavior changes and family relationship improvement, with covariates controlled for. Family relationship improvement was found in 23.1% of all follow-up intervals. Participants who began living with family, living on a regular wage, and gained employment were more likely to have improved family relationships. The quality of family relationships also improved among participants who ceased contact with drug-addicted fellows, ceased drug use, and those who were sexually active. These results suggest that improvement in living status, positive changes in drug use, and sexual activity are associated with family relationship improvement and corresponding interventions may be developed to facilitate clients' recovery.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Relaciones Familiares , Metadona/uso terapéutico , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adulto , China , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/métodos , Características de la Residencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Conducta Sexual , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/tratamiento farmacológico
20.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(12): 753-760, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841647

RESUMEN

Family belonging may influence relationships between the amount of time spent on social networking sites (SNS) and well-being. We examined the SNS and well-being association among young adults and investigated whether different markers of family belonging moderated this association. SNS, well-being, and family data (n = 2,229) were collected from adults aged 16-21 years living with their parent(s) in the United Kingdom. Participants were classed as nonusers (0 hours/weekday spent chatting or interacting with friends through social Web sites), moderate (nonzero to 4 hours/weekday), or heavy users (4+ hours/weekday). Multivariable linear regressions examined the SNS use and well-being associations; interaction terms tested whether these varied by family belonging (family meal frequency, strength of family support, and importance of family to personal identity). Well-being scores were lower for heavy users of SNS compared with moderate users (p = 0.044), and for those sharing few or no family meals (p < 0.001). The SNS use and well-being association was significantly moderated by family meal frequency (p = 0.009). Among those reporting no family meals, well-being scores were lower for heavy users versus nonusers (22.4 vs. 25.3). Well-being scores were similar across the SNS use categories among those having more family meals. Among heavy users of SNS, young adults having no family meals may be particularly vulnerable to the harms of being online. Our findings highlight the importance of minimizing the harms of heavy SNS use, including support for families to enable them to develop and build young adults' resilience to the stresses and anxieties that potentially accompany online social networking.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Comidas/psicología , Autoimagen , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Red Social , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
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