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1.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3499, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Español, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755779

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to know and analyze the perceptions of adolescents with high social vulnerability regarding the establishment of dating violence. METHOD: a qualitative research study carried out with 19 adolescents from a central municipality São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection took place by means of focus groups and field diaries, with the data being analyzed thematically. RESULTS: two categories emerged: "A new female posture in a context of traditional gender norms" and "Violence in intimate relationships: the (non)perception of adolescents". Traditional gender norms still occupy a significant place in the design of dating violence among adolescents. Such behaviors are more visible in these relationships, when commitment and exclusivity are seen as the main characteristics, authorizing possession and control. Jealousy emerges as the main trigger for violence and the technologies appear as contemporary resources to reinforce it. CONCLUSION: the need for early interventions with adolescents is reiterated, with a focus on actions that promote gender equality.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Violencia
2.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 619823, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744581

RESUMEN

Objectives: As advancing evidence on modifiable resources to support mental health in persons experiencing physical disabilities is of particular importance, we investigate whether structural and functional social relationships relate to mental health in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Data from 12,330 participants of the International SCI community survey (InSCI) from 22 countries were analyzed. Structural (partnership status, living situation) and functional aspects of social relationships (belongingness, relationship satisfaction, problems with social interactions) were regressed on the SF-36 mental health index (MHI-5), stratified by countries and for the total sample using multilevel models. Results: Functional aspects of social relationships were consistently related to clinically relevant higher MHI-5 scores and lower risk of mental health disorders (MHI-5 >56). Structural social relationships were inconsistently associated with mental health in our sample. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that functional aspects of social relationships are important resources for mental health. Interventions to establish and maintain high quality relationships should be considered in public health interventions and rehabilitation programs to reduce long-term mental health problems in persons experiencing physical disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Relaciones Interpersonales , Salud Mental , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Observación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770040

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to explore the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in medical students. Higher levels of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness were expected in medical students with suicidality compared with medical students without suicidality, and a high level of acquired capability was expected in planners compared with ideators. Recruited for the study were 178 undergraduate medical students at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB): 95 subjects without suicidality, 24 subjects with lifetime suicidality, 28 subjects with recent suicidal ideation, and 26 planners. An ad hoc questionnaire evaluated the risk of suicide as well as the "Suicidal thoughts and wishes" item of the BDI-II. The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INS) measured thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB). The Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale (ACSS) measured notably fearlessness of death or pain tolerance and depression was rated using the revised version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Cognitive-affective symptoms of depression (CA-BDI) were assessed using six items of the BDI. Analyses of variance showed significant differences between groups for TB and PB but not for ACSS. Analyses of covariance, controlling for the CA-BDI scores, confirmed the significance of differences in TB and PB. Post hoc tests showed that (1) high levels of TB were characteristic of subjects with recent suicidal ideation and planners compared with subjects without suicidality; and (2) high levels of PB were characteristic of planners compared with the three other groups. Among the three characteristics of the IPTS, PB could be a strong predictor of severe suicide risk in medical students.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Suicidio , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Teoría Psicológica , Factores de Riesgo , Ideación Suicida
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4945-4954, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787188

RESUMEN

This paper seeks to understand why interpersonal aggressions that lead to homicides in young people can be tolerated, claimed or acclaimed in the contexts of sociability in which they occur. The methodology developed was qualitative, namely it sought to document and analyze the meanings and experiences of the actors from their perspectives. The field work was carried out with young men from popular sectors that inhabit six municipalities in the Buenos Aires suburbs between 2014 and 2017. Among the results, we argue that empowerment of lethal aggressions is linked to a reduction in youth sociability in peer groups with strong territorial inks. This reduction is expressed as a consequence of the weakness of family, work and institutional ties in shaping the social experience of young people. In peer groups, responses to insults can be valued not only as a way of intervening in conflicts, but also as a source of belonging and social recognition. We conclude that these reduced sociabilities express socio-political inequalities that contribute to homicide being an exceptional event with recurrent spaces for interaction.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Homicidio , Adolescente , Ciudades , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4993-5002, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787192

RESUMEN

The scope of this article is to analyze the temporal trend by conducting a time series study of physical violence against women by an intimate partner in the State of Paraná between 2009 and 2016. Records of violence were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases and Violent Events Information System-SINAN. Levels of physical violence against women were calculated according to sociodemographic characteristics and means of aggression. For the trend analysis, polynomial regression was used. The notifications increased from 11.1 cases/100,000 women in 2009 to 91.2 in 2016, with an average annual increase of 14.84. There was an increase in rates of physical violence against women in all the Health Macroregional units, especially in the West with the highest average rate and in the North with the highest average annual increase. The spouse was the main aggressor. However, there was an increase in aggression by ex-spouses and boyfriends. There was also an increase in notifications among women aged 20-29 and 50-59 years, with eight years or more of study, and black/brown, yellow and indigenous race/color. The results reveal an increase in notifications of physical violence against women by an intimate partner, with changes in the sociodemographic profile of the victims.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Físico , Parejas Sexuales , Agresión , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Violencia
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5003-5012, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787193

RESUMEN

The scope of this article is to identify intersections between gender socialization and intimate partner violence against women. It involves qualitative research in the mold of the topical life story. The study included 16 women who filed a police report in a Police Station for the Defense of Women in a city in the interior of São Paulo. For the interviews a semi-structured script that examined women from their childhood memories, family dynamics, relationship/marriage and post-marriage/marriage family dynamics was used. The patriarchal system as a societal order underpinned the socialization of these women who, because of the father's domination relations (patriarchy) and guided by the mother's model of submission, sought freedom in marriage/early unions with partners who repeated paternal behavior. Such family contexts may have influenced them in choosing potential aggressors. The results revealed that gender socialization reinforces gender inequalities and influences the behavior of men and women, thus pointing out the importance of highlighting this problem in different areas, especially in primary health care services, as a way to prevent intimate partner violence against women.


Asunto(s)
Parejas Sexuales , Socialización , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Violencia
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5033-5044, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787196

RESUMEN

Digital abuse in intimate relationships is a topic that is still poorly studied in Brazil, and this practice is often naturalized, especially among young people. This article aims to know the meanings attributed by adolescents to the set of rules and agreements, implicit or agreed, that define the contours of a "love contract" and the role of digital abuse in these strategic understandings. Qualitative study conducted with primary oral sources, from four focus groups with adolescents from public and private schools, of both sexes, aged 15 to 18 years, totaling 26 students. The analysis was based on the perspective of the interpretation of meanings, with thematic bias, anchored in Bauman's theory of liquid love and Giddens' category of confluent love. Trust, individuality and intimacy were values ​​considered essential for the existence of an intimate relationship considered "serious". The "exposure of intimacy" and "monitoring" without permission are acts that can lead to the breakdown of this "love contract". The adolescents showed us that we need to treat digital abuse between partners by reflecting on the rules, values ​​and agreements that define the contours of the "love contract" they establish.


Asunto(s)
Amor , Parejas Sexuales , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Conducta Sexual , Estudiantes
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5273-5280, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787218

RESUMEN

Although changes have been observed in social relationships in the recent years, especially among younger generations, little evidence is available concerning factors associated with adolescents' perceived social relationships. In this study we investigated the association between self-perceived social relationships, health-related behaviors, biological maturation, and mental health in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 1,336 adolescents (605 boys and 731 girls) aged between 10 to 17 years from public schools. Self-perceived social relationships (family, friends, and teachers), feelings of stress and sadness, academic performance, tobacco smoking, alcohol and fat consumption, physical activity, and screen time were evaluated by a questionnaire. Biological maturation was assessed by the peak height velocity. We observed that worse perceived social relationships were associated with tobacco smoking (family and teachers), alcohol drinking (teachers), higher consumption of fat (teachers), greater feelings of stress (family and teachers) and sadness (family and friends), and poor academic achievement (friends and teachers).


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Amigos , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 623, 2021 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732144

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether daily physical activity of older adults, combined with social relationships, is associated with the risk of sleep disorder. Further, it determined whether a high level of one variable with a low level of the other, leads to a significantly lower risk of sleep disorder than low levels of both. METHODS: The sample comprised 1339 community-dwelling older Japanese adults: 988 in Study 1 and 351 in Study 2. The level of daily physical activity and range of social relationships were assessed using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and the Lubben Social Network Scale, respectively. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep disorder. To test the combined relationships and effects in Studies 1 and 2, the medians for the respective scores of each of the following four groups that the participants were categorized into, were calculated: (1) low activity group with low social relationships, (2) low activity group with high social relationships, (3) high activity group with low social relationships, and (4) high activity group with high social relationships. After adjusting for potential confounders, a logistic regression analysis was conducted in Study 1. After adjusting for potential confounders, a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted in Study 2. RESULTS: Study 1 revealed that the high activity group with high social relationships showed a significantly lower risk of sleep disorder (ORs: 0.585, 95% CI: 0.404-0.847) than the low activity group with low social relationships. Study 2 also revealed that the high activity group with high social relationships showed a significantly lower prevalence of sleep disorder (HRs: 0.564, 95% CI: 0.327-0.974) than the low activity group with low social relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that for older adults with high social relationships, being physically active is favorably associated with sleep quality. However, a high level of one variable with a low level of the other has not been confirmed in improving sleep quality among older adults.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Estudios Longitudinales , Sueño , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología
10.
Narrat Inq Bioeth ; 11(2): 189-194, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840184

RESUMEN

The experience of mental illness can be painful and isolating for those suffering in silence. Early symptoms frequently are confusing and disorienting for individuals and families, and stigma towards mental illness in societies across the globe contributes to further isolation from sources of support during the healing process. The evocative personal stories from a variety of cultures in this symposium provide a window into universal elements of the experience of mental illness, with the accompanying fear, shame, and stigma. The stories effectively illustrate the tension between personal autonomy and reliance on others, and the importance of trust in self and others in forming and maintaining a core identity. The stories also sensitively highlight the importance of resilience and persistence in the healing process, along with the essential role of social relationships and support from family, friends, and healers in building a stable identity and hope for the future.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Amigos , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Estigma Social
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 790, 2021 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819018

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV testing at antenatal care (ANC) is critical to achieving zero new infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Although most women are tested at ANC, they remain at risk for HIV exposure and transmission to their infant when their partners are not tested. This study evaluates how an HIV-enhanced and Centering-based group ANC model-Group ANC+ that uses interactive learning to practice partner communication is associated with improvements in partner HIV testing during pregnancy. METHODS: A randomized pilot study conducted in Malawi and Tanzania found multiple positive outcomes for pregnant women (n = 218) assigned to Group ANC+ versus individual ANC. This analysis adds previously unpublished results for two late pregnancy outcomes: communication with partner about three reproductive health topics (safer sex, HIV testing, and family planning) and partner HIV testing since the first antenatal care visit. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of type of ANC on partner communication and partner testing. We also conducted a mediation analysis to assess whether partner communication mediated the effect of type of care on partner HIV testing. RESULTS: Nearly 70% of women in Group ANC+ reported communicating about reproductive health with their partner, compared to 45% of women in individual ANC. After controlling for significant covariates, women in group ANC were twice as likely as those in individual ANC to report that their partner got an HIV test (OR 1.99; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.66). The positive effect of the Group ANC + model on partner HIV testing was fully mediated by increased partner communication. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevention was included in group ANC health promotion without compromising services and coverage of standard ANC topics, demonstrating that local high-priority health promotion needs can be integrated into ANC using a Group ANC+. These findings provide evidence that greater partner communication can promote healthy reproductive behaviors, including HIV prevention. Additional research is needed to understand the processes by which group ANC allowed women to discuss sensitive topics with partners and how these communications led to partner HIV testing.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Prueba de VIH , Relaciones Interpersonales , Atención Prenatal/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Malaui , Proyectos Piloto , Embarazo , Distribución Aleatoria , Parejas Sexuales , Tanzanía , Adulto Joven
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769695

RESUMEN

An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that humor can impact interpersonal relationships in organizations and employee well-being. However, there is little evidence coming from intervention studies in organizational settings. In response, we developed a training following the principles of positive psychology that aims at improving employees' adaptive use of humor as a successful mechanism to deal with stress. In this study, we assess the effectiveness of such training and its impact on employee well-being. Results from this one-group intervention study in an emergency ambulance service (N = 58) revealed that the participants reported higher levels of cheerfulness (Z = -3.93; p < 0.001) and lower levels of seriousness (Z = -3.32; p < 0.001) after being exposed to the training. Indeed, the participants reported lower scores on psychological distress after the training (Z = -3.35; p < 0.001). The effect size of the training was medium (r = 0.31 to 0.36), suggesting that interventions to improve adaptive humor at work can be a useful resource to deal with workplace stress and foster employee well-being. These results may have interesting implications for designing and implementing positive interventions as well as for developing healthy organizations.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Laboral , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Estrés Laboral/prevención & control , Organizaciones , Lugar de Trabajo
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769796

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rat infestation is a major public health issue globally, and particularly in poor urban communities in South Africa. Rats pose significant threats to residents in the form of disease spread and sustained physical injuries. The dearth of knowledge about the experiences of affected residents may curtail the initiation of rat control programs. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of rat infestation among residents of Katlehong Township in Gauteng Province. METHODS: This was a qualitative research study where data were gathered from selected community participants from Katlehong Township in Gauteng Province. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data through in-depth interviews. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, and thematic data analysis was conducted using NVivo12 data processing software. The data were presented in themes and quotations that reflect the views of the participants. RESULTS: Exactly 20 community members aged between 18 and 56 years participated in the study, 80% being females. Over half of the participants were unemployed (60%), inclusive of students. Majority of the participants were either Zulu or Xhosa speakers. Several themes emerged from the data, which included the residents' experiences of rat infestation, troublesome rats, dirty rats, reasons for rat infestation, and sustained physical injuries. Participants intimated that waste in the environment and overcrowding in homes contributed to rodent infestation. CONCLUSION: Rat infestation remains a problem that causes severe distress among the residents of Katlehong Township. The experiences reported varied from psychological trauma to bite injuries and destruction of household property. Effective rodent control strategies need to be put in place to manage both the physical and mental risks posed by rat infestation in socially underprivileged communities.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Ratas , Sudáfrica
14.
J Aging Stud ; 59: 100977, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794722

RESUMEN

Although the importance of older citizens' civic engagement has been highlighted in research and policy, the topic remains underexplored. In this study, we discuss older Portuguese citizens' motivations for civic engagement. The research is based on interviews with eighteen participants aged over 60, who are retired but active in civic organisations, in which they hold or have held leadership positions. We employed thematic analysis to examine the qualitative data. The findings suggest a range of motivations for participation, with personal and ideological/political motives emerging as relevant for involvement, retention and leaving, and interpersonal relationships motivating involvement and retention. However, the specific motivations differ as a function of not only the stages of involvement/retention/leaving, but also the type of organisation and the participants' life experiences. There are notable differences between the motivations for involvement in cultural and recreational organisations, neighbourhood organisations and volunteer programmes, where the emphasis is on fostering interpersonal relationships, and the more ideological/political motivations that appear as determinant within political and activist organisations. As such, this study brings a more complex understanding of the range of motivations for civic engagement in later life, with significant implications for fostering older citizens' mobilisation and sustained engagement.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Motivación , Anciano , Humanos , Jubilación , Voluntarios
15.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 111, 2021 11 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749741

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gambling harm affects men and women relatively equally, and gender influences the social determinants of gambling harm. Responses to preventing and minimising women's gambling harm have been shaped and constrained by population research identifying male gender as a key risk factor for gambling problems. Gender analysis in gambling studies is rare and has lacked theoretical underpinning and coherence, limiting possibilities for gender-responsive and gender-aware harm prevention and reduction activities. METHODS: Two influential qualitative studies of gambling harm in New Zealand (involving total n = 165 people who gambled, affected others, community leaders, gambling and community support service providers, policy makers and academics) neglected to explore the role of gender. This study revisited data collected in these studies, using thematic analysis informed by feminist social constructionist theory. The overarching research questions were: How do gender-related issues, notions and practices influence women's gambling related harm? What are the implications for women's gambling harm reduction? RESULTS: Women's socio-cultural positioning as primary caregivers for families and children constrained their ability to access a range of recreational and support options and increased the attractiveness of local gambling opportunities as accessible and 'safe' outlets for stress reduction. Patriarchal practices of power and control within family contexts operated to maintain gambling behaviour, shut down alternative recreational opportunities, and limit women's autonomy. Consideration of these themes in relation to current health promotion practice in New Zealand revealed that national programmes and strategies appear to be operating without cognisance of these gender dynamics and therefore have the potential to exacerbate or cause some women harm. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the value of theoretically informed gender analysis for gambling harm reduction research, policy and practice. International guidelines for gender-aware and gender-responsive health research and practice should be engaged as a foundation for strategic and effective gambling harm reduction programmes, projects, research and policy, and as an essential part of developing and implementing interventions for gambling harm.


Asunto(s)
Juego de Azar , Reducción del Daño , Niño , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda
16.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780608

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Being in an intimate relationship is a desired occupation for many people, in particular for women living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where relationships can provide material support, intimacy, and social integration and increase chances of survival. OBJECTIVE: To explore accounts of navigating intimate relationships from women with disabilities in Sierra Leone. DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted, guided by a critical occupational approach and informed by feminist disability scholarship. Data were generated through interviews and analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. SETTING: Community-based across four districts of Sierra Leone. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen women with disabilities were recruited by means of snowball and purposive sampling. RESULTS: Four themes were generated that illuminated the women's experiences of intimate relationships as viewed through the lens of gender and disability dimensions. The overarching theme, "violence in intimate relationships," describes the incidences of violence and abuse they experienced. "Becoming a wife" explores the women's occupational identity wishes. "Leaving as an occupational rupture" illuminates the actions the women took to end the relationship. "Mothering as an occupational identity and resource" focuses on the women's role as mothers and transitions in their occupations. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Taking their unique narratives into account draws attention to how the women have met their occupational needs and resisted occupational injustices, enabled by social and structural supports, including their children, disability social benefits, and their engagement in the disability rights movement. Implications are directed at socially committed occupational therapists to address systemic issues of disability- and gender-based violence. What This Article Adds: This study adds much-needed knowledge in an area in which there is a paucity of research: the experiences of women with disabilities being in an intimate relationship as a social occupation in an LMIC. The results illuminate the importance of considering the systemic issues that affect the social occupations of women with disabilities, particularly in light of the shift within occupational therapy practice toward developing a socially transformative focus.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Pobreza , Investigación Cualitativa , Conducta Sexual
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(753): 1718-1719, 2021 10 06.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614316
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(5): 343-361, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597428

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Imprisonment impacts on lives beyond the prisoner's. In particular, family and intimate relationships are affected. Only some countries permit private conjugal visits in prison between a prisoner and community living partner. AIMS: Our aim was to find evidence from published international literature on the safety, benefits or harms of such visits. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using broad search terms, including words like 'private' and 'family', to maximise search sensitivity but strict criteria for inclusion - of visits unobserved by prison staff and away from other prisoners. All included papers were quality assessed. Two of us independently extracted data from included papers, according to a prepared checklist. Meta-analysis was considered. RESULTS: Seventeen papers were identified from 12 independent studies, all but three of them from North America. The only study of health benefits found a positive association with maintaining sexual relationships. The three before-and-after study of partnership qualities suggested benefit, but conjugal visiting was within a wider family-support programme. Studies with in-prison behaviour as a possible outcome suggest small, if any, association, although one US-wide study found significantly fewer in-prison sexual assaults in states allowing conjugal visiting than those not. Other studies were of prisoner, staff or partner attitudes. There is little evidence of adverse effects, although two qualitative studies raise concerns about the visiting partner's sense of institutionalisation or coercion. CONCLUSIONS: The balance of evidence about conjugal visiting is positive, but there is little of it. As stable family relationships have, elsewhere, been associated with desistance from crime, the contribution of conjugal visiting to these should be better researched.


Asunto(s)
Prisioneros , Prisiones , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Medición de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 4): 738-744, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718311

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the important indicators that define mental health functioning during the first pregnancy: the level of depression, anxiety and fear of childbirth in the context of nulliparas' intimate partner attachment style type and older generation's emotional support. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A group of 325 nulliparas in the third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled at the Childbirth preparation program of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana's Division of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. The following instruments were applied: Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, The Edinburgh Depression Scale, two aspects of anxiety - Zung Anxiety Scale and a questionnaire regarding fear of childbirth. Attachment anxiety and avoidance scales were recoded into four categories of a prototypical attachment style: secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissive. Two-way ANOVA and the chi-square test were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: All indicators of mental health functioning of our sample of nulliparas differed significantly regarding their partner attachment style. Nulliparas with a fearful, but also with a preoccupied type of attachment, showed less optimal mental health indicators compared to those with a secure/dismissive type of attachment. A significant interactive effect of partner attachment and emotional support from the older generation was found on the level of depression. Partner attachment styles and emotional support from the older generation were found to be statistically dependent. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample a secure attachment seems to represent a protective buffer for the level of depression, even when a lower emotional support of the older generation was included. Screening and intervening on intimate attachment style as a protective factor for antenatal depression and different forms of anxiety is proposed.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Trastorno Depresivo , Ansiedad , Depresión/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Apego a Objetos , Embarazo
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