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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190104, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1101972

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the moral values that nursing teachers and students consider important for vocational training with those they believe are promoted throughout undergraduate study. Method: a qualitative research; an ethnographic study conducted at a public nursing school in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in 2018, involving 40 interviews with teachers and students and a participant observation phase. Results: the moral values that teachers and students consider important for vocational training, as well as those that are promoted, converge on prudence, respect, responsibility, and empathy. It is noteworthy that the knowledge was much cited by the respondents and this article interpreted it as prudence. However, in relation to the values promoted during undergraduation, students warn that these are stimulated when referring to the binomial student-user of health, because they do not feel to the same intensity the presence of these moral values in the teacher-student relationship. Conclusion: a powerful strategy for teaching about moral values is to promote the care of their own students, teachers and staff. In this way, mismatches are avoided between what is said and what is done by experiencing values such as prudence, respect, responsibility and empathy within interpersonal relationships and in the daily life of the school.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comparar los valores morales que los profesores y estudiantes de enfermería consideran importantes para la formación profesional con los que creen que se promueven a lo largo de la carrera de grado. Método: investigación cualitativa; un estudio etnográfico realizado en el año 2018 en una facultad pública de enfermería del estado de Río de Janeiro, por medio de 40 entrevistas con profesores y estudiantes y una fase de observación de los participantes. Resultados: los valores morales que los profesores y estudiantes evalúan como importantes para la formación profesional, al igual como los que se promueven, convergen en la prudencia, el respeto, la responsabilidad y la empatía. Cabe destacar que el conocimiento fue muy citado por los entrevistados y, en este artículo, se lo interpretó como prudencia. Pese a ello, en relación con los valores promovidos a lo largo de la carrera de grado, los estudiantes manifiestan que se los fomenta cuando se refieren al binomio estudiante-usuario de servicios de salud, puesto que no sienten con la misma intensidad la presencia de estos valores en la relación profesor-estudiante. Conclusión: estamos frente a una poderosa estrategia para enseñar sobre los valores morales y promover el cuidado de sus propios estudiantes, profesores y personal administrativo. De esta manera, se evitan desencuentros entre lo que se dice y lo que se hace al respetar valores como la prudencia, el respeto, la responsabilidad y la empatía dentro de las relaciones interpersonales y en la vida cotidiana de la facultad.


RESUMO Objetivo: comparar os valores morais que professores e estudantes de enfermagem consideram importantes para a formação profissional com aqueles que eles acreditam que são promovidos ao longo da graduação. Método: pesquisa qualitativa; um estudo etnográfico realizado em uma faculdade pública de enfermagem do estado do Rio de Janeiro, em 2018, envolvendo 40 entrevistas com professores e estudantes e uma fase de observação participante. Resultados: os valores morais que os professores e estudantes avaliam ser importantes para a formação profissional, bem como aqueles que são promovidos, convergem para a prudência, o respeito, a responsabilidade e a empatia. Vale destacar que o conhecimento foi muito citado pelos entrevistados e, este artigo, interpretou-o como prudência. Todavia, em relação aos valores promovidos ao longo da graduação, os estudantes alertam que estes são estimulados quando referem-se ao binômio estudante-usuário de saúde, pois não sentem na mesma intensidade a presença desses valores morais na relação professor-estudante. Conclusão: uma potente estratégia para ensinar sobre os valores morais é promover o cuidado dos seus próprios estudantes, professores e funcionários. Dessa maneira, evitam-se desencontros entre o que se diz e o que se faz ao vivenciar os valores como a prudência, o respeito, a responsabilidade e a empatia dentro das relações interpessoais e no cotidiano da faculdade.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Teoría Ética , Ética , Moral , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Enseñanza , Enfermería , Investigación Cualitativa , Educación en Enfermería , Ética en Enfermería , Docentes , Relaciones Interpersonales
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51314, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1120156

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar e descrever como é desenvolvida a competência relacional no cotidiano do trabalho de enfermeiros cirúrgicos e identificar em que momento/situações o enfermeiro utiliza essa competência. Método: estudo exploratório, qualitativo. O cenário foram unidades cirúrgicas pertencentes a cinco instituições hospitalares privadas de um município no Estado de Minas Gerais e a amostra composta por 43 enfermeiros atuantes destas unidades. Foi realizada a técnica de grupo focal em 2018 e os dados foram interpretados pela análise temática indutiva. Resultados: evidenciou-se que a competência relacional se dá por meio do desenvolvimento de capacidades a serem adquiridas pelos enfermeiros, tais como o gerenciamento de conflitos, comunicação assertiva, gestão de pessoas por meio do dimensionamento de pessoal e inteligência emocional. Considerações finais: O ambiente cirúrgico demanda atividades que potencializam o desgaste físico e emocional do enfermeiro com demais membros da equipe de saúde, o que torna imprescindível o aprimoramento de capacidades/aptidões associadas a competência relacional.


Objective: to identify and describe how relational competence is developed in surgical nurses' day-to-day work and identify when and in what situations nurses use this competence. Method: qualitative, exploratory study. The scenario were surgical units at five private hospitals in a municipality in Minas Gerais, and the sample comprised 43 nurses working in these units. The focal group technique was applied in 2018 and the data were interpreted by inductive thematic analysis. Results: relational competence was found to be developed by the nurses' acquiring and developing capacities/skills, such as conflict management, assertive communication, people management by appropriate personnel scaling, and emotional intelligence. Final considerations: the surgical environment demands activities that heighten nurses' physical and emotional exhaustion, and its effects on other members of the health team, making it essential to improve capacities/skills in relational competence.


Objetivo: identificar y describir cómo se desarrolla la competencia relacional en el trabajo diario del enfermero quirúrgico e identificar cuándo y en qué situaciones el enfermero utiliza esta competencia. Método: estudio exploratorio cualitativo. El escenario fueron unidades quirúrgicas de cinco hospitales privados de un municipio de Minas Gerais, y la muestra estuvo conformada por 43 enfermeras que laboran en estas unidades. La técnica del grupo focal se aplicó en 2018 y los datos se interpretaron mediante análisis temático inductivo. Resultados: se encontró que la competencia relacional es desarrollada por las enfermeras adquiriendo y desarrollando capacidades / habilidades, tales como manejo de conflictos, comunicación asertiva, manejo de personas por escalamiento apropiado del personal e inteligencia emocional. Consideraciones finales: el ambiente quirúrgico demanda actividades que aumenten el agotamiento físico y emocional del enfermero, y sus efectos sobre otros miembros del equipo de salud, por lo que es fundamental mejorar las capacidades / habilidades en la competencia relacional.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Enfermería de Quirófano , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Competencia Profesional , Comunicación , Relaciones Interpersonales , Administración de Personal , Centros Quirúrgicos , Brasil , Hospitales Privados , Investigación Cualitativa , Inteligencia Emocional
3.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180422, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059153

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the meaning of work activities for young women with breast cancer. Method: a qualitative study that used as a theoretical framework the Symbolic Interactionism and, as the methodological framework, the Discourse of the Collective Subject. It was developed in a mastology outpatient clinic and a mastectomized rehabilitation center whose data collection took place between February 2014 and January 2015. Twelve women between 18 and 40 years old with up to one year of diagnosis of breast cancer participated, being excluded those with metastasis; interviewed from the guiding question: how is it for you to be young with breast cancer, in relation to work? Thematic content analysis was applied. Results: the following theoretical categories emerged: young women's feelings about having to stop working due to breast cancer and its treatments; quitting work meant annoyance and discouragement; change in income and collection by herself raised concern about the financial contribution; physical changes changing work activities, meaning limitation and impairment; work as an opportunity to live a better life, as a meaning of freedom; lack of collaboration of colleagues in the work environment whose significance was difficulties in the work environment; solidarity and positivity at work and family support that provided them with encouragement to cope with the disease. Conclusion: it was difficult to experience and accept changes in work activities. The support of family, friends and coworkers was paramount to cope with this process, which should also be taken into account by the health team, especially nursing.


RESUMO Objetivo: compreender o significado das atividades de trabalho para mulheres jovens com câncer de mama. Método: estudo qualitativo que utilizou como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico e, metodológico, o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Desenvolvido em um ambulatório de mastologia e em um núcleo de reabilitação de mastectomizadas cuja coleta de dados ocorreu entre fevereiro de 2014 e janeiro de 2015. Participaram 12 mulheres entre 18 e 40 anos com até um ano de diagnóstico do câncer de mama, sendo excluídas aquelas com metástase; entrevistadas a partir da questão norteadora: Como é para você ser jovem com câncer de mama, em relação ao trabalho? Foi aplicada a análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: emergiram as seguintes categorias teóricas: sentimentos das mulheres jovens por terem que parar de trabalhar devido ao câncer de mama e a seus tratamentos; parar de trabalhar significou chateação e desânimo; modificação na renda e cobrança por parte de si mesma gerou preocupação com o aporte financeiro; modificações físicas mudando as atividades laborais, significando limitação e prejuízo; trabalho como oportunidade de viver uma vida melhor, como significado de liberdade; ausência de colaboração dos colegas no ambiente laboral cujo significado foi dificuldades no ambiente laboral; solidariedade e positividade no trabalho e apoio familiar que lhes forneceram encorajamento para enfrentar a doença. Conclusão: foi difícil vivenciar e aceitar as alterações nas atividades de trabalho. O apoio de familiares, amigos e colegas de trabalho foi primordial para o enfrentamento desse processo, a que também deve atentar-se a equipe de saúde, especialmente, a enfermagem.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Neoplasias de la Mama , Salud de la Mujer , Investigación Cualitativa , Empleo , Adulto Joven , Relaciones Interpersonales
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142789

RESUMEN

This study aimed to determine the proportion of individuals who voluntarily reduced interaction with their family members, friends, and colleagues or classmates to avoid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and the associations of reduced social interaction with perceived social support during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan. Moreover, the related factors of voluntary reduction of social interaction were examined. We recruited participants via a Facebook advertisement. We determined the reduced social interaction, perceived social support, cognitive and affective constructs of health belief and demographic characteristics among 1954 respondents (1305 women and 649 men; mean age: 37.9 years with standard deviation 10.8 years). In total, 38.1% of respondents voluntarily reduced their social interaction with friends to avoid COVID-19 infection, 36.1% voluntarily reduced their interaction with colleagues or classmates, and 11.1% voluntarily reduced interaction with family members. Respondents who voluntarily reduced interaction with other people reported lower perceived social support than those who did not voluntarily reduce interaction. Respondents who were older and had a higher level of worry regarding contracting COVID-19 were more likely to voluntarily reduce interaction with family members, friends, and colleagues or classmates to avoid COVID-19 infection than respondents who were younger and had a lower level of worry regarding contracting COVID-19, respectively. The present study revealed that despite strict social distancing measures not being implemented in Taiwan, more than one-third of respondents voluntarily reduced their interaction with friends and colleagues or classmates. The general public should be encouraged to maintain social contacts through appropriately distanced in-person visits and telecommunication.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Coronavirus , Relaciones Interpersonales , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán/epidemiología
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1649, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148201

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that spreads around the world. The lack of effective antiviral drugs and vaccines, along with the relatively high mortality rate and high contagiousness, has raised strong public concerns over COVID-19, especially for people living in the most severely affected areas. This study aimed to clarify the influencing factors for the anxiety level among the Chinese people during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a particular focus on the media exposure to different COVID-19 information. METHODS: A total of 4991 respondents were randomly recruited from a national online panel from February 12th, 2020 to February 14th, 2020, a period when the number of COVID-19 cases surpassed 10,000 in a single day, with the total cases in China reaching up to 90,000. The relationships between media exposure of COVID-19 information, social and geographical proximity to COVID-19, risk perceptions were assessed using hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis. RESULTS: The media exposure to COVID-19 information was differently associated with anxiety. Meanwhile, the anxiety level was found to be high in respondents who personally knew someone infected with COVID-19 or those who living in an area with reported cases. Respondents who perceived more risks also reported a higher level of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of media exposure in affecting individuals' anxiety level during the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, it is recommended that government and health professionals are recommended to adopt effective risk communication strategies to protect citizens' mental health during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Información de Salud al Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
6.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 139-147, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152197

RESUMEN

Introduction: Rapid IgM-IgG combined antibody tests can play an important role in the COVID-19 surveillance by supporting the diagnosis of infection, assessing the immune response, and verifying the progress towards herd immunity. Objective: To evaluate the performance of rapid IgM-IgG combined antibody tests in COVID-19 occupational surveillance in a group of Colombian enterprises. Materials and methods: We used the occupational surveillance data from companies that had performed periodic serological tests on all personnel from the end of April to the beginning of July, 2020. Workers were organized in small groups ("social bubbles") to prevent outbreaks and optimize surveillance. The sensitivity was estimated as if the sampling had a prospective design. We describe here the changes in serological testing through periodic rounds. Results: Data were obtained from 4,740 workers, of whom only 23 were symptomatic showing changes from IgM(-)/IgG(-) to IgM(+) and then to IgM(+)/IgG(+) and IgG(+). The sensitivity was 40.94% for IgM(+) and 47.95% for IgM(+)/IgG(+). This implies that a little less than half of the cases can be detected. Conclusion: Antibody rapid tests have a role in the diagnostic process of infection and they must be evaluated taking into account the moment of the epidemic, the type of test purchased, and the populations at risk since their results depend on the number of infections and cases. In the context of a health crisis, they can be optimized by organizing workers into "social bubbles"


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Medicina del Trabajo/métodos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Evaluación de Síntomas
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138131

RESUMEN

Although social capital has been found to be an important social determinant of mental health in later life, research on social capital in the context of COVID-19 and the interplay among subdimensions of social capital is lacking. The present study examined the mediating role of cognitive social capital on the relationship between structural social capital and mental health among older adults in urban China in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected from the Yangpu district in Shanghai, China, in July-August 2020. A quota sampling approach was used to recruit 472 respondents aged 60 years and older from 23 communities in the Yangpu district. Mental health was measured by depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Cognitive social capital was assessed through trust and reciprocity, and structural social capital was assessed through organization memberships, and COVID-19 related volunteering and citizenship activity. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation model. The results show that cognitive social capital had a full mediation effect on the association between structural social capital and mental health indicators (life satisfaction: b = 0.122, SD = 0.029, p < 0.001; depressive symptoms: b = -0.343, SD = 0.119, p < 0.01). The findings indicate that social capital can play an important role in sustaining and improving mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy and intervention implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción Personal , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Capital Social , Apoyo Social , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
8.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 249-262, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119459

RESUMEN

Reducing multiple and concurrent partnerships has been identified as a priority in generalised HIV epidemics, yet developing successful interventions to bring about such behaviour change has proven challenging. We offered a three-session intervention aimed to improve couple relationship quality and address HIV risk factors, particularly concurrent sexual partnerships (CSP), in a peri-urban community of Kampala, Uganda. Before launching the intervention, a different group of community members participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions (FGDs) which explored issues of couple relationship quality and satisfaction. Findings from the FGDs guided the intervention. All 162 couples invited to the intervention completed a survey pre- and post-intervention. In FGDs, women and men discussed challenges faced in their relationships, including pervasive dissatisfaction, financial constraints, deception and lack of trust, poor communication, lack of sexual satisfaction, and concurrent sexual partnerships. A difference-in-difference analysis showed no measurable impact of the intervention on relationship quality or sexual risk behaviours over a six-month follow-up among 183 individuals who participated in the intervention, although many stated in response to open-ended questions that they had experienced positive relationship changes. Qualitative findings suggest high demand for couple-focused interventions but also reveal many individual-, couple-, community- and structural-level factors which contribute to women and men seeking concurrent sexual partnerships. More intensive interventions may be needed to overcome these barriers to behaviour change and reduce HIV risk. These findings also raise questions about how to interpret divergent qualitative and quantitative data, a topic which has received little attention in the literature.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Parejas Sexuales , Adulto , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual/fisiología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Población Suburbana , Uganda/epidemiología
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18241, 2020 10 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106506

RESUMEN

This study examines publicly available online search data in China to investigate the spread of public awareness of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. We found that cities that had previously suffered from SARS (in 2003-04) and have greater migration ties to Wuhan had earlier, stronger and more durable public awareness of the outbreak. Our data indicate that 48 such cities developed awareness up to 19 days earlier than 255 comparable cities, giving them an opportunity to better prepare. This study suggests that it is important to consider memory of prior catastrophic events as they will influence the public response to emerging threats.


Asunto(s)
Concienciación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Neumonía Viral/patología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Blogging , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Memoria , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMEN

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Comparación Transcultural , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/etnología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239712, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112883

RESUMEN

Relationship dissolution can cause declines in emotional well-being, particularly if there are children involved. Individuals' capacity to cope with the pragmatics of the situation, such as agreeing childcare arrangements, can be impaired. Before now, there has been no psychometric test to evaluate individuals' emotional readiness to cope with these demands. This paper presents a model of emotional adaptation in the context of relationship dissolution and its key assumptions, and validates the Emotional Adaptation to Relationship Dissolution Assessment (EARDA). In Study 1 (Sample 1, n = 573 separated parents, Sample 2, n = 199 mix of parents and non-parents), factor analyses support the EARDA as a unidimensional scale with good reliability. In Study 2 (using Sample 1, and Sample 3, n = 156 separated parents) the convergent, discriminant, concurrent criterion-related, and incremental validity of the EARDA were supported by tests of association with stress, distress, attachment style, and co-parenting communication and conflict. In Study 3, the nomological network of emotional adaptation to relationship dissolution was explored in Sample 2 using cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS). Emotional adaptation clustered with positive traits and an outward focus, and was negatively associated with negative traits and an inward focus. Emotional adaptation was conceptually located in close proximity to active and adaptive coping, and furthest away from maladaptive coping. In Study 4 (n = 30 separated parents embarking on mediation), high, medium, and low emotional adaptation to relationship dissolution categories correlated highly with mediators' professional judgement, offering triangulated face validity. Finally, in Study 5, EARDA scores were found to mediate between separation characteristics (time since break up, whether it was a shock, and who initiated the break up) and co-parenting conflict in Sample 1, supporting the proposed model. The theoretical innovation of this work is the introduction of a new construct that bridges the gap between relationship dissolution and co-parenting. Practical implications include the use of the measure proposed to triage levels of support in a family law setting.


Asunto(s)
Ajuste Emocional/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239012, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112856

RESUMEN

Emerging evidence demonstrates that female-authored publications are not well represented in course readings in some fields, resulting in a syllabi gender gap. Lack of representation may decrease student awareness of opportunities in professional fields and disadvantage the career success of female academics. We contribute to the evidence on the syllabi gender gap by: 1) quantifying the extent to which female authors are represented in assigned course readings; 2) examining representation of female authors by gender of instructor and discipline; and 3) comparing female representation in syllabi with the workforce and with representation as authors of peer-reviewed journal articles. From a list of courses offered in 2018-2019 at Washington University in St. Louis, we selected a stratified random sample of course syllabi from four disciplines (humanities; social science; science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; and other). We coded the gender of course instructors and course reading authors using the genderize application programming interface. We examined representation of female authors at the reading, course, and discipline level using descriptive statistics and data visualization. The final sample included 2435 readings from 129 unique courses. The mean percentage of female authors per reading was 34.1%; 822 (33.8%) of readings were female-led (i.e., a female first or sole author). Female authorship varied by discipline, with the highest percentage of female-led readings in social science (40%). Female instructors assigned a higher percentage of readings with female first authors and readings with higher percentages of females on authorship teams. The representation of female authors on syllabi was lower than representation of females as authors in the peer-reviewed literature or in workforce. Adding to evidence of the syllabi gender gap, we found that female authors were underrepresented as sole and first authors and as members of authorship teams. Since assigned readings promote academic scholarship and influence workforce diversity, we recommend several strategies to diversify the syllabi through increasing awareness of the gap and improving access to female-authored publications.


Asunto(s)
Autoria , Curriculum , Sexismo , Universidades , Docentes , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Missouri , Edición , Derechos de la Mujer , Recursos Humanos
13.
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241165, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095811

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: After claiming nearly five hundred thousand lives globally, the COVID-19 pandemic is showing no signs of slowing down. While the UK, USA, Brazil and parts of Asia are bracing themselves for the second wave-or the extension of the first wave-it is imperative to identify the primary social, economic, environmental, demographic, ethnic, cultural and health factors contributing towards COVID-19 infection and mortality numbers to facilitate mitigation and control measures. METHODS: We process several open-access datasets on US states to create an integrated dataset of potential factors leading to the pandemic spread. We then apply several supervised machine learning approaches to reach a consensus as well as rank the key factors. We carry out regression analysis to pinpoint the key pre-lockdown factors that affect post-lockdown infection and mortality, informing future lockdown-related policy making. FINDINGS: Population density, testing numbers and airport traffic emerge as the most discriminatory factors, followed by higher age groups (above 40 and specifically 60+). Post-lockdown infected and death rates are highly influenced by their pre-lockdown counterparts, followed by population density and airport traffic. While healthcare index seems uncorrelated with mortality rate, principal component analysis on the key features show two groups: states (1) forming early epicenters and (2) experiencing strong second wave or peaking late in rate of infection and death. Finally, a small case study on New York City shows that days-to-peak for infection of neighboring boroughs correlate better with inter-zone mobility than the inter-zone distance. INTERPRETATION: States forming the early hotspots are regions with high airport or road traffic resulting in human interaction. US states with high population density and testing tend to exhibit consistently high infected and death numbers. Mortality rate seems to be driven by individual physiology, preexisting condition, age etc., rather than gender, healthcare facility or ethnic predisposition. Finally, policymaking on the timing of lockdowns should primarily consider the pre-lockdown infected numbers along with population density and airport traffic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Formulación de Políticas , Densidad de Población , Cuarentena/métodos , Viaje , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Aprendizaje Automático Supervisado , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241163, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095815

RESUMEN

The events of the recent SARS-CoV-2 epidemics have shown the importance of social factors, especially given the large number of asymptomatic cases that effectively spread the virus, which can cause a medical emergency to very susceptible individuals. Besides, the SARS-CoV-2 virus survives for several hours on different surfaces, where a new host can contract it with a delay. These passive modes of infection transmission remain an unexplored area for traditional mean-field epidemic models. Here, we design an agent-based model for simulations of infection transmission in an open system driven by the dynamics of social activity; the model takes into account the personal characteristics of individuals, as well as the survival time of the virus and its potential mutations. A growing bipartite graph embodies this biosocial process, consisting of active carriers (host) nodes that produce viral nodes during their infectious period. With its directed edges passing through viral nodes between two successive hosts, this graph contains complete information about the routes leading to each infected individual. We determine temporal fluctuations of the number of exposed and the number of infected individuals, the number of active carriers and active viruses at hourly resolution. The simulated processes underpin the latent infection transmissions, contributing significantly to the spread of the virus within a large time window. More precisely, being brought by social dynamics and exposed to the currently existing infection, an individual passes through the infectious state until eventually spontaneously recovers or otherwise is moves to a controlled hospital environment. Our results reveal complex feedback mechanisms that shape the dependence of the infection curve on the intensity of social dynamics and other sociobiological factors. In particular, the results show how the lockdown effectively reduces the spread of infection and how it increases again after the lockdown is removed. Furthermore, a reduced level of social activity but prolonged exposure of susceptible individuals have adverse effects. On the other hand, virus mutations that can gradually reduce the transmission rate by hopping to each new host along the infection path can significantly reduce the extent of the infection, but can not stop the spreading without additional social strategies. Our stochastic processes, based on graphs at the interface of biology and social dynamics, provide a new mathematical framework for simulations of various epidemic control strategies with high temporal resolution and virus traceability.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Modelos Estadísticos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Mutación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Cuarentena/métodos , Procesos Estocásticos , Factores de Tiempo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240646, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104711

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic puts health workers at increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. However, no studies have assessed health workers' experiences using qualitative methods during the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States to identify novel factors that could relate to their mental health. In May 2020, we distributed an online survey to health workers across 25 medical centers throughout the United States. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Primary Care-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise and associated cutoff values were used to assess rates of probable major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol use disorder, respectively. To provide insight into the factors shaping these and other mental health conditions, we included two open-ended questions asking respondents to recount their most upsetting and hopeful experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and how it made them feel. Using a hybrid inductive-abductive approach and thematic content analysis, we created a Social Ecological Model to represent themes among health workers' experiences within five ecological levels: individual, interpersonal, organization, community, and public policy. Of the 1,132 participants who completed the survey, 14.0% had probable major depression, 15.8% probable generalized anxiety disorder, 23.1% probable post-traumatic stress disorder, and 42.6% probable alcohol use disorder. Individual level themes included participants' personal health and self-care behaviors. Interpersonal level themes included the health of their social circle, family functioning, and social support. Organization level themes included their hospital's management, resources, patient care, routine, and teams. Themes in the community level included the media, scientific knowledge about COVID-19, morale, behavior, and support of health workers. Lastly, government and health system leadership and shelter-in-place policy were themes within the public policy level. Our findings provide insights into novel factors that have impacted health workers' wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. These factors should be further explored to inform interventions and public policy that mitigate mental health morbidities among health workers during this and future outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/etiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/etiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Política de Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/etiología , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 990, 2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121483

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Millions of older adults in the United States experience hearing, vision, and dual sensory impairment (concurring hearing and vision impairment) yet little research exists on their needs in interactions with the healthcare system. This piece aims to determine the use of accompaniment in healthcare interactions by persons with sensory impairment. METHODS: These cross-sectional analyses included data from the 2015 Medicare Current Beneficiaries Survey and survey weighting provided by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Adjusted odds of reporting accompaniment to healthcare visits and given reasons for accompaniment among United States Medicare beneficiaries with self-reported sensory impairment (hearing, vision, and dual sensory impairment) were examined. RESULTS: After excluding observations with missing data, 10,748 Medicare beneficiaries remained representing a 46 million total weighted nationally representative sample, of which 88.9% reported no sensory impairment, 5.52% reported hearing impairment, 3.56% reported vision impairment, and 0.93% reported dual sensory impairment. Those with vision impairment and dual sensory impairment had 2.139 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.605-2.850) and 2.703 (CI = 1.549-4.718) times the odds of reporting accompaniment to healthcare visits relative to those without sensory impairment. A secondary analysis suggests communication needs as the primary reason for accompaniment among persons with hearing loss, while those with vision impairment were more likely to indicate transportation needs. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare accompaniment is common for persons with sensory loss and healthcare systems should consider accommodations for and leveraging accompaniment to improve healthcare for persons with sensory impairments. In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, as hospitals limit visitors to reduce the spread of infection, arrangements should be made to ensure that the communication and transportation needs of those with sensory impairment are not neglected.


Asunto(s)
Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Pérdida Auditiva/epidemiología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Visita a Consultorio Médico , Trastornos de la Visión/epidemiología , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4583-4587, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019014

RESUMEN

In the recent decade, mobile exergaming has emerged as a way to motivate physical activity and thereby increase fitness. It has been found that those which encourage social interaction and multiplayer gaming leads to better fitness outcomes than single player games [1]. However, none have yet to tailor exergames for people who use wheelchairs due to lower mobility impairment. We present a mobile exergaming and fitness tracking app in which the exergames are tailored toward people in wheelchairs and features a virtual community which allows social interaction through multiplayer gaming and leaderboard features. We hypothesized that users would find the multiplayer games more useful for improving fitness than the single player games. However, perceived usefulness survey results indicate overall satisfaction with the main design features but not a particular preference for the multiplayer gaming over single player gaming. Users overall found the app useful and easy to use, and the results provide indication that the virtual community created through the multiplayer feature of the mobile exergaming app does promote and enhance exercising.Clinical relevance- Multiplayer gaming was designed into a mobile fitness app to encourage exercise amongst individuals in wheelchairs. The virtual community created is expected to increase activity levels and its many associated health benefits in this community, promote a greater sense of belonging, and increase social participation.


Asunto(s)
Juegos de Video , Silla de Ruedas , Nube Computacional , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 211-216, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087614

RESUMEN

In this personal vision paper the Swedish approach to COVID-19 prompts an exploration of how and why assuming individual rationality coupled with minimal social restriction may be as good a solution as any and better than most. A COVID sub-model is developed and populated with probabilities for four outcomes of infecting another person (asymptomatic, sick, hospitalized, dead), conditional on three observable characteristics (sex, age, and BMI), and (dis)utilities for three categories of person (nearest/dearest, friends/colleagues and unknown others) experiencing those outcomes. The implications for a liberal democracy are drawn, based on the assumptions that individual citizens will and should maximise their informed expected utility, exhibiting 'commons sense' as well as common sense.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Amigos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Suecia
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