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1.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 58, 2020 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513300

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The quality of maternal-infant bonding is related to important child outcomes. The literature has assumed that the ability to form relationships is a relatively stable trait, and research studies have suggested that a mother's attachment style in close adult relationships is related to mother-infant bonding. The transition to parenthood is also often stressful, and the adult attachment style may relate to parenting stress in the first year after birth. Such stress could possibly have a negative relationship with the mother-infant bond. In the present study, we examined the associations between maternal adult attachment styles and the quality of mother-infant bonding and whether this relationship is mediated by parenting stress. METHODS: The present study sample comprised 168 women (mean age 31.0 years, SD 4.23 years). Between weeks 31 and 41 of gestation, the anxious and avoidant adult attachment dimensions were measured with the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR). Between 5 and 15 weeks after birth mother-infant bonding and parenting stress were measured with the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS) and the Parenting Stress Index-Parent Domain (PSI-PD), respectively. RESULTS: Both attachment-related avoidance and attachment-related anxiety correlated significantly and negatively with mother-infant bonding. However, a regression analysis showed that only attachment-related avoidance was a significant predictor of mother-infant bonding when controlling for demographic variables and maternal mental health history. The relationship between the adult attachment style and bonding was mediated by parenting stress. Higher scores on attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to increased stress, which was related to decreased quality of bonding. The overall parent domain and the subscale of competence in the parent-related stress dimension mediated between attachment avoidance and bonding, and the overall parent domain and the subscales of competence and role restriction mediated between attachment anxiety and bonding. There was no direct relationship between the adult attachment style and mother-infant bonding when parenting stress was included as a mediator. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that maternal adult attachment style relates to mother-infant bonding. This relationship was mediated by parenting stress. The results may have implications for the early identification of mothers at risk of having bonding difficulties.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Madres/psicología , Apego a Objetos , Análisis de Regresión , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0225839, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163421

RESUMEN

In the current study a three-generational design was used to investigate intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM) using multiple sources of information on child maltreatment: mothers, fathers and children. A total of 395 individuals from 63 families reported on maltreatment. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to combine data from mother, father and child about maltreatment that the child had experienced. This established components reflecting the convergent as well as the unique reports of father, mother and child on the occurrence of maltreatment. Next, we tested ITCM using the multi-informant approach and compared the results to those of two more common approaches: ITCM based on one reporter and ITCM based on different reporters from each generation. Results of our multi-informant approach showed that a component reflecting convergence between mother, father, and child reports explained most of the variance in experienced maltreatment. For abuse, intergenerational transmission was consistently found across approaches. In contrast, intergenerational transmission of neglect was only found using the perspective of a single reporter, indicating that transmission of neglect might be driven by reporter effects. In conclusion, the present results suggest that including multiple informants may be necessary to obtain more valid estimates of ITCM.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Padre/psicología , Relaciones Intergeneracionales , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos
4.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101410, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as fNIRS, allow us to shed light on the neural correlates of infant's social-emotional development within the context of parent-infant interaction. On a behavioral level, numerous studies have investigated parent-infant interaction employing the still-face paradigm and found that the primary caregiver(s), often the mother, is an important coregulator of the infant's physiological and behavioral stress response. However, limited information is available on how the infant's brain reacts to the maternal cues during real-life interaction. METHODS: Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to design a fNIRS paradigm to study live mother-infant interaction and to explore the neural correlates of infant affect regulation during real-life dyadic interaction. To this end, a modified still-face paradigm was designed, which consists of live face-to-face mother-infant, and stranger-infant, interaction episodes, including stressful, "still-face" and non-stressful, "happy-face" interaction blocks, combined with infant fNIRS imaging. RESULTS: Hemodynamic brain responses were collected in n = 10 (6 females, mean age 230.2 ±â€¯17.5 days), typically developing infants using the Hitachi ETG-4000 continuous-wave system (22 channels spanning the frontal cortex; 10 Hz system sampling frequency). Infants with usable data (n = 7) showed negative activations, indicated by a decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin, over the middle frontal gyrus in response to happy-face (reunion) interaction with their mothers compared to a female stranger; suggesting deactivation of brain regions associated with affect regulation. We also explored correlations between infant brain responses to maternal interaction and infant characteristics (temperament) as well as experiential/environmental factors (mothers' self-reported depression symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Although the current results are very preliminary, they overall suggest that live design in infant populations is doable and offers unique opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying early caregiver(s)-child interaction in a more naturalistic context. Restrictions, and implications, of the methodology are critically discussed.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Conducta del Lactante/psicología , Conducta Materna/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiología , Depresión/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Reconocimiento Facial , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Temperamento
5.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101421, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135402

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current study aims to evaluate the association between preterm birth and the quality of mother-child interaction of very preterm-, moderate preterm-, and full-term-born children at 18 and 36 months and to determine whether developmental and behavioral characteristics mediate the association between preterm birth and the quality of mother-child interaction. METHOD: Participants included 110 preterm-born children and 39 full-term-born children assessed at ages 18 and 36 months. Mother-child free play interactions, the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were administered. RESULTS: Significant associations between preterm birth and the quality of mother-child interaction were found at 18 and 36 months. The mother-child interaction quality was less optimal for the preterm-born children compared with the full-term-born children, mainly so for the very preterm-born children. Unlike behavioral characteristics, cognitive development was found to mediate the association between the gestational age-based group and the quality of mother-child interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention programs for preterm-born children and their families, should consider maternal and children's behaviors during mother-child interactions, in addition to cognitive, language, motor and emotional regulation abilities, and particularly so with very preterm-born children, who exhibit slower cognitive development.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Recien Nacido Prematuro/fisiología , Recien Nacido Prematuro/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Temperamento/fisiología , Adulto , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Conducta del Lactante/fisiología , Conducta del Lactante/psicología , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101428, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135403

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study examined longitudinal relations between maternal bonding and infant temperament in the first nine months after birth. DESIGN: Our sample consisted of 281 women, enrolled at five maternity hospitals, who completed questionnaires during the first week (T1), at six weeks (T2) and nine months postpartum (T3). Maternal bonding was assessed using the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale at T1 and T2 and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at T3. Infant temperament was measured using the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, completed by the mothers at T2 and T3. RESULTS: The results of a path model showed a long-term effect flowing from the child to the mother, with infant temperament at T2 predicting maternal bonding at T3 over and above stability in bonding. At T3, bonding was linked more strongly to child temperament at T2 than to child temperament assessed concurrently at T3. Maternal bonding did predict infant temperament, but this was true only of bonding reported at T1 and infant temperament at T2, that is, not of bonding assessed at T2 and infant temperament at T3. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that maternal bonding in the first week postpartum may temporarily affect child temperament, but infant's temperament several weeks after birth - rather than several months postpartum - plays a pervasive role in shaping the long-lasting nature of the mother-child relationship. Our findings thus seem to support the suggestion that the early postpartum weeks represent an important period in the development of maternal bonding.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Apego a Objetos , Periodo Posparto/fisiología , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Temperamento/fisiología , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121286

RESUMEN

The postpartum period is critical for new mothers, in terms of performing maternal functions, which can be affected by physical or psychological complications. The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between maternal functioning and mental health in the postpartum period. This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 530 eligible women who referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran in 2018. The participants were selected through randomized cluster sampling, and data were collected by using a socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire, Mental Health Inventory (MHI), and the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning (BIMF). These assessments were collected between 1 and 4 months postpartum. The relationship between maternal functioning and mental health was determined by conducting bivariate analysis via Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis and the general linear model (GLM) in a multivariate analysis. The mean (SD) mental health score in women was 79.1 (15.0) in the obtainable score range of 18 to 108, and the mean (SD) BIMF score in women was 97.4 (12.9) in the obtainable score range of 0 to 120. Based on Pearson or Spearman correlations, mental health and its sub-domains had positive, significant correlations with infant care, mother-child interaction, mental well-being, social support, management, adjustment, self-care, and maternal functioning (p < 0.001). Based on the GLM, increased maternal functioning was associated with higher total mental health score, having a moderate income, and receiving support for infant care (p < 0.05). High levels of postpartum mental health can have a positive impact on maternal functioning. Additionally, having support with infant care tasks can also improve functioning.


Asunto(s)
Cuidado del Lactante/psicología , Salud Mental , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Parto/psicología , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Autocuidado/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Irán , Masculino , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229670, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134961

RESUMEN

The role of fathers in (co-)parenting their children among refugee and disadvantaged families in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains poorly understood. This study sought to examine the associations among mothers' perceptions of their husband's involvement (hereafter referred to as paternal involvement), and her perceptions of her own well-being and a number of other variables, as well as observed mother-child interactions in families living in refugee and disadvantaged communities in Beirut, Lebanon. We analyzed baseline data from 104 mother-child dyads (mean age of children = 4.34 years; range = 2.05 to 7.93 years of age) who participated in a randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating the impact of the Mother-Child Education Program in Beirut. In addition to the mother's perception of paternal involvement and the videotaped mother-child interactions, data were collected concerning the mother's well-being and her level of social support, as well as her level of stress as a parent and the way her children were disciplined in the family. Mother-child pairs were videotaped while completing a puzzle together and dyadic interactions were coded. Path analysis showed that paternal involvement was significantly associated with a higher level of maternal well-being and lower distress levels. In addition, higher levels of maternal distress were associated with higher levels of harsh discipline and parenting stress. Correlation analysis showed that higher perceptions of paternal involvement were associated with more positive affect displayed by the child, more positive regard for the child, and better mother-child synchrony during the dyadic interactions. Limitations include the cross-sectional design and the modest sample size, which hinder causal inferences and generalizability of the findings. These preliminary findings suggest that higher levels of paternal involvement may have an impact on markers of maternal mental health and positive mother-child interactions in families living in disadvantaged communities or humanitarian settings. Paternal involvement should be considered when designing and implementing parenting programs in LMICs.


Asunto(s)
Padre/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Refugiados/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Relaciones Padre-Hijo , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Esposos/psicología , Adulto Joven
9.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101415, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004759

RESUMEN

Consistency in parenting infants has positive developmental outcomes. Yet, the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in consistency of maternal behaviors is not well understood. We investigated individual-order continuity of maternal smile and laughter and positive vocalization from 6 to 12 months of age in 82 mother-infant dyads. Overall, individual differences in maternal smile and laughter, and positive vocalization were consistent across time. A multidimensional measure of SES moderated the association of maternal smile and laughter from 6 to 12 months, such that infants from lower SES families were vulnerable to unpredictable parenting - experiencing a lack of consistency in maternal smiles and laughter.


Asunto(s)
Afecto/fisiología , Risa/fisiología , Conducta Materna/fisiología , Conducta Materna/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Clase Social , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Renta/tendencias , Lactante , Risa/psicología , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/tendencias , Sonrisa/fisiología , Sonrisa/psicología
10.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101420, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028103

RESUMEN

During the first years of life, maternal touch can serve different functions including facilitation of child's gaze orientation to faces which is a key precursor for social attention. Although children with neurodevelopmental disability (ND) may have reduced social skills, the role of maternal touch in contributing to gaze orientation to maternal face has not been explored in previous research. In the present study, we investigate the functions of maternal touch in dyads of mothers and children with ND, compared to dyads of children with typical development (TD). Micro-analytic 2-s coding of maternal touch (i.e., affectionate, playful, facilitating, holding, no touch) and children's gaze orientation (i.e., mother-oriented, object-oriented, non-oriented) occurred during 5-minute interactions between mothers and their 12-to-24-month-old ND and TD children. Dyads were paired for children chronological age and sex. Mothers of children with ND used more touch - especially facilitating and holding types -, compared to mothers of TD peers. Children with ND exhibited more non-orientated gaze compared to TD counterparts. Playful touch associated with increased mother-oriented gaze in children with ND, whereas affectionate and holding touch associated with greater mother-oriented gaze in TD children. Findings suggest that specific types of touch support children's attention to social partners.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/fisiopatología , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/psicología , Percepción del Tacto/fisiología , Adulto , Atención/fisiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Fijación Ocular/fisiología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Orientación/fisiología , Juego e Implementos de Juego/psicología
11.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 227-231, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969024

RESUMEN

Harry Harlow, famous for his experiments with rhesus monkeys and cloth and wire mothers, was visited by psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby and by child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim in 1958. They made similar observations of Harlow's monkeys, yet their interpretations were strikingly different. Bettelheim saw Harlow's wire mother as a perfect example of the 'refrigerator mother', causing autism in her child, while Bowlby saw Harlow's results as an explanation of how socio-emotional development was dependent on responsiveness of the mother to the child's biological needs. Bettelheim's solution was to remove the mother, while Bowlby specifically wanted to involve her in treatment. Harlow was very critical of Bettelheim, but evaluated Bowlby's work positively.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Teoría Psicológica , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Animales , Trastorno Autístico/historia , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Amor , Macaca mulatta/psicología , Madres/psicología , Apego a Objetos , Psiquiatría/historia , Psicología Infantil
12.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101416, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986315

RESUMEN

A randomized control trial was conducted to investigate the effects of skin-to-skin, chest-to-chest contact (kangaroo care, KC) in mother-infant dyads on patterns of infant brain activity and associated mother-infant neurohormone releases. 33 mother-infant dyads participated during pregnancy (29-38 weeks gestation), at neonatal and 3-month periods. Overall, analyses indicated that: 1) infants in the KC group showed left frontal brain activation patterns (asymmetry and coherence) associated with KC training; 2) KC produced moderate to large increases in oxytocin levels; and 3) KC yielded moderate decreases in cortisol reactivity. Findings suggest KC may garner favorable neuro-maturational and neurobiological outcomes for dyads.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Lóbulo Frontal/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Método Madre-Canguro/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Oxitocina/metabolismo , Adulto , Electroencefalografía/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Cuidado del Lactante/métodos , Recién Nacido , Método Madre-Canguro/métodos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Embarazo , Saliva/metabolismo
14.
Codas ; 32(2): e20190093, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939494

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The attitude of mothers of children who stutter is believed to be crucial in the management of therapy process. Therefore, this study aimed at the description of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of mothers of children with stuttering, as well as at the exploration of the relationship between them. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 33 mothers of children with stuttering aged 6-12 years. The data were gathered using the following instruments: Mother Resilience Scale, Revised Parental Social Support Scale, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Stuttering Severity Instrument-4, and a personal information form. RESULTS: Resilience of mothers of children who stutter was high, whereas perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of the participants were lower. Mother's increased level of perceived social support resulted in increased resilience level and decreased trait anxiety level. The trait anxiety levels of mothers with a college degree were significantly lower than those of mothers with other education levels. No statistically significant correlation was observed between stuttering severity and the levels of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety. CONCLUSION: Although mothers of stuttering children present the required skills to cope with the situation, it is believed that they need more social support. Consequently, offering professional support to mothers in the course of stuttering management and referring them to appropriate intervention programs are emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Madres/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Apoyo Social , Tartamudeo/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Percepción , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227179, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) have been associated with poorer child cognitive development. Some studies have shown that childcare attendance moderates associations between MDS and child behavior problems, but we do not know if this is the case for children's cognitive development. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated whether associations between MDS and child cognitive development differ for boys and girls at school entry. METHODS: This study used data from a population-based cohort study (n = 1364) comprising well-validated measures of children's cognitive development including academic readiness and language development in kindergarten and reading and mathematics achievement in first grade. Information on MDS was collected repeatedly from the child's age of 5 months to 5 years and on childcare from 5 months to 4.5 years. Moderation analyses were conducted to evaluate the differential associations of MDS with children's outcomes depending on the type of childcare attended and the child's sex. RESULTS: Childcare type or child's sex did not moderate associations between MDS and children's cognitive outcomes except for MDS being associated with lower scores on reading achievement in first grade for girls with a very small effect size (sr2 = .003). Childcare attendance was associated with higher scores for children's cognitive development, however these associations disappeared after adjusting for covariates including child, mother and family characteristics. Regardless of MDS and childcare type, boys had, even after adjusting for covariates, lower scores on academic readiness (sr2 = .029) and higher scores on mathematics achievement (sr2 = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Children's cognitive development at school entry was more strongly associated with maternal education, children's age in kindergarten and number of months of schooling in first grade than MDS. Contrary to associations between MDS and child behavior problems, childcare attendance did not moderate associations between MDS and children's cognitive development at school entry.


Asunto(s)
Cuidado del Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Cognición , Depresión/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Matemática , Lectura , Instituciones Académicas , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
16.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(1): 29-41, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834475

RESUMEN

Perinatal mood instability (MI) is a common clinical observation in perinatal women, and existing research indicates that MI is strongly associated with a variety of mental disorders. The purpose of this study is to review the evidence of perinatal MI systematically, with a focus on perinatal MI, its relation to perinatal depression, and its effects on children. A systematic search of the literature using PRISMA guidelines was conducted on seven academic health databases to identify any peer-reviewed articles published in English from 1985 to July 2017. Studies were screened, data were extracted, and quality of the selected studies was assessed. A total of 1927 abstracts were returned from the search, with 1063 remaining for abstract screening after duplicate removal, and 4 quantitative studies were selected for final analysis. The selected studies addressed perinatal MI (n = 2), the relation of perinatal MI to perinatal depression (n = 1), and the effects of perinatal MI on children (n = 1). The selected studies identified that perinatal women experienced a significantly higher level of MI than non-perinatal women, MI is a prominent feature in perinatal women with and without depression, mood lability during the early postpartum predicts psychopathology up to 14 months postpartum, and maternal emotion dysregulation, rather than maternal psychopathology, increases the risk of heightened facial affect synchrony in mother-infant interaction. The study reveals a significant gap in the literature of perinatal MI.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Trastornos del Humor/epidemiología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Depresión/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Trastornos del Humor/complicaciones , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Narración , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología
17.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(1): 53-62, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656489

RESUMEN

Maternal depression is a potent risk factor for poor child development across a number of domains but the mechanisms of transmission are poorly understood. This study aimed to test competing mediators of the association between pre-conception maternal depression and child psychosocial functioning. In 2016, mothers in the 1973-1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were asked to be part of the Mothers and their Children's Health study and to complete surveys on the health of their three youngest children under 13 years. The current study includes children aged 0-12 years (N = 5532, M = 6.99 years, SD = 3.22 years) and their mothers (N = 2917). We used the CESD-10 to measure depression and the PedsQL to measure psychosocial functioning, and used multilevel structural equation modeling to test hypotheses. Pre-conception maternal depression was associated with poorer maternal mental health and parenting after birth. The effect of pre-conception maternal depression was mediated by post-birth maternal depression in children aged 0-4 years (unstandardized regression coefficient (B) = - 0.26, 95%CI - 0.38, - 0.13) and children aged 5-12 years (B = - 0.25, 95%CI - 0.34, - 0.16), and by post-birth maternal stress (B = - 0.04, 95%CI - 0.08, - 0.01), and parenting (B = - 0.03, 95%CI - 0.04, - 0.02) in children aged 5-12 years. Post-birth maternal depression was the strongest mediator. Pre-conception is the optimal time for depression intervention. Post-birth interventions should include a focus on reducing depression and improving negative parenting aspects such as hostility and discipline.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/diagnóstico , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino
18.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(1): 90-100, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore the effect of a new prenatal intervention on participation in obstetric care, fetal drug exposure, and perinatal outcomes among substance using pregnant women in Finland. METHODS: The participants were 90 women referred to a hospital obstetric outpatient clinic due to current or recent substance use. The intervention group (n = 46) was offered three interactive ultrasounds at 24, 30 and 34 gestational weeks and a pregnancy diary accompanied by three prenatal infant mental health consultations. The intervention elements were designed to enhance parental mentalization and prenatal attachment. A randomized control group (n = 44) design was used. All participants were offered treatment-as-usual in the obstetric tertiary setting. Medical record data and meconium toxicology were analyzed. RESULTS: The retention rate in the whole sample was 89%. Retention was higher in the intervention group (96% vs. 82%, p < 0.05), of which 74% attended all three ultrasound sessions. However, the pregnant women in the intervention group participated less often in all the scheduled obstetric standard care visits (59% vs. 83%, p = 0.02). Fetal drug exposure and perinatal outcomes were similar in both groups. Within the whole sample, 13% of the neonates were preterm, 12% small for gestational age and 7% had exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Retention in the intervention was very good. Watching the fetus with parenting focus seemed to motivate these high-risk women. Interestingly, the pregnant women in the intervention group tended to prefer the intervention sessions to the routine care. Clinical implications of this finding are discussed. TRIAL REGISTRY: The trial registration number in ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03413631.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Apego a Objetos , Complicaciones del Embarazo/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Ultrasonografía Prenatal/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Finlandia , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/terapia , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
19.
Res Nurs Health ; 43(1): 17-27, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599457

RESUMEN

The impact of different parenting-related variables on child psychological development is widely acknowledged. However, studies about the specific influence of maternal and family dimensions on child early developmental outcomes in at-risk dyads are still scarce. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the short- and middle-term effects of prenatal and postnatal family and maternal features, and child attachment, on child psychological development at 3 and 24 months in at-risk families. Forty-two mothers with psychological, social and/or demographic risk conditions and their first-born infants were assessed longitudinally. Measurements of maternal personality, psychological and depressive symptoms, family socioeconomic status (SES), child-mother attachment, and infant general psychological development were collected at multiple time points, through validated questionnaires and/or mother-child observation. Maternal and family dimensions showed a significant effect on child psychological development over time. The expected detrimental role of reported maternal depressive symptoms was observed both at 3 and 24 months of child's age. Data also highlighted the negative contribution of low family SES and an unexpected positive influence of maternal personality trait of psychoticism on child psychological development at 24 months. We also found a positive association between attachment security and child developmental outcome. These findings might have relevant implications for the implementation of early prevention programs by differentiating the specific predictive role of maternal child and familial factors on child psychological development in at-risk families.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Familia/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Apego a Objetos , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Preescolar , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Lactante , Italia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrés Psicológico
20.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(1): 33-37, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738224

RESUMEN

Associations between subjective maternal bonding recalled from the first 16 years of life and current sleep indices were investigated in a clinical sample of 34 adults with major depressive disorder and 36 normal controls (n = 70) using the self-report parental bonding instrument and wrist actigraphy. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicated that reports of maternal bonding indices were associated with several sleep indices in adulthood independent of depression status. Higher levels of maternal care were associated with greater time in bed and total sleep time. Higher levels of maternal overprotection were associated with fewer awakenings. Findings indicate that reported maternal bonding characteristics in childhood are related to objectively measured sleep characteristics in adulthood, independent of mood state.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/etiología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Apego a Objetos , Sueño , Actigrafía , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/complicaciones , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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