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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 49, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491095

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the existing literature on the association between parents' depression and anxiety and their influence on their children's weight during childhood, identifying possible mechanisms involved in this association. METHODS A systematic search of the literature was conducted in the PubMed, PsycINFO and SciELO databases, using the following descriptors: (maternal OR mother* OR parent* OR paternal OR father) AND ("common mental disorder" OR "mental health" OR "mental disorder" OR "depressive disorder" OR depress* OR anxiety OR "anxiety disorder") AND (child* OR pediatric OR offspring) AND (overweight OR obes* OR "body mass index" OR BMI). A total of 1,187 articles were found after peer selection. RESULTS In total, 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected for the review. Most of them investigated depressive symptoms and only three, symptoms of maternal anxiety. The evaluated studies suggested a positive association between symptoms of maternal depression and higher risk of childhood obesity. The results diverged according to the chronicity of depressive symptoms (episodic or recurrent depression) and income of the investigated country (high or middle income). Mechanisms were identified passing by quality of parenthood, affecting behaviors related to physical activity and child-feeding, as mediators of the association. CONCLUSIONS We conclude there is evidence of a positive relationship between the occurrence of maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety and childhood obesity. It is emphasized the need for a better understanding on the effect of depressive symptoms and the contextual factors involved in this relationship so that effective intervention strategies can be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Padres/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 1-10, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-189156

RESUMEN

Current emergent studies are seriously questioning if parental strictness contributes to adolescent adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between authoritative (warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness without warmth), indulgent (warmth without strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles shows equal or different pattern of adjustment and maladjustment for aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents. The sample consisted of 969 Spanish adolescents, 554 females (57.2%) and 415 males, ranging from 12 to 17 years old. Families were classified into one of four typologies by their scores on warmth and strictness, and the adolescents were grouped by their aggressiveness (low vs. high). Adolescent adjustment was captured with three self-esteem indicators (emotional, physical, and family) and personal maladjustment with five indicators (negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional irresponsiveness, emotional instability, and negative worldview). It was tested main and interaction effects between parenting and aggressiveness considering also sex and age factors. Findings showed that aggressive adolescents always had the worst socialization outcomes (i.e., the lowest self-esteem and the highest personal maladjustment). Aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents have a common pattern: both, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were always associated with better outcomes than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting, but indulgent parenting style was associated with the best outcomes across all the criteria. In contrast with previous evidence about the idea that parental strictness and imposition might be beneficial to raise aggressive adolescents, present findings highlight the positive impact of parental warmth even with aggressive adolescents. Implications for family interventions were considered


Investigaciones emergentes cuestionan que la severidad parental contribuya al ajuste del adolescente. Este estudio examina si la relación entre los estilos parentales autorizativo (afecto y severidad), autoritario (severidad sin afecto), indulgente (afecto sin severidad) y negligente (ni afecto ni severidad) presenta patrones de ajuste y desajuste iguales o diferentes en adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos. Participaron 969 adolescentes españoles, 554 mujeres (57.2%) y 415 varones, de 12 a 17 años. Las familias se clasificaron en un estilo parental según sus puntuaciones en afecto y severidad y los adolescentes se agruparon por agresividad (baja vs. alta). Se captó el ajuste mediante tres indicadores de autoestima (emocional, física y familiar) y el desajuste personal con cinco indicadores (autoestima negativa, autoeficacia negativa, falta de respuesta emocional, inestabilidad emocional y visión negativa del mundo). Se probaron efectos principales y de interacción para estilos parentales y agresividad, considerando también sexo y edad. Los análisis mostraron que los adolescentes agresivos siempre tenían los peores resultados (i.e., la menor autoestima y el mayor desajuste personal). Los adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos comparten un patrón común: los estilos indulgente y autorizativo siempre se asociaron con mejores resultados que el autoritario o el negligente, pero el estilo indulgente se asoció con los mejores resultados en todos los criterios. A diferencia de estudios previos que consideraban que el rigor y la severidad de los padres podrían ser beneficiosos en hijos agresivos, los presentes resultados resaltan el impacto positivo del afecto parental incluso en adolescentes agresivos. Se consideraron las implicaciones para las intervenciones familiares


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Crianza del Niño/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Autoimagen , Composición Familiar , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Agresión/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Afecto/clasificación , Autoritarismo , Factores de Riesgo , Psicometría/instrumentación
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 11-21, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-189157

RESUMEN

This study aimed to address how multiple risk factors that were previously related and derived from ecological levels, when taken together, could explain child-to-mother and child-to-father violence. A total of 298 Spanish adolescents (140 girls) who had committed CPV, with a mean age of 15.91 (SDage = 1.89), offender residents of specialized closed institutions for adolescents who had aggressed their parents (49.5%) and educational centres (50.6%) completed all measures. Both models obtained adequate fit indexes and explained about 50% of the variance in the two types of violence. At contextual (exosystem) level, peer deviance was indirectly related to both types of CPV. At family level (microsystem), the strongest direct predictor in both models was parental ineffectiveness in applying discipline. An additional direct path to child-to-mother violence was the use of corporal punishment. At individual level (ontogenic), the two strongest direct predictors in both models were adolescents' impulsivity and substance abuse. The models highlight the complexity of the variables involved in the development of CPV. Regarding intervention implications, the models show the importance of paying attention to family variables, such as parents' mode of implementation of disciplinary measures, and individual factors, such as adolescents' impulsivity and substance abuse


Este estudio tuvo como fin abordar de qué modo podría explicar la violencia filio-parental (VFP) hacia la madre y hacia el padre los múltiples factores de riesgo relacionados previamente y derivados de niveles ecológicos en su conjunto. Un total de 298 adolescentes españoles (140 chicas) que presentaban índices elevados de VFP, con una edad media de 15.91 (DT = 1.89) y pertenecientes a centros psicoterapéuticos cerrados especializados en el trabajo de la VFP (49.5%) y a centros educativos (50.6%) cumplimentaron todas las medidas. Ambos modelos obtuvieron índices de ajuste adecuados y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza de los dos tipos de VPF. En el nivel contextual (exosistema), la influencia de compañeros conflictivos se relacionó indirectamente con ambos tipos de VFP. A nivel familiar (microsistema), el mayor predictor directo en ambos modelos fue la ineficacia parental en la aplicación de la disciplina. Una relación directa adicional en el caso de la VFP hacia la madre fue el uso del castigo físico. Al nivel individual (ontogénico), los dos mejores predictores directos en ambos modelos fueron la impulsividad y el abuso de sustancias por parte de los adolescentes. Los modelos subrayan la complejidad de las variables involucradas en el desarrollo de la VFP. Respecto a las implicaciones para la intervención, los modelos enfatizan la importancia de prestar atención a las variables familiares, como el modo en el que los progenitores implementan las estrategias disciplinarias, y a factores individuales, como la impulsividad y el abuso de sustancias de los adolescentes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Agresión/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Análisis Multivariante , Psicometría/métodos , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología , Conducta Impulsiva/clasificación , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Delincuencia Juvenil/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 43-51, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-189160

RESUMEN

Child-to-parent violence takes different forms (physical, psychological or economic) and can be addressed in the judicial system or in clinical practice. The current paper compares 61 clinical and 30 judicialized cases that were evaluated using the Child-to-Parent Violence Risk assessment tool (CPVR). Results showed a higher prevalence of risk factors in the judicial sample. This group of aggressors had worse profiles of violence (bidirectionality of the parent/child violence, violence other than CPV, and more CPV complaints), more psychological issues (low frustration tolerance, little anger management,narcissism, and violent attitudes) and, most notably, more dysfunctional families (violence between parents, cohabitation problems, inversion of the hierarchy, non-violent conflicts, and even criminal history of the parents). Logistic regression showed that narcissism, attitudes justifying violence, violence between parents, and problems of parents themselves (such mental disorders or drug abuse) allowed for correct classification of 89.4% of cases. Total CPVR scores differed between groups (25.8 vs. 14.2), and classification was good for both type of group (AUC = .830) and injuries to mother (AUC= .764). A cut-off score between 22 and 23 showed the best results in prediction of group and injuries to mother. Utility ofthe CPVR, and next steps in its development are discussed


La Violencia Filio-Parental (VFP) puede manifestarse de distintas formas (física, psicológica o económica) y su abordaje puede hacerse desde el sistema judicial o desde la práctica clínica. El presente estudio compara 61 casos clínicos (no judicializados) y 30 judicializados que fueron evaluados con la Guía para la Valoración del Riesgo de Violencia Filio-Parental (RVFP). Los resultados mostraron una mayor prevalencia de los factores de riesgo en la muestra judicial, con un perfil de violencia peor (más bidireccionalidad, más violencia distinta a la VFP y más denuncias por VFP), más complicaciones psicológicas en los agresores (baja tolerancia a la frustración, poco control de la ira, narcisismo y actitudes violentas) y, en especial, un perfil familiar más disfuncional (violencia entre los padres, problemas de convivencia, inversión de jerarquía, conflictos e incluso antecedentes delictivos en los padres). Una regresión logística puso de manifiesto que el narcisismo, las actitudes que justifican la violencia, la violencia entre los progenitores y los problemas de los padres (como trastorno mental o abuso de drogas) permitían clasificar correctamente al 89.4% de los casos. El grupo midió diferencias en la puntuación en la Guía RVFP (25.8vs. 14.2) y la clasificación fue buena para el tipo de grupo (AUC = .830) y lesiones a la madre (AUC = .764). Un punto de corte entre 22 y 23 mostró los mejores resultados en la predicción del grupo y las lesiones a la madre. Se discute la utilidad de la RVFP y los siguientes pasos en su desarrollo


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Narcisismo , Frustación , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología , Composición Familiar , Factores de Riesgo , Violencia Doméstica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medición de Riesgo/métodos
5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(5): 420-430, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353277

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multisystemic therapy is a manualised treatment programme for young people aged 11-17 years who exhibit antisocial behaviour. To our knowledge, the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial is the first large-scale randomised controlled trial of multisystemic therapy in the UK. Previous findings reported to 18 months after baseline (START-I study) did not indicate superiority of multisystemic therapy compared with management as usual. Here, we report outcomes of the trial to 60 months (START-II study). METHODS: In this pragmatic, randomised, controlled, superiority trial, young people (aged 11-17 years) with moderate-to-severe antisocial behaviour were recruited from social services, youth offending teams, schools, child and adolescent mental health services, and voluntary services across England, UK. Participants were eligible if they had at least three severity criteria indicating past difficulties across several settings and one of five general inclusion criteria for antisocial behaviour. Eligible families were randomly assigned (1:1), using stochastic minimisation and stratifying for treatment centre, sex, age at enrolment, and age at onset of antisocial behaviour, to management as usual or 3-5 months of multisystemic therapy followed by management as usual. Research assistants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation; the participants could not be masked. For this extension study, the primary outcome was the proportion of participants with offences with convictions in each group at 60 months after randomisation. This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN77132214, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Feb 4, 2010, and Sept 1, 2012, 1076 young people and families were assessed for eligibility and 684 were randomly assigned to management as usual (n=342) or multisystemic therapy (n=342). By 60 months' of follow-up, 188 (55%) of 342 people in the multisystemic therapy group had at least one offence with a criminal conviction, compared with 180 (53%) of 341 in the management-as-usual group (odds ratio 1·13, 95% CI 0·82-1·56; p=0·44). INTERPRETATION: The results of the 5-year follow-up show no evidence of longer-term superiority for multisystemic therapy compared with management as usual. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Comunicación , Trastorno de la Conducta/rehabilitación , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Delincuencia Juvenil/rehabilitación , Responsabilidad Parental , Apoyo Social , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Terapia de Manejo de la Ira , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial , Niño , Inglaterra , Femenino , Visita Domiciliaria , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Red Social , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e88, 2020 04 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349815

RESUMEN

Tomasello's moral psychology of obligation would be developmentally deepened by greater attention to early experiences of cooperation and shared social agency between parents and infants, evolved to promote infant survival. They provide a foundation for developing understanding of the mutual obligations of close relationships that contribute (alongside peer experiences) to growing collaborative skills, fairness expectations, and fidelity to social norms.


Asunto(s)
Principios Morales , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Conducta Social
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e79, 2020 04 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349842

RESUMEN

Our sense of obligation is evident outside of joint collaborative activities. Most notably, children and adults recognize that parents are obligated to care for and love their children. This is presumably not because we think parents view their children as worthy cooperative partners, but because special obligations and duties are inherent in certain relational dynamics, namely the parent-child relationship.


Asunto(s)
Principios Morales , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Padres
8.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(313): 29-31, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446554

RESUMEN

The dynamics of transmission between Tamil parents who fled the civil war in Sri Lanka and their children born in France were studied. The possible trauma that results from the transmission can affect the following generations in a more or less conscious way. The qualitative methodology was based on T-MADE, a method of transcultural analysis of the children's drawings, linked to the analysis of the parents' narrative.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/etiología , Refugiados/psicología , Niño , Francia , Humanos , Narración , Investigación Cualitativa , Sri Lanka/etnología
9.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(4): 54-55, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223636
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112953, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302814

RESUMEN

A series of unexplained pneumonia appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, which is highly contagious. The virus is prone to nervous and anxious psychological reactions. In the objective environment of complex and densely populated hospitals, it is a high-risk area for virus-transmitted infections and children generally have lower immunity who are more likely to develop infections. The results showed that the mental health problems of parents of hospitalized children during the epidemic were more serious, and the anxiety and depression were more obvious.


Asunto(s)
Niño Hospitalizado , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Padres , Neumonía Viral , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Niño , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 283-288, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187933

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the effect of parental rearing patterns and their consistency on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children. Methods: From October to November 2017, 27 987 children aged 3 to 6 years old from 109 kindergartens in 11 cities of Hubei, Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces were selected by using the cluster sampling method. A total of 27 200 valid questionnaires which were completed by subjects' parents were collected. The emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children were collected by "strengths and difficulties questionnaire" and the parental rearing patterns were evaluated by the "Parental Behavior Scale". The differences in emotional and behavioral abnormality rates of preschool children with different characteristics were analyzed; with emotional and behavioral problems as dependent variables and parental support/participation and compulsion/hostility as independent variables, the multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of parental rearing patterns and their consistency on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children. Results: The age of children was (4.35±0.96) years old, and 51.4% of children were 13 975 males. There were 24 634 (90.6%) urban children and 17 916 (65.9%) only children. Both parents with strong support/participation accounted for 14.9%, and those with poor support/participation accounted for 11.9%; both parents with strong compulsion/hostility accounted for 15.2%, and those with low compulsion/hostility accounted for 11.3%. The rates of emotional symptoms, conduct behavior, hyperactive behavior, peer interaction, total difficulty score, and abnormal prosocial behavior of preschool children were 9.5%, 9.5%, 18.2%, 24.5%, 11.2%, and 10.2%, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after adjusting for gender, only child, living area, family economic status, mother's age and education level, father's education level, and other factors, compared with fathers/mothers with strong support/participation and low compulsion/hostility and parents with strong support/participation and low compulsion/hostility, preschool children who had fathers/mothers with poor support/participation and strong compulsion/hostility or parents with poor support/participation and strong compulsion/hostility were more likely to have emotional symptoms, conduct behavior, hyperactive behavior, peer interaction, total difficulty score, and abnormal prosocial behavior (P<0.05). Conclusions: Parental rearing patterns and their consistency are related to the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children.


Asunto(s)
Síntomas Afectivos , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres/psicología , Problema de Conducta , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
J Music Ther ; 57(2): 219-242, 2020 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112555

RESUMEN

Music therapy (MT) interventions and skin-to-skin care (SSC) both aim to address the varied needs of preterm infants, including sensory regulation and stress reduction, inclusion of parents in their infant's care, support of parents' emotional state, and enhancing the parent-infant attachment process. Few studies have investigated the combination of both modalities through randomized controlled trials. Evidence of longer-term effects is missing. This article presents a study protocol that will investigate the effects of combined family-centered MT intervention and SSC on preterm-infants' autonomic nervous system (ANS) stability, parental anxiety levels, and parent-infant attachment quality. 12 clusters with a total of 72 preterm infants, with their parents, will be randomized to one of two conditions: MT combined with SSC or SSC alone. Each parent-infant dyad will participate in 3 sessions (2 in the hospital and a 3-month follow-up). The primary outcome of preterm infants' ANS stability will be measured by the high frequency power of their heart rate variability. Secondary outcomes will be physiological measures and behavioral states in infants and anxiety and attachment levels of parents. This trial will provide important, evidence-based knowledge on the use of the "First Sounds: Rhythm, Breath, and Lullaby" model of MT in neonatal care, through an intervention that is in line with the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program model for supportive developmental care of preterm infants and their parents. Ethical approval (no. 0283-15) was granted from the local Institutional Review Board in April 2017. This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03023267.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso Autónomo , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal/métodos , Musicoterapia/métodos , Padres/psicología , Afecto , Ansiedad , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Apego a Objetos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229183, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The link between parental divorce and adolescents' academic achievement may depend on parental educational levels. However, findings have been inconsistent regarding whether the negative associations between parental divorce and adolescents' academic outcomes are greater or smaller in highly educated families. The present study aimed to investigate the possible heterogeneity in the associations between divorce and adolescents' academic achievement by parental educational levels, within the context of the elaborate Norwegian welfare state. METHODS: The population-based cross-sectional youth@hordaland study of adolescents aged 16-19 years conducted in Norway in 2012, provided information about parental divorce and was linked to national administrative registries (N = 9,166) to obtain high-quality, objective data on the adolescents' grade point average (GPA), and their parents' educational qualifications and income. RESULTS: The negative association between parental divorce and GPA was stronger among adolescents with educated or highly educated parents compared to adolescents with less educated parents. This heterogeneity was driven by maternal educational qualifications, whereby divorce was more strongly and negatively associated with GPA among adolescents with educated mothers compared to those with less educated mothers, independent of paternal educational levels and income measures. CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents whose parents have low educational qualifications, parental divorce is not associated with their academic achievement. Educated divorced mothers appear less likely to transfer their educational advantages onto their children than nondivorced equally educated mothers, perhaps due to a "double-burden" regarding work pressure and child-rearing responsibilities. There is a need for future studies to detail the mechanisms underlying this finding.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Logro , Divorcio , Escolaridad , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Divorcio/psicología , Divorcio/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiología , Padres/educación , Psicología del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230636, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While depression is typically associated with reduced levels of empathy, this association differs depending on how empathy is measured. Given the importance of empathy in the parent-child relationship, we sought to examine whether the associations between depression and dispositional empathy would also extend to empathy towards one's own child. METHODS: Within a non-clinical sample of 150 parents of young children, we examined the associations between self-reported depressive symptoms, dispositional empathic tendencies, and empathy specifically toward their own children, and how these associations might differ based on parent gender. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of cognitive and affective empathy, and higher levels of empathic distress. Over and above the association with dispositional empathy, depressive symptoms were associated with reduced levels of parents' affective empathy toward their own child. The associations between depressive symptoms and both dispositional and own-child specific empathy varied by parent gender. For fathers, depressive symptoms predicted own-child specific affective empathy, over and above dispositional affective empathy, while for mothers, depressive symptoms predicted own-child specific empathic distress, over and above dispositional empathic distress. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings provide further indication that caregivers with elevated depression may engage in patterns of thoughts and behaviors that have implications for their interactions with their children. Parents' experienced empathy toward their own child may be one mechanism by which depression impacts the early caregiving environment, and thus may be an important target for intervention in improving the early caregiving experiences for children at elevated risk due to parental depression. Differences in cognitive and affective empathy found among those with depression may be even more pronounced in the thoughts and feelings towards one's own child, making this an important clinical target.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/psicología , Empatía , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Adulto , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino
17.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(2): 7402180050p1-7402180050p29, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204776

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: It is critical for providers to use evidence-based interventions to address mental health and behavioral barriers to occupational performance during early childhood. OBJECTIVE: To identify evidence-based interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice to improve mental health and positive behavior for children ages 0-5 yr and their families. DATA SOURCES: PsycINFO, Cochrane, ERIC, MEDLINE, and OTseeker databases were searched for publications from 2010 through March 2017. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA COLLECTION: This review was completed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines. Risk of bias was assessed for each article using either A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) or the Cochrane method. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were critically appraised. FINDINGS: Forty-six articles met inclusion criteria and were organized into three themes: touch-based interventions (n = 9), parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT; n = 4), and instruction-based interventions (n = 33). Statistically significant findings and overall risk of bias supported the use of touch-based interventions, PCIT, and parent training. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The evidence indicates that touch-based interventions can improve infant self-regulation (strong), social behavior, and attachment (moderate) and reduce maternal stress, anxiety, and depression (low). Moderate-strength evidence supports PCIT to improve child behavior. The evidence indicates that parent training can improve parent behavior, maternal-infant attachment (strong), and parent mental health (moderate). Teacher training can improve mental health and behavior (moderate). Group-based parent training and sleep training have insufficient support (low). WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Occupational therapy professionals working with children younger than age 5 yr can use the results of this systematic review to guide clinical decision making related to mental health and behavioral outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Terapia Ocupacional , Preescolar , Depresión/psicología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Terapia Ocupacional/normas , Relaciones Padres-Hijo
19.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(1): 48-56, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153231

RESUMEN

Mothers living with HIV are faced with the dilemma of when and how to disclose their HIV-positive status to their young uninfected children. In this study, a South African sample of mothers living with HIV, with young uninfected children (6-10 years) in the city of Tshwane was studied. In the sample of 406 mothers, 11.6% reported that they disclosed their HIV status to their young uninfected children. The research compared 47 mothers who disclosed (29 full disclosure and 18 partial disclosure) and a random sample of 50 mothers who did not disclose to their children, in terms of depression symptoms, parenting stress and coping strategies. The results showed that single and widowed mothers disclosed significantly more to their uninfected young children than mothers who had partners or were married. Mothers in the three disclosure groups did not differ in their experience of depression symptoms, parental distress and coping styles. Mothers who disclosed partially reported less parent-child dysfunctional interaction. Time since disclosure did not influence level of disclosure and was not significantly related to psychological outcome of mothers. Mothers who disclosed reported significantly more emotional and instrumental support as coping strategies than mothers who did not disclose. Mothers thus mostly disclose their status to their children to gain support and family closeness. Mothers who disclosed and had not disclosed did not differ in terms of psychological variables. Some mothers perceived partial disclosure as age-appropriate for young children. It is recommended that HIV-positive mothers receive psychosocial support services to equip them to disclose their health status in an age-appropriate way to their children, as it is documented that maternal disclosure benefits both mother and child.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Autorrevelación , Revelación de la Verdad , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Niño , Depresión , Revelación , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Parejas Sexuales
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