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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1415-1436, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-995168

RESUMEN

Este artigo trata da disputa gerada por profissionais identificados como "psicólogos cristãos" que defendem publicamente seu direito de oferecer auxílio terapêutico com o fim de reverter a homossexualidade. Esta polêmica adquiriu contornos particulares no Brasil, onde o Conselho Federal de Psicologia desde 1999 proíbe qualquer forma de patologização da orientação sexual. Com base na literatura especializada começamos por expor, por um lado, a trajetória da homossexualidade como objeto de discurso da Psicologia e, por outro, no campo evangélico. A seguir, explicamos a conformação da Psicologia como profissão regulamentada no Brasil. Em seguida, com base em fontes documentais de caráter público, examinamos a posição do Conselho Federal de Psicologia e analisamos as disputas jurídicas travadas por psicólogos que defendem seu direito a tratar a homossexualidade como expressão de desordem moral e desvio patológico. O antagonismo que emerge na polêmica em torno da chamada "cura gay" não opõe simplesmente ciência e religião, mas envolve atores públicos capazes de se localizar estrategicamente em um ou outro campo e de fazer uso do direito em seu favor. Sua capacidade de recolocar a homossexualidade como signo de desvio moral e transtorno mental constela a política sexual como questão de peso para a democracia brasileira.(AU)


This article examines the claims of professionals identified as "Christian psychologists" who publicly defend their right to offer therapy to "reverse homosexuality". This debate took shape when "conversion therapy" was banned by the Brazilian Federal Council of Psychology in 1999. Based on specialized literature, we begin by introducing, on the one hand, the itinerary of homosexuality as object of discourse in Psychology, and in the evangelical field, on the other. And we go on explaining the process of constitution of Psychology as a regulated practice in Brazil. Then, based on public records, we examine the stand taken by the Federal Council of Psychology, and analyze the legal claims made by psychologists who defend their right to treat homosexuality as a moral offense and a mental disorder. The antagonism that emerges in the so-called "gay cure" debate does not simply oppose science and religion but involves public actors capable of strategically placing themselves in one field or the other and use the Law in their favor. Their ability to consider homosexuality as a sign of moral deviance and a mental disorder places sexual politics as a significant issue with regards to Brazilian democracy.(AU)


Este artículo aborda la disputa generada por profesionales identificados como "psicólogos cristianos" que defienden públicamente su derecho a ofrecer apoyo terapéutico con el fin de revertir la homosexualidad. Esta polémica adquirió contornos particulares en Brasil, donde el Consejo Federal de Psicología desde 1999 prohíbe cualquier forma de patologización de la orientación sexual. Basándonos en literatura especializada, comenzamos por exponer, por un lado, la trayectoria de la homosexualidad como objeto de discurso de la Psicología y, por otro, en el campo evangélico. A continuación, explicamos la conformación de la Psicología como profesión reglamentada en Brasil. Luego, basándonso en fuentes documentales de carácter público, examinamos la posición del Consejo Federal de Psicología y analizamos las disputas jurídicas entabladas por psicólogos que defienden su derecho a tratar la homosexualidad como expresión de desorden moral y desvío patológico. El antagonismo que emerge en la polémica en torno de la llamada "cura gay" no opone simplemente ciencia y religión, sino que involucra actores públicos capaces de localizarse estratégicamente en uno u otro campo y de hacer uso del derecho a su favor. Su capacidad de re-colocar la homosexualidad como signo de desvío moral y trastorno mental constela la política sexual como cuestión de peso para la democracia brasileña.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Religión y Psicología , Homosexualidad/psicología , Cristianismo/psicología , Sexualidad/psicología , Psicología
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(4): 382-391, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698393

RESUMEN

Despite the intensive globalization and an attractive idea of human cosmopolitism the world is still divided into rival nations and religions, with confronting ethics and many war conflicts across the globe producing and perpetuating huge mental health problems. Radicalism, malignant nationalism, pathological religiosity and violent extremism and terrorism are important issues from the public and global mental health perspective. Public and global mental health research can inform preventive strategies and interventions against malignant nationalism, pathological religiosity and violent extremism. Healthy spirituality, sound religiosity and normal nationalism may contribute significantly to public and global mental health and promotion of empathic civilization. The aim of this paper is to address, stress and support mutual understanding and creative cooperation between religions and nations in promotion of public and global mental health, research, patient care and education.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Salud Mental , Religión y Psicología , Espiritualidad , Humanos
3.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 87(9): 504-510, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519026

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological dementia diagnosis of migrants are limited regarding the testing of cognitive abilities as well as the recording of everyday activities (Activities of Daily Living, ADL) such as linguistic, educational, lifestyle and cultural-religious factors have not been taken into account in psychometric instruments. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to develop a culturally sensitive ADL scale, which is suitable for both German people and Turkish migrants that takes into consideration gender, cultural-religious and lifestyle aspects. A further aim was to determine the quality criteria for the newly proposed ADL scale. METHODS: After the initial phase, including qualitative interviews (N = 15) with cognitively unimpaired German participants and Turkish migrants, a first version of the ADL instrument was developed. This version was then completed by cognitively unimpaired Germans (n = 197) and Turkish participants (n = 53) and the shortened ADL scale was generated based on an item analysis. It consisted of the three subscales 'cognition', 'Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL)' and 'Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)'. For Turkish participants, questions about Islamic prayers were added. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were applied to rule out cognitive impairment and depression. The 'Bayer-ADL' was used to measure the validity of the scale. RESULTS: The everyday life of Germans and Turkish migrants differs in aspects of religious practice and in terms of sociocultural activities, which are taken into account in the CC-ADL. The reliability of the new ADL scale in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) were regarding 'cognition' α = .43 for Germans and α = .80 for Turkish migrants; 'BADL' α = .55 for Germans and α = -.04 for Turkish migrants; 'IADL' α = .91 for Germans and α = .83 for Turkish migrants and α = .73 for Turkish migrants under the 'prayer items'. The correlation of the ADL total score with the Bayer ADL for Germans was ρ = .347 (p < .00) and for the Turkish sample ρ = .520 (p < .01). CONCLUSION: The development of a final version of the CC-ADL scale requires further data from healthy participants and patients (Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia).


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Competencia Cultural , Demencia/diagnóstico , Demencia/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Masculino , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Religión y Psicología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Turquia/etnología
4.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 288-303, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476999

RESUMEN

Is the influence of religiousness on fearful, depressive and somatic symptoms and psychic traumatization overestimated? A representative cross-sectional study Objectives: The aim of this study is to prove if religious faith, spirituality and religious praxis are joined with lower depression, anxiety and physical pain-level and if subjects with traumatic experiences report more spirituality. Methods: In this consecutive study, 2508 adults of a representative sample in Germany were interviewed about religious faith and spirituality in relation to depression, anxiety, physical disorders as well as traumatic experiences. Results: Unlike our hypotheses people who are charged with mental (PHQ-4; Löwe et al. 2010) or physical disorders (GBB_8; Kliem et al. 2017) report more spirituality and more private religious/spiritual praxis than people without mental or physical problems. As expected people with traumatic experiences in their childhood (CTS; Grabe et al. 2012) describe significantly more spirituality than people without these experiences. Conclusions: Other than expected people with more mental or physical disorders report more spirituality and more private religious/spiritual praxis. It is to discuss if spirituality is less a protective factor for mental or physical disorders than disorders activate to look for spirituality and private religious/spiritual praxis.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Síntomas sin Explicación Médica , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Religión y Psicología , Espiritualidad , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología
5.
Psychol Trauma ; 11(6): 559-562, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478722

RESUMEN

This special section in Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy: "Religion and Spirituality in the Context of Disaster," demonstrates the heterogeneity and complexities of religion as a variable of psychological resilience in response to disaster. Research from hurricane, flood, and mass shooting disasters are reported. So too is the development of a new measure of disaster response. The section ends with a review of 51 empirical resilience studies of religion/spirituality and disaster. There are both ethnic and age differences in how salient a factor religion is after disasters. These papers demonstrate that to engage this complexity will require the expertise and effort-as with all cultural competence-to understand the "made meaning" of the lived experience of religion across one's life span. Religion is shown to be a robust objective for public health policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Trauma Psicológico , Religión y Psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Humanos
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 290-293, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488742

RESUMEN

Mass gatherings occur in different situations and settings around the world. A mass gathering can range in size from thousands to millions and in nature from recreation (i.e. concerts) to religious festivals (i.e. the Hajj pilgrimage). Such mass gatherings can result in high rates of morbidity and mortality from communicable and non-communicable diseases, 'accidents' and, over recent years, terror attacks. Disproportionately lower consideration has been given to the mental health and wellbeing of people during mass gatherings compared to that given to physical health during such events. Hajj is a religious pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia that all Muslims are Islamically obliged to fulfil at least once in their lifetime. With up to 3 million pilgrims attending Hajj annually, it has been described as, 'The largest and longest-standing mass gathering event on Earth'. Although Hajj is a spiritual experience that is considered enlightening by many pilgrims, it can also be highly stressful which can have adverse effects on both physical and mental health. Few studies have been published hitherto on the impact that Hajj has on the mental health of pilgrims. This review article provides a narrative summary of studies conducted on Hajj and the relationship that this mass gathering has with the mental health of pilgrims.


Asunto(s)
Islamismo/psicología , Salud Mental , Religión y Psicología , Viaje/psicología , Humanos , Arabia Saudita
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 524-529, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Environment and culture are shown to be an important factor influencing characteristics of psychotic symptoms. Content of hallucinations and delusions is a projection of internal processes on external world. Religion plays a central role to lives of many people, but in schizophrenia religious experience and spirituality is confounded by psychotic symptoms. The aim of this study was to find how content of hallucinations and delusions interact with cultural conditions, that were changing over the decades. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 100 of case histories from 2012 were randomly selected. From the medical record, content of hallucinations and delusion was extracted and categorized. Data from 2012 was compared with previous study by the authors, obtaining perspective of 80 years of history in the one hospital. RESULTS: Religious content of delusions and hallucinations appeared in 26% of patients. Diversity of the religious and spiritual themes in schizophrenia has been gradually decreasing. Many minor religious entities and figures such as "saints" and "angels" disappeared in 2012. Although, occurrence of contact with God and other religious figures was similar as in previous years, number of "visions" abruptly decreased. All of the religious content was culture-specific. CONCLUSIONS: Religious topics express general plasticity over a time, following cultural changes in society.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Cultural , Deluciones/psicología , Alucinaciones/psicología , Religión y Psicología , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Deluciones/complicaciones , Alucinaciones/complicaciones , Humanos
8.
Georgian Med News ; (291): 151-156, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418749

RESUMEN

Anxiety and depression syndrome (STD) are at the forefront of the world mental health priority list. To address this problem, a number of instruments and programs have been developed at both the global and national levels. STD is associated with a socio-political problem and correlates with external or internal instability in the country. In such circumstances, a special place is given to religion. The role of the Church, faith is important in low-or middle-income countries and depends on the authority of the Church as an institution, its activities and activity. At the final stage of the study the recommendations are presented.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Religión y Psicología , Religión , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Trastorno Depresivo , Georgia (República) , Humanos
9.
Public Health ; 175: 111-119, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470237

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Religiousness has been found to protect against depression based on studies conducted in the United States, though there are limited data in the European population. We sought to evaluate the associations between religiousness and six depressive symptoms in Europeans aged 50+ years. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study. METHODS: Our sample consisted of participants (n = 23,864) in wave 1 (2004-05) of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe who were followed up in waves 2-6 (2006-07 to 2015). Analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher frequency of prayer was associated with lower odds of having no hopes for the future (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.99) and of suicidal thoughts (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72-0.97). Attending religious service was associated with lower odds of having no hopes for the future (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.67-0.83), of suicidal thoughts (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59-0.81), difficulty in concentration (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.88), irritability (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.71-0.85), fatigue (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78-0.91), and having no enjoyable activity (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.94). Religious education was associated with lower odds of not having engaged in any enjoyable activities lately (OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.78-0.95). Restful religiousness was associated with lower odds of experiencing suicidal thoughts, of having been irritable recently, and of having experienced fatigue in the last month, compared with crisis religiousness. Crisis religiousness was associated with higher odds of having been irritable recently and of having experienced fatigue in the last month compared with non-religiousness. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that religiousness is associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms, particularly for those who attend religious service.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Religión y Psicología , Anciano , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
10.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(5): 577-587, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259575

RESUMEN

Although the importance of religion in the help-seeking processes of Latinx populations has been discussed (e.g., Moreno & Cardemil, 2013), few studies have considered the effects of religious and cultural factors on Mexican American women's underutilization of professional mental health services and less willingness to seek counseling. To address this gap in the literature, this study focuses on religious cultural values reported by Mexican American college women and how sociocultural factors, such as spiritual and biological etiology beliefs and self-stigma, can shape their willingness to seek counseling, using the cultural influences on mental health (CIMH) theoretical framework (Hwang, Myers, Abe-Kim, & Ting, 2008). Using structural equation modeling, we tested 2 theoretically and empirically derived models of willingness to seek counseling among 276 Mexican American college women at a large Hispanic-serving university in the Southwest. The findings highlighted the direct and indirect ways in which religious cultural values related to willingness to seek counseling and the importance of accounting for etiology beliefs and self-stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Consejo/tendencias , Americanos Mexicanos/psicología , Religión y Psicología , Estigma Social , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Características Culturales , Femenino , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Mental/tendencias , Adulto Joven
11.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 29(1): 26-29, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237254

RESUMEN

Religious institutions tend to display a conservative view towards individuals with alternate sexuality or identity. For managing patients with alternate sexuality, it is imperative that clinicians understand and take into account religious views and its effects on a person's mental health. We review the literature on religion, alternate sexuality, and psychiatry to ascertain their interaction and impact on the mental health of individuals with alternate sexuality or identity. Differing but overlapping perspectives on alternate sexuality persist across world religions. Individuals with conflict between religious and sexual identities are prone to have adverse mental health outcomes; adequate social supports result in more positive mental health outcomes. Education on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex-related topics in mental health professionals leads to better recognition of the issue and provision of respectful, effective mental health care within the context of socio-religious identity and background.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Religión y Psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Sexualidad/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Apoyo Social
12.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(7): 1431-1439, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147865

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the attitude of heterosexual female students towards sperm donation by their partners and towards sperm donation in general. METHODS: The method is an online anonymous survey of 1525 female students. RESULTS: The majority of the women had a positive attitude towards sperm donation in general, but only 37% would support their partner if he would want to donate. The highest barriers to accepting donation by their partner were the fact that he would have one or more children that she would not know (55.8%) and the chance that he would be traced by his donor offspring (58.9%). There was a significant difference between the general attitude towards sperm donation as a fertility treatment and the attitude towards sperm donation by the partner. CONCLUSIONS: Men rightly worry about their partner or future partner when they donated or consider donating sperm. Only about one in three women would support their partner if he would want to donate. The majority of women perceived sperm donation by their partner as an act that also concerns them and believed that they should be heard in this decision. To promote full informed consent, the relational component should be included in counselling donors, not only regarding the present but also regarding the (possible) future partner.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Espermatozoides , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos , Adulto , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Religión y Psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Donantes de Tejidos/psicología , Adulto Joven
13.
Memorandum ; 36: 1-20, jun. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007080

RESUMEN

Esse estudo pretende pensar na psicanálise enquanto uma prática clínica essencialmente compatível com certas características dos fenômenos místicos, os que lhe permite abordá-los clinicamente. Iniciamos o texto apresentando nossa compreensão de mística como um fenômeno de alteridade ontológica, ao contrário de uma produção subjetiva do ser humano. A partir disso, abordamos três características da psicanálise que a tornam relevantes para uma clínica dos fenômenos místicos: seu método apofático, sua prática de desconstrução identitária do "eu" e sua inscrição antropológica entre o universal e o particular. Finalizamos o estudo, dessa maneira, pensando na possível função clínica da psicanálise ao abordar a mística, a partir da ideia de adoecimentos espirituais


This study intends to reflect on psychoanalysis as a clinical practice essentially compatible with certain characteristics of mystical phenomena, wich enables it to clinically approach them. We start the text introducing our understanding of mysticism as a phenomenon of alterity, rather than a subjective production of the human being. Through such idea, we approach three characteristics of apophatic method, its practice of deconstructing the identity of the "I" and its anthropological inscription between the universal and the particular. Thus, we finalize the study, thinking about the possible clinical function of psychoanalysis when approaching the mystic, based on the idea of spiritual illness


Asunto(s)
Psicología Clínica , Psicoanálisis , Religión y Psicología , Misticismo
14.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183854

RESUMEN

Members of the Sikh Khalsa who make their residence in the United States represent a psychologically underserved and understudied population. A lack of awareness of psychological services contributes to this status; however, the challenges inherent in reconciling cultural norms within the United States with the native cultures of immigrant populations should not be neglected. As a consequence of the paucity of ethnically Sikh psychotherapists, the number of therapists with a competent cultural understanding of this population is limited. By sharing the insights and observations culled from dialogue with members of a Sikh community recovering in the wake of a national tragedy, we present our insights and an approach to therapeutic intervention developed to facilitate future psychotherapeutic endeavors both in Sikh communities and other ethnic minorities at large. The model developed in this study identifies demographic issues, therapeutic approach, gender bias, language, confidentiality, peer support, and immigrant status as the most important factors when treating this population. Ultimately, it is our intention to elevate awareness of some of the idiosyncratic complexities involved in treatment and research of this underserved minority group, particularly as our population continues to diversify


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Psicoterapia/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Salud de las Minorías Étnicas , Procesos Psicoterapéuticos , India/etnología , Religión y Psicología , Competencia Cultural , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Terrorismo/psicología , Sobrevivientes/psicología
16.
J Gambl Stud ; 35(3): 849-860, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115747

RESUMEN

This study investigates the association of public, private and intrinsic religiosity and chance beliefs (superstition, illusion of control) with gambling behavior in a longitudinal follow-up study of younger and older adult subjects with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) and an older adult comparison group without PG. One-hundred sixty-three subjects were enrolled including 60 younger adults with PG (≥ 18/< 40 years), 53 older adults with PG (≥ 60 years), and 50 older adults without PG (≥ 60). Subjects were assessed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. The Duke University Religion Index for Religious Assessment and the Drake Beliefs About Chance scales were administered at baseline. Follow-up was a mean (SD) of 2.6 (1.4) years. Older adults with PG scored lower on measures of public and intrinsic aspects of religiosity than older adults without PG, and scored higher on superstition and illusion of control. Older adults with PG also scored higher than younger adults with PG on private and intrinsic religiosity, but not public religiosity. Superstition predicted intrinsic, but not other aspects of religiosity. Importantly, during follow-up, higher levels of public and intrinsic religiosity were protective against problematic (levels 2, 3) gambling; were protective against chronic PG; and were predictive of PG remission status. Lower illusion of control ratings were protective against problematic gambling and chronic PG; lower superstition ratings were predictive of remission. We conclude that higher levels of public and intrinsic religiosity and lower levels of chance beliefs are associated with a more benign PG course.


Asunto(s)
Juego de Azar/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Religión y Psicología , Anciano , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Universidades
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035515

RESUMEN

The present study examined maternal religiosity as an underlying cultural factor in the effect of harsh physical parenting on child behavioral problems. Data was collected via a discipline observational task, religiosity-based vignettes, and a questionnaire in a group of 62 mothers and their children in slum areas in Yemen. Moderation and mediation models were tested, where the role of maternal religiosity as a predictor and a moderator in the association between harsh physical parenting and child behavioral problems was explored. Findings showed no direct association between harsh physical parenting, maternal religiosity, and child behavioral problems. However, maternal religiosity was found to significantly moderate the relationship between harsh physical parenting and child behavioral problems such that the positive association between harsh physical parenting and child behavior problems was stronger when parents were more religious. Implications of the moderating role of maternal religiosity on the association between harsh physical parenting and child behavioral problems are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Madres , Responsabilidad Parental , Problema de Conducta , Religión , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Religión y Psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Yemen
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217719, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145758

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Reviews of violence against children in disaster settings focus on armed conflict. Little is understood about natural disasters which has implications in planning humanitarian response. We examined the magnitude and direction of the association between exposure to natural disasters and physical, emotional, and sexual violence against children, and assessed the quality of the evidence. METHODS: We searched 15 health and social science databases from first record until May 16, 2018. Publications describing all types of quantitative study design were eligible for inclusion. We presented study characteristics and quality in a narrative form and generated pooled estimates using a three-level random effects model. We evaluated Cochrane's Q with p-values below 0.10 and radial plots to assess heterogeneity. Planned subgroup analyses explored differential results by violence form, study design, and analysis method. RESULTS: 11 publications met inclusion criteria. The majority were cross-sectional studies examining physical or sexual violence in the United States. We found no evidence of a consistent association or directional influence between natural disasters and violence against children. Combined categorical violence outcomes had substantial heterogeneity [Q (df = 66) = 252.83, p < 0.001]. Subgroups without evidence of heterogeneity had confidence intervals that included a possible null effect. Our findings were mainly limited by inconsistencies in operational definitions of violence, a lack of representative sampling, and unclear establishment of temporal order between natural disaster exposure and violence outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, we cannot confidently conclude that natural disasters increase the level or severity of violence against children above non-disaster settings, however heterogeneity and study quality hamper our ability to draw firm conclusions. More nuanced and rigorous research is needed to inform practice and policy as natural disasters increasingly affect human populations.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Emociones , Desastres Naturales , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Altruismo , Niño , Humanos , Religión y Psicología
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216352, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091294

RESUMEN

We present a study of the dimensionality and factorial invariance of religiosity for 26 countries with a Christian heritage, based on the 1998 and 2008 rounds of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) Religion survey, using both exploratory and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. The results of the exploratory factor analysis showed that three factors, common to Christian and religiously unaffiliated respondents, could be extracted from our initially selected items and suggested the testing of four different three-factor models using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. For the model with the best fit and measurement invariance properties, we labeled the three resulting factors as "Beliefs in afterlife and miracles", "Belief and importance of God" and "Religious involvement." The first factor is measured by four items related to the Supernatural Beliefs Scale (SBS-6); the second by three items related to belief in God and God's perceived roles as a supernatural agent; and the third one by three items with the same structure found in previous cross-cultural analyses of religiosity using the European Values Survey (ESS) and also by belief in God. Unexpectedly, we found that one item, belief in God, cross-loaded on to the second and third factors. We discussed possible interpretations for this finding, together with the potential limitations of the ISSP Religion questionnaire for revealing the structure of religiosity. Our tests of measurement invariance across gender, age, educational degree and religious (un)affiliation led to acceptance of the hypotheses of metric- and scalar-invariance for these groupings (units of analysis). However, in the measurement invariance tests across the countries, the criteria for metric invariance were met for twenty-three countries only, and partial scalar invariance was accepted for fourteen countries only. The present work shows that the exploration of large multinational and cross-cultural datasets for studying the dimensionality and invariance of social constructs (in our case, religiosity) yields useful results for cross-cultural comparisons, but is also limited by the structure of these datasets and the way specific items are coded.


Asunto(s)
Cristianismo , Religión y Psicología , Religión , Comparación Transcultural , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216643, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071152

RESUMEN

So far, the large and expanding body of research on meditation has mostly focussed on the putative benefits of meditation on health and well-being. However, a growing number of reports indicate that psychologically unpleasant experiences can occur in the context of meditation practice. Very little is known about the prevalence and potential causes of these experiences. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of particularly unpleasant meditation-related experiences in a large international sample of regular meditators, and to explore the association of these experiences with demographic characteristics, meditation practice, repetitive negative thinking, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Using a cross-sectional online survey, 1,232 regular meditators with at least two months of meditation experience (mean age = 44.8 years ± 13.8, 53.6% female) responded to one question about particularly unpleasant meditation-related experiences. A total of 315 participants (25.6%, 95% CI: 23.1 to 28.0) reported having had particularly unpleasant meditation-related experiences, which they thought may have been caused by their meditation practice. Logistic regression models indicated that unpleasant meditation-related experiences were less likely to occur in female participants and religious participants. Participants with higher levels of repetitive negative thinking, those who only engaged in deconstructive types of meditation (e.g., vipassana/insight meditation), and those who had attended a meditation retreat at any point in their life were more likely to report unpleasant meditation-related experiences. The high prevalence of particularly unpleasant meditation-related experiences reported here points to the importance of expanding the scientific conception of meditation beyond that of a (mental) health-promoting and self-regulating technique. We propose that understanding when these experiences are constitutive elements of meditative practice rather than merely negative effects could advance the field and, to that end, we conclude with an overview of methodological and conceptual considerations that could be used to inform future research.


Asunto(s)
Meditación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Empatía , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Meditación/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Plena , Pesimismo/psicología , Prevalencia , Religión , Religión y Psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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