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1.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 21, 2021 02 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665143

RESUMEN

This Viewpoint calls for a greater understanding of the role that water plays in the transmission of anti-microbial resistance and covid-19 in protracted urban armed conflict, in order to develop a 'pathogen-safe' practice. It argues that dealing with the twin threats is difficult enough in the best of circumstances, and is so little understood in war zones that surgeons and water engineers now question if their practice does more harm than good. Experience suggests that the known transmission routes are complicated by a great number of factors, including the entry of heavy metals through bullets in patients' wounds, hospital over-crowding, mutation in treated water or wastewater, and other threats which endure long after the bombing has stopped. The skeleton research agenda proposes greater sewage surveillance, testing of phages and monitoring of treatment designed to dispel or substantiate these assertions.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Ingeniería Sanitaria , /epidemiología , /transmisión , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Humanos , Fenómenos Microbiológicos , Ingeniería Sanitaria/métodos , Ingeniería Sanitaria/normas
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1015-1022, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770472

RESUMEN

The ongoing global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease has once again demonstrated the role of the family Coronaviridae in causing human disease outbreaks. Because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first detected in December 2019, information on its tropism, host range, and clinical manifestations in animals is limited. Given the limited information, data from other coronaviruses might be useful for informing scientific inquiry, risk assessment, and decision-making. We reviewed endemic and emerging infections of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in wildlife, livestock, and companion animals and provide information on the receptor use, known hosts, and clinical signs associated with each host for 15 coronaviruses detected in humans and animals. This information can be used to guide implementation of a One Health approach that involves human health, animal health, environmental, and other relevant partners in developing strategies for preparedness, response, and control to current and future coronavirus disease threats.


Asunto(s)
Coronaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Zoonosis/virología , Alphacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Pandemias , Zoonosis/epidemiología
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1201-1205, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754992
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMEN

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , /veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Visón/virología , Pandemias/veterinaria , /aislamiento & purificación , /transmisión , Animales , /virología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Granjas , Genes Virales , Humanos , Incidencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salud Pública , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , /virología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
8.
Pathog Dis ; 79(1)2021 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537740

RESUMEN

A vast proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) individuals remain asymptomatic and can shed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) type 2 virus to transmit the infection, which also explains the exponential increase in the number of COVID-19 cases globally. Furthermore, the rate of recovery from clinical COVID-19 in certain pockets of the globe is surprisingly high. Based on published reports and available literature, here, we speculated a few immunovirological mechanisms as to why a vast majority of individuals remain asymptomatic similar to exotic animal (bats and pangolins) reservoirs that remain refractile to disease development despite carrying a huge load of diverse insidious viral species, and whether such evolutionary advantage would unveil therapeutic strategies against COVID-19 infection in humans. Understanding the unique mechanisms that exotic animal species employ to achieve viral control, as well as inflammatory regulation, appears to hold key clues to the development of therapeutic versatility against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Animales Exóticos/virología , /virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Inmunidad Innata/inmunología , /inmunología , Animales , Infecciones Asintomáticas , Quirópteros/virología , Humanos , /virología
9.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562073

RESUMEN

The contemporary surge in metagenomic sequencing has transformed knowledge of viral diversity in wildlife. However, evaluating which newly discovered viruses pose sufficient risk of infecting humans to merit detailed laboratory characterization and surveillance remains largely speculative. Machine learning algorithms have been developed to address this imbalance by ranking the relative likelihood of human infection based on viral genome sequences, but are not yet routinely applied to viruses at the time of their discovery. Here, we characterized viral genomes detected through metagenomic sequencing of feces and saliva from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and used these data as a case study in evaluating zoonotic potential using molecular sequencing data. Of 58 detected viral families, including 17 which infect mammals, the only known zoonosis detected was rabies virus; however, additional genomes were detected from the families Hepeviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, Astroviridae and Picornaviridae, all of which contain human-infecting species. In phylogenetic analyses, novel vampire bat viruses most frequently grouped with other bat viruses that are not currently known to infect humans. In agreement, machine learning models built from only phylogenetic information ranked all novel viruses similarly, yielding little insight into zoonotic potential. In contrast, genome composition-based machine learning models estimated different levels of zoonotic potential, even for closely related viruses, categorizing one out of four detected hepeviruses and two out of three picornaviruses as having high priority for further research. We highlight the value of evaluating zoonotic potential beyond ad hoc consideration of phylogeny and provide surveillance recommendations for novel viruses in a wildlife host which has frequent contact with humans and domestic animals.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Heces/virología , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Metagenómica , Filogenia , Virus de la Rabia/clasificación , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Saliva/virología , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
10.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525437

RESUMEN

The establishment of selective colonies of potential vertebrate hosts for viruses would provide experimental models for the understanding of pathogen-host interactions. This paper briefly surveys the reasons to conduct such studies and how the results might provide information that could be applied to disease prevention activities.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Animales , /transmisión , Quirópteros/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , /genética , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/virología
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 188: 105281, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530012

RESUMEN

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose a framework for determining where surveillance might begin initially to maximize a detection in each host species at their interface. We illustrate the utility of the framework using data from the United States. We then discuss variables to consider in refining when and how to conduct surveillance. Recent advances in accounting for opportunistic sampling designs and in translating serology samples into infection times provide promising directions for extracting spatio-temporal estimates of disease risk from typical surveillance data. Such robust estimates of population-level disease risk allow surveillance plans to be updated in space and time based on new information (adaptive surveillance) thus optimizing allocation of surveillance resources to maximize the quality of risk assessment insight.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Humanos , Sus scrofa/virología , Porcinos/virología , Zoonosis/transmisión
12.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546342

RESUMEN

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) are emerging infectious agents that may affect wild animals. MRVs are usually associated with asymptomatic or mild respiratory and enteric infections. However, severe clinical manifestations have been occasionally reported in human and animal hosts. An insight into their circulation is essential to minimize the risk of diffusion to farmed animals and possibly to humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of likely zoonotic MRVs in wild ungulates. Liver samples were collected from wild boar, red deer, roe deer, and chamois. Samples originated from two areas (Sondrio and Parma provinces) in Northern Italy with different environmental characteristics. MRV detection was carried out by PCR; confirmation by sequencing and typing for MRV type 3, which has been frequently associated with disease in pigs, were carried out for positive samples. MRV prevalence was as high as 45.3% in wild boars and 40.6% in red deer in the Sondrio area, with lower prevalence in the Parma area (15.4% in wild boars). Our findings shed light on MRV occurrence and distribution in some wild species and posed the issue of their possible role as reservoir.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Artiodáctilos/virología , Orthoreovirus de los Mamíferos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Animales Salvajes/clasificación , Artiodáctilos/clasificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Italia/epidemiología , Hígado/virología , Orthoreovirus de los Mamíferos/genética , Prevalencia , ARN Viral/genética , Serogrupo
13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 160-164, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539765

RESUMEN

The emergence of alternate variants of SARS-CoV-2 due to ongoing adaptations in humans and following human-to-animal transmission has raised concern over the efficacy of vaccines against new variants. We describe human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponosis) of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for faunal virus persistence and vaccine-mediated immunity.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , /transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Humanos , Inmunidad , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
15.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 238-241, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635981

RESUMEN

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the role of bats in zoonotic spillover have renewed interest in the flight-as-fever hypothesis, which posits that high body temperatures experienced by bats during flight contribute to their high viral tolerance. We argue that flight-as-fever is unlikely to explain why bats harbor more viruses than other mammals on the basis of two lines of reasoning. First, flight temperatures reported in the literature overestimate true flight temperatures because of methodologic limitations. Second, body temperatures in bats are only high relative to humans, and not relative to many other mammals. We provide examples of mammals from diverse habitats to show that temperatures in excess of 40 C during activity are quite common in species with lower viral diversity than bats. We caution scientists against stating the flight-as-fever hypothesis as unquestioned truth, as has repeatedly occurred in the popular media in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Temperatura Corporal/fisiología , Quirópteros/fisiología , Quirópteros/virología , /fisiología , Animales , Portador Sano/veterinaria , Portador Sano/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Vuelo Animal/fisiología , Zoonosis
16.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(1): 101-113, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394313

RESUMEN

Modern technologies enable the exchange of information about the expansion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the continually increasing number of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases almost in real time. The gravity of a current epidemiological situation is represented by the mortality rates, which are scrupulously updated daily. Performing autopsies on patients with either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 is of high importance since these might not only improve clinical management but also reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection expansion. The following paper aimed to present the most crucial aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection from the point of view of forensic experts and pathologists, recommendations and safety precautions regarding autopsies, autopsy room requirements, possible techniques, examinations used for effective viral detection, recommendations regarding burials, and gross and microscopic pathological findings of the deceased who died due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autopsies remain the gold standard for determining the cause of death. Therefore, it would be beneficial to perform autopsies on patients with both suspected and confirmed COVID-19, especially those with coexisting comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia/normas , Patologia Forense/normas , Control de Infecciones/normas , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Filtros de Aire , Entierro , Cadáver , Vestuario , Cremación , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Embalsamiento , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/patología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Equipo de Protección Personal , Radiografía , /patogenicidad , Manejo de Especímenes , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
17.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435494

RESUMEN

Understanding the ecology of rodent-borne hantaviruses is critical to assessing the risk of spillover to humans. Longitudinal surveys have suggested that hantaviral prevalence in a given host population is tightly linked to rodent ecology and correlates with changes in the species composition of a rodent community over time and/or habitat composition. We tested two hypotheses to identify whether resource addition and/or habitat composition may affect hantavirus prevalence among two sympatric reservoir hosts in a neotropical forest: (i) increased food resources will alter the rodent community and thus hantaviral prevalence; and (ii) host abundance and viral seroprevalence will be associated with habitat composition. We established a baseline of rodent-virus prevalence in three grid pairs of distinct habitat compositions and subjected one grid of each pair to resource augmentation. Increased rodent species diversity was observed on grids where food was added versus untreated control grids during the first post-treatment sampling session. Resource augmentation changed species community composition, yet it did not affect the prevalence of hantavirus in the host population over time, nor was there evidence of a dilution effect. Secondly, we show that the prevalence of the virus in the respective reservoir hosts was associated with habitat composition at two spatial levels, independent of resource addition, supporting previous findings that habitat composition is a primary driver of the prevalence of hantaviruses in the neotropics.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Ecosistema , Bosques , Infecciones por Hantavirus/veterinaria , Hantavirus/fisiología , Roedores/virología , Clima Tropical , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Florida , Humanos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(4): 1407-1419, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512572

RESUMEN

Bats as flying mammals are potent vectors and natural reservoir hosts for many infectious viruses, bacteria, and fungi, also detected in their excreta such as guano. Accelerated deforestation, urbanization, and anthropization hastily lead to overpopulation of the bats in urban areas allowing easy interaction with other animals, expansion, and emergence of new zoonotic disease outbreaks potentially harmful to humans. Therefore, getting new insights in the microbiome of bat guano from different places represents an imperative for the future. Furthermore, the use of novel high-throughput sequencing technologies allows better insight in guano microbiome and potentially indicated that some species could be typical guano-dwelling members. Bats are well known as a natural reservoir of many zoonotic viruses such as Ebola, Nipah, Marburg, lyssaviruses, rabies, henipaviruses, and many coronaviruses which caused a high number of outbreaks including ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, many bacterial and fungal pathogens were identified as common guano residents. Thus, the presence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria as environmental reservoirs of extended spectrum ß-lactamases and carbapenemase-producing strains has been confirmed. Bat guano is the most suitable substrate for fungal reproduction and dissemination, including pathogenic yeasts and keratinophilic and dimorphic human pathogenic fungi known as notorious causative agents of severe endemic mycoses like histoplasmosis and fatal cryptococcosis, especially deadly in immunocompromised individuals. This review provides an overview of bat guano microbiota diversity and the significance of autochthonous and pathogenic taxa for humans and the environment, highlighting better understanding in preventing emerging diseases. KEY POINTS: Bat guano as reservoir and source for spreading of autochthonous and pathogenic microbiota Bat guano vs. novel zoonotic disease outbreaks Destruction of bat natural habitats urgently demands increased human awareness.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/microbiología , Heces/química , Microbiota , Animales , Biodiversidad , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/prevención & control , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Humanos
19.
J Biol Dyn ; 15(1): 86-108, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402047

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global pandemic at present. Although the human-to-human transmission route for this disease has been well established, its transmission mechanism is not fully understood. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for COVID-19 which incorporates multiple transmission pathways and which employs time-dependent transmission rates reflecting the impact of disease prevalence and outbreak control. Applying this model to a retrospective study based on publicly reported data in China, we argue that the environmental reservoirs play an important role in the transmission and spread of the coronavirus. This argument is supported by our data fitting and numerical simulation results for the city of Wuhan, for the provinces of Hubei and Guangdong, and for the entire country of China.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Ambiente , Modelos Biológicos , /fisiología , /epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Simulación por Computador , Humanos
20.
Nature ; 589(7842): 363-370, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473223

RESUMEN

There have been several major outbreaks of emerging viral diseases, including Hendra, Nipah, Marburg and Ebola virus diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-as well as the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Notably, all of these outbreaks have been linked to suspected zoonotic transmission of bat-borne viruses. Bats-the only flying mammal-display several additional features that are unique among mammals, such as a long lifespan relative to body size, a low rate of tumorigenesis and an exceptional ability to host viruses without presenting clinical disease. Here we discuss the mechanisms that underpin the host defence system and immune tolerance of bats, and their ramifications for human health and disease. Recent studies suggest that 64 million years of adaptive evolution have shaped the host defence system of bats to balance defence and tolerance, which has resulted in a unique ability to act as an ideal reservoir host for viruses. Lessons from the effective host defence of bats would help us to better understand viral evolution and to better predict, prevent and control future viral spillovers. Studying the mechanisms of immune tolerance in bats could lead to new approaches to improving human health. We strongly believe that it is time to focus on bats in research for the benefit of both bats and humankind.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/inmunología , Quirópteros/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , /transmisión , Animales , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Evolución Molecular , Humanos , Tolerancia Inmunológica , /virología
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