Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.259
Filtrar
1.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 199, 2020 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303256

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. Human disease caused by B. miyamotoi was first described in Russia and later in the USA and Japan. Additionally, five cases of meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients and one case in an apparently immunocompetent patient were described. METHODS: We investigated the presence of B. miyamotoi in I. ricinus nymphs and in patients suspected of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Alsace (France), an endemic area for I. ricinus ticks and Lyme borreliosis, using direct (PCR) and indirect diagnosis (glycerophosphoryldiester-phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) serology). RESULTS: Borrelia miyamotoi was found in 2.2% of 4354 ticks collected between 2013 and 2016. None of the 575 blood samples, collected from the patients suspected of HGA, was found positive for B. miyamotoi by PCR. Acute and late sera from 138 of these 575 patients were available. These paired sera were tested for IgM and IgG antibodies against the B. miyamotoi GlpQ antigen. A total of 14 out of 138 patients had at least one positive parameter (i.e. anti-GlpQ IgG and/or IgM). One patient seroconverted for IgG, and three had isolated IgM in the acute serum. These three patients were treated with doxycycline which could have prevented seroconversion. After reviewing clinical data and other biological tests performed, co-exposure among different microorganisms vectored by ticks or serological cross-reactivity could not be ruled out in these different cases. One patient had persistent IgG, which strongly suggests previous exposure to B. miyamotoi. CONCLUSIONS: Humans can be exposed to B. miyamotoi through tick bites in Alsace. We present serological data for possible B. miyamotoi exposure or infection of patients with fever after tick bite. Future studies should determine the incidence, clinical course and burden of this emerging tick-borne disease in other parts of Western Europe.


Asunto(s)
Borrelia/aislamiento & purificación , Ixodes/microbiología , Enfermedad de Lyme/epidemiología , Animales , Vectores Arácnidos/microbiología , ADN Bacteriano , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Fiebre/microbiología , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Ninfa/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Pruebas Serológicas , Mordeduras de Garrapatas/microbiología , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/epidemiología
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(3): 379-386, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101158

RESUMEN

Introduction. Despite many ongoing surveillance projects and the recent focus on the veterinary and clinical 'One Health' aspects of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), evidence of the extent of any public health risk posed by animal reservoirs with respect to the transmission of resistant strains of Escherichia coli to humans remains varied and contentious. In the UK, the main zoonotic reservoir for the foodborne pathogen Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is cattle and sheep. In this study, we adopt an alternative approach to the risk assessment of transmission of AMR E. coli from animals to humans, involving monitoring AMR in isolates of STEC, an established zoonotic, foodborne pathogen, from human cases of gastrointestinal disease.Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the genome-derived AMR profiles for STEC from human cases to assess the risk of transmission of multidrug-resistant STEC from ruminants to humans.Methodology. STEC belonging to 10 different clonal complexes (CCs) (n=457) isolated from human faecal specimens were sequenced and genome-derived AMR profiles were determined. Phenotypic susceptibility testing was undertaken on all isolates (n=100) predicted to be resistant to at least one class of antimicrobial.Results. Of the 457 isolates, 332 (72.7 %) lacked identifiable resistance genes and were predicted to be fully susceptible to 11 classes of antimicrobials; 125/332 (27.3 %) carried 1 or more resistance genes, of which 83/125 (66.4 %) were resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotic. The percentage of isolates harbouring AMR determinants varied between CCs, from 4% in CC25 to 100% in CC504. Forty-six different AMR genes were detected, which conferred resistance to eight different antibiotic classes. Resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracyclines and sulphonamides was most commonly detected. Four isolates were identified as extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producers. An overall concordance of 97.7 % (n=1075/1100) was demonstrated between the phenotypic and genotypic methods.Conclusion. This analysis provided an indirect assessment of the risk of transmission of AMR gastrointestinal pathogens from animals to humans, and revealed a subset of human isolates of the zoonotic pathogen STEC were resistant to the antimicrobials used in animal husbandry. However, this proportion has not increased over the last three decades, and thismay provide evidence that guidancepromoting responsible practice has been effective.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/genética , Animales , Bovinos , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/transmisión , Heces/microbiología , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Única , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Ovinos , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228956, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040533

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a foodborne pathogen and the etiologic agent of listeriosis, which can be disseminated within the agricultural environment particularly soil and irrigation water, contaminate farm produce and cause high mortality and morbidity among vulnerable individuals. This study assessed the incidence and antibiogram of L. monocytogenes recovered from irrigation water and agricultural soil samples collected from Chris Hani and Amathole District Municipalities (DMs) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The distribution of presumptive L. monocytogenes in irrigation water and agricultural soil samples was done using the standard plate count method, while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the isolates. The confirmed isolates were screened for 9 key virulence markers using PCR after which they were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing against 18 antibiotics used for the alleviation of listeriosis using the disk diffusion method. Relevant putative antibiotic resistance genes in the resistant variants were screened for using PCR. The distribution of L. monocytogenes in irrigation water samples was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) and ranged from log10 1.00 CFU/100ml to log10 3.75 CFU/100 ml. In agricultural soil samples, the distribution ranged significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from log10 2.10 CFU/g to log10 3.51 CFU/g. Of the 117 presumptive L. monocytogenes recovered from irrigation water samples and 183 presumptive L. monocytogenes isolated from agricultural soil samples, 8 (6.8%) and 12 (6.6%) isolates were confirmed respectively. Nine virulence genes including inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, actA, hlyA, plcA, plcB, and iap were detected in all the isolates. The proportion of the isolates exhibiting phenotypic resistance against the test antimicrobials followed the order: tetracycline (90%), doxycycline (85%), cefotaxime (80%), penicillin (80%), chloramphenicol (70%), linezolid (65%), erythromycin (60%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (55%). The isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance against 3 or more antibiotics and the MAR indices of all the multidrug isolates were ≥0.2. The isolates harboured antibiotic resistance genes including tetA, tetB, tetC, sulI, sulII, aadA, aac(3)-IIa and ESBLs including blaTEM, blaCTX-M group 9, blaVEB as well as AmpC. None of the isolates harboured the carbapenemases. We conclude that irrigation water and agricultural soil collected from Chris Hani and Amathole District Municipalities (DMs) in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa are reservoirs and potential transmission routes of multidrug-resistant L. monocytogenes to the food web and consequently threat to public health.


Asunto(s)
Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Suelo , Microbiología del Agua , Riego Agrícola , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Granjas , Microbiología de Alimentos , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efectos de los fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/transmisión , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Sudáfrica , Virulencia/genética
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900233

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TTBP) are a major constraint to livestock production in Pakistan; despite a high prevalence of TTBPs, knowledge on the capacity of Pakistani ticks to carry pathogens and endosymbionts is limited. Furthermore, mixed infections with multiple microorganisms further complicate and limit the detection potential of traditional diagnostic methods. The present study investigated the tick-borne microorganisms in bovine ticks in Pakistan, employing a high-throughput microfluidic real-time PCR based technique. METHODS: Ticks were collected from clinically healthy cattle (n = 116) and water buffaloes (n = 88) from 30 villages across six districts located in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Pakistan from September to November 2017. The microfluidic real-time PCR was used to test the genomic DNA of individual ticks for the presence of 27 bacterial and eight parasitic microorganisms. Phylogenetic methods were used to assess the genetic relationship of DNA sequences determined herein. RESULTS: PCR detected DNA of at least one microorganism in each of 221 ticks tested (94.4%, 221/234). DNA-based detection inferred that single pathogens/endosymbionts were the most common (43.4%, 96/221) followed by double (38.9%, 86/221), triple (14.5%, 32/221), quadruple (2.3%, 5/221) and quintuple (0.9%, 2/221) mixed infections. Piroplasms (Babesia/Theileria spp.) were the most prevalent (31.6%, 74/234), followed by Ehrlichia spp. (20%, 47/234) and Anaplasma marginale (7.7%, 18/234). Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. centrale, Babesia ovis, Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., R. massiliae, Bartonella spp. and Hepatozoon spp. were also detected. Endosymbionts such as Francisella-like (91.5%, 214/234) and Coxiella-like (1.3%, 3/234) organisms were also detected in ticks. The highest diversity of microorganisms was detected in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks (test-positive for 14/14 microorganisms), followed by Rhipicephalus microplus (4/14), Hy. hussaini (3/14) and Rh. annulatus (2/14). Ticks collected from cattle carried significantly more frequently piroplasms (41.2%, 54/131; P < 0.05) than those from buffaloes (19.4%, 20/103). However, the overall prevalence of microorganisms did not vary significantly among ticks from the two host species as well as across different AEZs. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a wide range of tick-borne microorganisms in bovine ticks using a high-throughput diagnostic method from different AEZs in Pakistan. These findings will aid in establishing the distribution patterns and the control of tick-borne pathogens of bovines in Pakistan.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos/parasitología , Bovinos/parasitología , Parásitos/aislamiento & purificación , Garrapatas/microbiología , Garrapatas/parasitología , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/parasitología , Pakistán , Parásitos/clasificación , Parásitos/genética , Filogenia , Garrapatas/clasificación
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007940, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961893

RESUMEN

Bats can harbor zoonotic pathogens, but their status as reservoir hosts for Leptospira bacteria is unclear. During 2015-2017, kidneys from 47 of 173 bats captured in Grenada, West Indies, tested PCR-positive for Leptospira. Sequence analysis of the Leptospira rpoB gene from 31 of the positive samples showed 87-91% similarity to known Leptospira species. Pairwise and phylogenetic analysis of sequences indicate that bats from Grenada harbor as many as eight undescribed Leptospira genotypes that are most similar to known pathogenic Leptospira, including known zoonotic serovars. Warthin-Starry staining revealed leptospiral organisms colonizing the renal tubules in 70% of the PCR-positive bats examined. Mild inflammatory lesions in liver and kidney observed in some bats were not significantly correlated with renal Leptospira PCR-positivity. Our findings suggest that Grenada bats are asymptomatically infected with novel and diverse Leptospira genotypes phylogenetically related to known pathogenic strains, supporting the hypothesis that bats may be reservoirs for zoonotic Leptospira.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Leptospira/clasificación , Leptospirosis/veterinaria , Animales , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Grenada , Riñón/microbiología , Riñón/patología , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/aislamiento & purificación , Leptospirosis/microbiología , Leptospirosis/patología , Hígado/microbiología , Hígado/patología , Filogenia
6.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 51-57, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Athletic training rooms have a high prevalence of bacteria, including multidrug-resistant organisms, increasing the risk for both local and systematic infections in athletes. There are limited data outlining formal protocols or standardized programs to reduce bacterial and viral burden in training rooms as a means of decreasing infection rate at the collegiate and high school levels. HYPOTHESIS: Adaptation of a hygiene protocol would lead to a reduction in bacterial and viral pathogen counts in athletic training rooms. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Two high school and 2 collegiate athletic training rooms were studied over the course of the 2017-2018 academic year. A 3-phase protocol, including introduction of disinfectant products followed by student-athlete and athletic trainer education, was implemented at the 4 schools. Multiple surfaces in the athletic training rooms were swabbed at 4 time points throughout the investigation. Bacterial and viral burden from swabs were analyzed for overall bacterial aerobic plate count (APC), bacterial adenosine triphosphate activity, influenza viral load, and multidrug-resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). RESULTS: Overall bacterial load, as measured by APC, was reduced by 94.7% (95% CI, 72.6-99.0; P = 0.003) over the course of the investigation after protocol implementation. MRSA and VRE were found on 24% of surfaces prior to intervention and were reduced to 0% by the end of the study. Influenza was initially detected on 25% of surfaces, with no detection after intervention. No cases of athletic training room-acquired infections were reported during the study period. CONCLUSION: A uniform infection control protocol was effective in reducing bacterial and viral burden, including multidrug-resistant organisms, when implemented in the athletic training rooms of 2 high schools and 2 colleges. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A standardized infection control protocol can be utilized in athletic training rooms to reduce bacterial and viral burden.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/prevención & control , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Instituciones Académicas , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/transmisión , Desinfectantes/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/prevención & control , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/transmisión , Desinfección de las Manos , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Orthomyxoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/transmisión , Enterococos Resistentes a la Vancomicina/aislamiento & purificación
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 49-58, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710964

RESUMEN

Bats are a poorly understood reservoir of pathogenic and multi-drug resistant microorganisms; therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the presence of drug resistance among E. coli isolated from the species of bats occurring naturally in Poland. The strategy of isolation and identification of resistant strains from pooled and single-animal samples was based on selective media with cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline, the use of the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method for genomic differentiation of isolates, and the classical methods of evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic resistance. Of the 78 isolated isolates confirmed as E. coli, there were 38 genetically distinct strains resistant at least to one antimicrobial. 71% of these strains met the multi-drug resistance criterion. Moreover, two different multidrug resistant strains were isolated from three single samples. The highest resistance was observed in the case of ampicillin (66%), kanamycin (84%), sulfamethoxazole/trimetoprim (61%/55% respectively), and streptomycin (50%), which in most cases was confirmed by the presence of an adequate gene. Two isolates from single hosts produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1). With the exception of tetracycline resistance, which was dominant among isolates from single animals, no significant differences in the resistance of the strains from both groups of samples were observed. Bats should not be neglected as another environmental reservoir and as an unpredictable source of potential pathogenic and multidrug resistant bacteria and should be extensively studied to predict the direction of the development and range of spreading resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Quirópteros/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Polonia
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 293-298, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869595

RESUMEN

Feral pigeons have increased in urban settings worldwide becoming a potential health risk for humans and other animals. Control and surveillance programs are essential to prevent the possible transmission of zoonotic pathogens carried by pigeons. A surveillance program was carried out in Madrid City (Spain) during 2005-2014 to determine the role of urban pigeons as carriers of zoonotic agents comparing these results with studies performed elsewhere in the last fifteen years. A total of 1372 pigeons were randomly captured and tested for detection of Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic heterogeneity of Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates were determined. During the first phase (August 2005-July 2010), 428 animals were analyzed individually, while in the second period (August 2010-December 2014), 944 pigeons were analyzed in pools (n = 2-3 in 2010 and n = 5-6 in 2013 and 2014). The most prevalent pathogen during the first phase was Campylobacter spp., (6.57%, 95% confidence interval 3.05-12.10%) followed by Salmonella spp. (4.41%, 95% CI: 2.30-7.58%) and C. psittaci (2.56%, 95% CI: 0.70-6.53%)]. The PCR techniques, used during the 2010-2014 phase of the study, confirmed the presence of Campylobacter spp. (prevalence of 0-14.83%) and C. psittaci (0-12,94%) among pigeons of Madrid. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing suggested low levels of resistance. Presence of zoonotic agents in feral pigeons highlights the importance of surveillance programs on this species, although the relative low prevalence found suggests a limited risk to Public and Animal Health in Madrid.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/transmisión , Columbidae/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Infecciones Bacterianas/transmisión , Aves , Campylobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Chlamydophila psittaci/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Control de Plagas , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , España/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/transmisión
9.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103352, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703865

RESUMEN

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia (E.) coli (STEC) pathogens are responsible for the outbreaks of serious diseases in humans, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), bloody diarrhoea (BD) and diarrhoea (D), and they pose a significant public health concern. Wild ruminants are an important environmental reservoir of foodborne pathogens that can cause serious illnesses in humans and contaminate fresh products. There is a general scarcity of published data about wildlife as a reservoir of foodborne pathogens in Poland, which is why the potential epidemiological risk associated with red deer, roe deer and fallow deer as reservoirs of STEC/AE-STEC strains was evaluated in this study. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of STEC strains in red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) populations in north-eastern Poland, and to evaluate the potential health risk associated with wild ruminants carrying STEC/AE-STEC strains. We examined 252 rectal swabs obtained from 134 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 97 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 21 fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-eastern Poland. The samples were enriched in modified buffered peptone water. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to determine the virulence profile of stx1, stx2 and eae or aggR genes, to identify the subtypes of stx1 and stx2 genes, and to perform O and H serotyping. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were detected in the rectal swabs collected from 1/134 roe deer (0.75%) and 4/97 red deer (4.1%), and they were not detected in fallow deer (Dama dama). The remaining E. coli serogroups, namely O26, O103, O111 and O145 that belong to the "top five" non-O157 serogroups, were detected in 15/134 roe deer (11.19%), 18/97 red deer (18.56%) and 2/21 fallow deer (9.52%). STEC/AE-STEC strains were detected in 33 roe deer isolates (24.63%), 21 red deer isolates (21.65%) and 2 fallow deer isolates (9.52%). According to the most recent FAO/WHO report, stx2a and eae genes are the primary virulence traits associated with HUS, and these genes were identified in one roe deer isolate and one red deer isolate. Stx2 was the predominant stx gene, and it was detected in 78.79% of roe deer and in 71.43% of red deer isolates. The results of this study confirmed that red deer and roe deer in north-eastern Poland are carriers of STEC/AE-STEC strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. This is the first report documenting the virulence of STEC/AE-STEC strains from wild ruminants in Poland.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Animales Salvajes/clasificación , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Ciervos/clasificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/clasificación , Polonia , Toxina Shiga/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/clasificación , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/metabolismo , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Factores de Virulencia/metabolismo
10.
Mycopathologia ; 184(6): 709-720, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811603

RESUMEN

Talaromycosis (penicilliosis) is a major fungal disease endemic across a narrow band of tropical countries of South and Southeast Asia. The etiologic agent is a thermally dimorphic fungus Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei, which was first isolated from a bamboo rat in Vietnam in 1956, but no formal description was published. In 1959, Professor Gabriel Segretain formally described it as a novel species Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei, and the human pathogenic potential of the fungus in Mycopathologia. The first natural human case of talaromycosis (penicillosis) was reported in 1973 and involved an American minister with Hodgkin's disease who lived in Southeast Asia. Sixty years after the discovery of the pathogen, talaromycosis caused by T. marneffei is recognized as an important human disease with the potential to cause high mortality in the absence of proper diagnosis and prompt treatment. Talaromycosis remains a significant infectious complication in HIV/AIDS patients and in patients with other immune defects. The disease is being recognized with an increasing frequency well beyond the traditional endemic areas. The natural reservoirs of T. marneffei in wild rodents are well-defined, which links the ecology with the epidemiology of talaromycosis in endemic areas. There is an urgent unmet need for rapid and affordable point-of-care diagnostic tests. We also need more clinical studies to define the best therapeutic options for the management of talaromycosis patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/microbiología , Micosis , Talaromyces , Animales , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Humanos , Mortalidad , Micosis/diagnóstico , Micosis/inmunología , Micosis/microbiología , Micosis/terapia , Micosis/transmisión , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Talaromyces/clasificación , Talaromyces/aislamiento & purificación , Talaromyces/patogenicidad
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 669-671, 2019 Dec 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885244

RESUMEN

Bartonellosis is a disease affecting a variety of animals. Many Bartonella infections are zoonotic, including cat scratch disease. Within the genus Bartonella are 45 species, of which more than 10 can infect cats and dogs. Companion animals serve as reservoirs for several zoonotic species of Bartonella, and may also serve as sentinels for zoonotic Bartonella species harbored by wildlife. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the occurrence of Bartonella spp. DNA in dogs from households where cats with clinical bartonellosis were kept. The presence of DNA with 99-100% compliance of the nucleotide sequence with the sequence of the Bartonella DNA isolated from cats was demonstrated in the body of 10% of tested dogs. The results indicate that cats serve as a Bartonella reservoir for dogs, and the dogs can play the same role with regard to humans.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Bartonella/veterinaria , Bartonella henselae/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Animales , Infecciones por Bartonella/microbiología , Infecciones por Bartonella/transmisión , Bartonella henselae/genética , Bartonella henselae/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Perros , Zoonosis/microbiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
12.
Elife ; 82019 12 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843054

RESUMEN

Quantifying pathogen transmission in multi-host systems is difficult, as exemplified in bovine tuberculosis (bTB) systems, but is crucial for control. The agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, persists in cattle populations worldwide, often where potential wildlife reservoirs exist. However, the relative contribution of different host species to bTB persistence is generally unknown. In Britain, the role of badgers in infection persistence in cattle is highly contentious, despite decades of research and control efforts. We applied Bayesian phylogenetic and machine-learning approaches to bacterial genome data to quantify the roles of badgers and cattle in M. bovis infection dynamics in the presence of data biases. Our results suggest that transmission occurs more frequently from badgers to cattle than vice versa (10.4x in the most likely model) and that within-species transmission occurs at higher rates than between-species transmission for both. If representative, our results suggest that control operations should target both cattle and badgers.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genómica/métodos , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Tuberculosis Bovina/transmisión , Animales , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Mustelidae/microbiología , Mycobacterium bovis/clasificación , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiología , Filogenia , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/microbiología
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(6): 1276-1281, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674296

RESUMEN

In the present study, we tested 391 fleas collected from guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) (241 Pulex species, 110 Ctenocephalides felis, and 40 Tiamastus cavicola) and 194 fleas collected from human bedding and clothing (142 Pulex species, 43 C. felis, five T. cavicola, and four Ctenocephalides canis) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. We also tested 83 blood spots collected on Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards from guinea pigs inhabiting 338 Peruvian households. Bartonella DNA was detected in 81 (20.7%) of 391 guinea pig fleas, in five (2.6%) of 194 human fleas, and in 16 (19.3%) of 83 guinea pig blood spots. Among identified Bartonella species, B. rochalimae was the most prevalent in fleas (89.5%) and the only species found in the blood spots from guinea pigs. Other Bartonella species detected in fleas included B. henselae (3.5%), B. clarridgeiae (2.3%), and an undescribed Bartonella species (4.7%). Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of zoonotic B. rochalimae in households in rural areas where the research was conducted and suggested a potential role of guinea pigs as a reservoir of this bacterium.


Asunto(s)
Bartonella/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Siphonaptera/microbiología , Zoonosis/microbiología , Animales , Bartonella/genética , Infecciones por Bartonella/microbiología , Infecciones por Bartonella/transmisión , Ropa de Cama y Ropa Blanca/parasitología , Vestuario , Infestaciones por Pulgas , Cobayas/microbiología , Perú , Población Rural , Zoonosis/transmisión
14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224518, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675365

RESUMEN

Food animals act as a reservoir for many foodborne pathogens. Salmonella enterica is one of the leading pathogens that cause food borne illness in a broad host range including animals and humans. They can also be associated with a single host species or a subset of hosts, due to genetic factors associated with colonization and infection. Adult swine are often asymptomatic carriers of a broad range of Salmonella servoars and can act as an important reservoir of infections for humans. In order to understand the genetic variations among different Salmonella serovars, Whole Genome Sequences (WGS) of fourteen Salmonella serovars from swine products were analyzed. More than 75% of the genes were part of the core genome in each isolate and the higher fraction of gene assign to different functional categories in dispensable genes indicated that these genes acquired for better adaptability and diversity. High concordance (97%) was detected between phenotypically confirmed antibiotic resistances and identified antibiotic resistance genes from WGS. The resistance determinants were mainly located on mobile genetic elements (MGE) on plasmids or integrated into the chromosome. Most of known and putative virulence genes were part of the core genome, but a small fraction were detected on MGE. Predicted integrated phage were highly diverse and many harbored virulence, metal resistance, or antibiotic resistance genes. CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) patterns revealed the common ancestry or infection history among Salmonella serovars. Overall genomic analysis revealed a great deal of diversity among Salmonella serovars due to acquired genes that enable them to thrive and survive during infection.


Asunto(s)
Salmonelosis Animal/microbiología , Salmonella/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Porcinos/microbiología , Animales , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/veterinaria
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 559, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The common tick Ixodes ricinus and the taiga tick I. persulcatus are the main tick vectors of Borrelia spirochaetes, TBE virus (TBEV) and of several other zoonotic pathogens in the western and eastern areas, respectively of the Palaearctic region. Recently, populations of the taiga tick were, for the first time, detected in northern Sweden. This prompted us to investigate if they harbour human pathogens. METHODS: A total of 276 I. persulcatus ticks (136 males, 126 females and 14 nymphs) and one I. ricinus nymph was collected by the cloth-dragging method in northern Sweden in July-August 2015 and May-July 2016. In addition, 8 males and 10 females of I. persulcatus were collected from two dogs (16 and 2 ticks, respectively) in two of the localities. All ticks were microscopically and molecularly identified to developmental stage and species and screened for B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), B. miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia spp. and TBEV using real-time PCR followed by species identification by sequencing the PCR-products of conventional PCR assays. RESULTS: Of the ticks collected by the cloth-dragging method, 55% (152/277) were positive for Borrelia. There was no significant difference between the proportions of Borrelia-infected nymphs (33%, 5/15) and Borrelia-infected adult ticks (56%, 147/262), and no significant difference between the proportions of Borrelia-infected males (54%, 74/136) and Borrelia-infected females (58%, 73/126). Three different Borrelia species were identified. Borrelia afzelii was the predominant species and detected in 46% of all Borrelia-infected ticks followed by B. garinii, 35%, B. valaisiana, 1%, and mixed infections of different Borrelia species, 1%; 17% of all Borrelia-infections were untypeable. One I. persulcatus female contained Rickettsia helvetica, and one nymph contained Rickettsia sp. Of the 277 ticks analysed, all were negative for A. phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., Borrelia miyamotoi, N. mikurensis and TBEV. The ticks collected from the two dogs were negative for all pathogens examined except for Borrelia spp., that was detected in 5 out of 16 ticks removed from one of the dogs. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first time that I. persulcatus from Sweden has been analysed for the presence of tick-borne pathogens. The examined tick populations had a low diversity of tick-borne pathogens but a high prevalence of B. burgdorferi (s.l.).


Asunto(s)
Babesia/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Ixodes/microbiología , Ixodes/parasitología , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria , Animales , Babesia/genética , Bacterias/genética , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , Femenino , Gansos/microbiología , Masculino , Suecia/epidemiología , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 465, 2019 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590678

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate parasitic intracellular bacterium. It is the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, with effects on human and animal health. In Europe, the pathogen is mainly transmitted among a wide range of vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking arthropods. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of A. phagocytophilum in wild carnivores, viz raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), badgers (Meles meles), foxes (Vulpes vulpes), martens (Martes sp.) and European polecats (Mustela putorius), using molecular methods. METHODS: In the present study, 174 spleen samples were collected from adult, wild carnivores hunted in the years 2013-2016. A short fragment (383 bp) of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene partial sequence was used as a marker to identify A. phagocytophilum in spleen samples collected from carnivores using nested PCR. RESULTS: The prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in wild carnivores was 31.61% (55/174). Seven sequences of A. phagocytophilum were generated from two raccoon dogs, two badgers, one marten, one red fox and one European polecat. Six identical nucleotide sequences were obtained from one raccoon dog, two badgers, one marten, one red fox and one European polecat (A. phagocytophilum sequences 1: MH328205-MH328209, MH328211), and these were identical to many A. phagocytophilum sequences in the GenBank database (100% similarity). The second sequence (A. phagocytophilum sequence 2: MH328210) obtained from the raccoon dog shared 99.74% identity with A. phagocytophilum sequence 1. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to use molecular methods to determine the presence of A. phagocytophilum in wild carnivores, viz raccoon dog, badger, marten and European polecat, in Poland. The detected A. phagocytophilum sequences (1 and 2) were closely related with those of A. phagocytophilum occurring in a wide range of wild and domestic animals and vectors.


Asunto(s)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/aislamiento & purificación , Ehrlichiosis/veterinaria , Hurones , Zorros , Mustelidae , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animales , Animales Salvajes , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/clasificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiología , Ehrlichiosis/microbiología , Electroforesis en Gel de Agar/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Polonia/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Bazo/microbiología
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e293, 2019 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637994

RESUMEN

Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease, in Europe caused by Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica. Many lagomorphs and a variety of small rodents are wildlife species prone to develop clinical disease, while predators and scavengers are relatively resistant and may serve as sentinels. Blood samples from 656 Swedish wild predators and scavengers were serologically investigated using slide agglutination and microagglutination. In the slide agglutination test, 34 seropositive animals were detected, and they were found among all species investigated: brown bear (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa), wolf (Canis lupus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo). Due to haemolysis the microagglutination test was more difficult to read at low titres, and only 12 animals were classified as seropositive. F. tularensis subsp. holarctica was detected by a polymerase chain reaction in lymphatic tissues of the head in one brown bear, one red fox and one wolf. The significance of this finding regarding possible latency of infection is not clear. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that all predator and scavenger species included in this study may serve as sentinels for tularaemia in Sweden. Their role as reservoirs is unclear.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Francisella tularensis/aislamiento & purificación , Especies Centinela/microbiología , Tularemia/veterinaria , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Reservorios de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Predatoria , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Suecia/epidemiología , Tularemia/sangre , Tularemia/diagnóstico , Tularemia/epidemiología , Zoonosis/sangre , Zoonosis/diagnóstico
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007782, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609964

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis are major causes of bloodstream infection in children in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed evidence for their zoonotic versus human reservoir. METHODS: Index patients were children with blood culture confirmed Salmonella infection recruited during a microbiological surveillance study in Nanoro, rural Burkina between May 2013 and August 2014. After consent, their households were visited. Stool from household members and livestock (pooled samples per species) as well as drinking water were cultured for Salmonella. Isolates with identical serotype obtained from index patient and any household sample were defined as "paired isolates" and assessed for genetic relatedness by multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). RESULTS: Twenty-nine households were visited for 32/42 (76.2%) eligible index patients: two households comprised two index patients each, and in a third household the index patient had a recurrent infection. Among the 32 index patients, serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 26), Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 5) and Salmonella Freetown (n = 1). All Typhimurium isolates were sequence type (ST)313. Median delay between blood culture sampling and household visits was 13 days (range 6-26). Salmonella was obtained from 16/186 (8.6%) livestock samples (13 serotypes) and 18/290 (6.2%) household members (9 serotypes). None of the water samples yielded Salmonella. Paired Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were obtained from three households representing four index patients. MLVA types were identical in two pairs and similar in the third (consisting of two index patients and one household member). WGS showed a strong genetic relatedness with 0 to 2 core genome SNPs difference between pairs on a household level. Livestock samples did not yield any Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Enteritidis, and the latter was exclusively obtained from blood culture. Other serotypes shared by human and/or livestock carriers in the same household were Salmonella Derby, Drac, Tennessee and Muenster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study provides further evidence of a human reservoir for invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Composición Familiar , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella/clasificación , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Ganado , Masculino , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Filogenia , Salmonella/genética , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Salmonella enteritidis/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/aislamiento & purificación , Serogrupo , Microbiología del Agua , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
19.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(6): 681-685, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479739

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human and animal pathogen. Multilocus sequence type 612 (ST612) is the dominant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone in certain South African hospitals and is sporadically isolated from horses and horse-associated veterinarians in Australia. Colonisation and infection by ST612-MRSA is increasing in Western Australia. Whole-genome sequencing was performed for 51 isolates of ST612-MRSA from Western Australian patients and healthcare workers, South African hospital patients, Australian veterinarians and New South Wales horses. Core genome phylogenies suggested that Australian equine and veterinarian-associated ST612-MRSA were monophyletic. Individual Western Australian isolates grouped either with this equine-associated lineage or more diverse lineages related to those in South African hospitals. Bioinformatic analyses of the complete ST612-MRSA reference genome SVH7513 confirmed that ST612-MRSA was closely related to ST8 USA500 MRSA. Common use of rifampicin in South Africa and equine veterinarian practice may favour ST612-MRSA in these settings. Humans and horses colonised with ST612-MRSA are potential reservoirs for MRSA in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Caballos/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/genética , Animales , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Filogenia , Australia Occidental
20.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e44, 2019 Sep 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531622

RESUMEN

Mycobacterium leprae is the primary causative agent of Hansen's disease or leprosy. Besides human beings, natural infection has been described in animals such as mangabey monkeys and armadillos. Leprosy is considered a global health problem and its complete pathogenesis is still unknown. As M. leprae does not grow in artificial media, armadillos have become the primary experimental model for leprosy, mimicking human disease including involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Leprosy transmission occurs through continuous and close contact of susceptible people with untreated infected people. However, unknown leprosy contact has been reported in leprosy-affected people, and contact with armadillos is a risk factor for leprosy. In the USA, leprosy is considered a zoonosis and this classification has recently been accepted in Brazil. This review presents information regarding the role of wild armadillos as a source of M. leprae for human infections, as well as the pathogenesis of leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Armadillos/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Lepra/veterinaria , Mycobacterium leprae , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Lepra/microbiología , Lepra/transmisión
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA