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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(10): 2646-2660, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822605

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to assess, through simulation, conductivity variations in pulp and paper circuits when recycling waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluent with a view to reducing fresh water use in a tissue mill. WWTP effluent was recycled in the process for different uses. A PS2000 digital model coupled with the PHREEQC chemical simulation engine was used to identify and quantify the main sources of conductivity: caustic soda, sodium bisulphite and acetate production through anaerobic microbial activity. Recycling WWTP effluent enables fresh water uptake to be reduced by 50% when used for pulp dilution or white water, by 81% when used in paper machine showers, and up to 96% for all uses combined. As fresh water use decreases, circuit closure increases along with, consequently, COD and conductivity. COD build-up can be controlled by best available techniques application. Recycling WWTP effluent has a strong impact on conductivity. However, the impact of high conductivity levels on additives performance is limited in the case of the mill studied. Acetate concentration could be controlled by better agitation of tanks or the introduction of air by pumps. Furthermore, limiting acetate production can reduce the need for caustic soda to control the pH.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Industriales , Papel , Reciclaje , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Reciclaje/métodos , Conductividad Eléctrica , Modelos Teóricos , Aguas Residuales/química
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(8): 239, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862848

RESUMEN

Anaerobic digestion (AD) emerges as a pivotal technique in climate change mitigation, transforming organic materials into biogas, a renewable energy form. This process significantly impacts energy production and waste management, influencing greenhouse gas emissions. Traditional research has largely focused on anaerobic bacteria and methanogens for methane production. However, the potential of anaerobic lignocellulolytic fungi for degrading lignocellulosic biomass remains less explored. In this study, buffalo rumen inocula were enriched and acclimatized to improve lignocellulolytic hydrolysis activity. Two consortia were established: the anaerobic fungi consortium (AFC), selectively enriched for fungi, and the anaerobic lignocellulolytic microbial consortium (ALMC). The consortia were utilized to create five distinct microbial cocktails-AF0, AF20, AF50, AF80, and AF100. These cocktails were formulated based on varying of AFC and ALMC by weights (w/w). Methane production from each cocktail of lignocellulosic biomasses (cassava pulp and oil palm residues) was evaluated. The highest methane yields of CP, EFB, and MFB were obtained at 337, 215, and 54 mL/g VS, respectively. Cocktails containing a mix of anaerobic fungi, hydrolytic bacteria (Sphingobacterium sp.), syntrophic bacteria (Sphaerochaeta sp.), and hydrogenotrophic methanogens produced 2.1-2.6 times higher methane in cassava pulp and 1.1-1.2 times in oil palm empty fruit bunch compared to AF0. All cocktails effectively produced methane from oil palm empty fruit bunch due to its lipid content. However, methane production ceased after 3 days when oil palm mesocarp fiber was used, due to long-chain fatty acid accumulation. Anaerobic fungi consortia showed effective lignocellulosic and starchy biomass degradation without inhibition due to organic acid accumulation. These findings underscore the potential of tailored microbial cocktails for enhancing methane production from diverse lignocellulosic substrates.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Hongos , Lignina , Metano , Consorcios Microbianos , Metano/metabolismo , Anaerobiosis , Lignina/metabolismo , Hongos/metabolismo , Hongos/clasificación , Animales , Rumen/microbiología , Biocombustibles , Hidrólisis , Fermentación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Bacterias/clasificación , Residuos Industriales , Agricultura/métodos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 600, 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849696

RESUMEN

Herbal waste produced during the manufacturing of herbal products is a potential feedstock for anaerobic digestion due to high amount of organic matter that can be transformed into biogas as an energy resource. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to convert herbal waste produced during the manufacturing of common of Ayurveda products into biogas through anaerobic digestion process using batch test study under controlled mesophilic temperature conditions of 35 °C with food to inoculum ratio of 0.75. The maximum biomethane potential (BMP) of 0.90 (gCH4COD/g CODfed) and sludge activity of 0.70 (gCH4-CD/gVSS) was exhibited by WS herbal waste owing to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 4 g/g and better solubilization potential of the organic matter showing change in volatile suspended solids (ΔVSS) of 79%. On the other hand, the waste derived from the TA herb, exhibited the least biogas yield of 0.55 (gCH4COD/g CODfed) and sludge activity of 0.40 (gCH4-CD/gVSS), albeit with higher organic matter present. This was due to the possible hindrance of waste solubilization by the presence of lignin. The waste derived from VVL and PE showed intermediate BMP and sludge activity. The methane generation rate constant (k), a key indicator of the biodegradation potential, was also evaluated. The k values showed similar trend as of BMP values ranging from 0.081 to 0.15 d-1 thus indicating the influence of presence of lignin and the change in ΔVSS. The present study proves anaerobic digestion to be an alternative treatment method to be a milestone for management of herbal wastes and can be successfully implemented on real-scale systems.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Anaerobiosis , Metano/análisis , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Aguas del Alcantarillado/química , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Reactores Biológicos , Residuos Industriales/análisis
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(23): 12871-12895, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829927

RESUMEN

Polyphenols are natural secondary metabolites found in plants endowed with multiple biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, and anticancer). In view of these properties, they find many applications and are used as active ingredients in nutraceutical, food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic formulations. In accordance with green chemistry and circular economy strategies, they can also be recovered from agroindustrial waste and reused in various sectors, promoting sustainable processes. This review described structural characteristics, methods for extraction, biological properties, and applications of polyphenolic extracts obtained from two selected plant materials of the Mediterranean area as olive (Olea europaea L.) and pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) based on recent literature, highlighting future research perspectives.


Asunto(s)
Tecnología Química Verde , Residuos Industriales , Olea , Extractos Vegetales , Polifenoles , Polifenoles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Residuos Industriales/economía , Olea/química , Granada (Fruta)/química , Humanos , Antioxidantes/química , Animales
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13446, 2024 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862766

RESUMEN

Present study concerns the transformation of the agro-industrial by-products olive mill stone waste (OMSW) and walnut shell (WS) to a protein-enriched animal feedstuff utilizing the solid state fermentation (SSF) technique. For this purpose, various mixtures of these by-products were exploited as substrates of the SSF process which was initiated by the P. ostreatus fungus. The respective results indicated that the substrate consisted of 80% WS and 20% OMSW afforded the product with the highest increase in protein content, which accounted the 7.57% of its mass (69.35% increase). In addition, a 26.13% reduction of lignin content was observed, while the most profound effect was observed for their 1,3-1,6 ß-glucans profile, which was increased by 3-folds reaching the 6.94% of substrate's mass. These results are indicative of the OMSW and WS mixtures potential to act as efficient substrate for the development of novel proteinaceous animal feed supplements using the SSF procedure. Study herein contributes to the reintegration of the agro-industrial by-products aiming to confront the problem of proteinaceous animal feed scarcity and reduce in parallel the environmental footprint of the agro-industrial processes within the context of circular economy.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Fermentación , Residuos Industriales , Juglans , Olea , Pleurotus , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Juglans/metabolismo , Juglans/química , Olea/metabolismo , Olea/química , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Lignina/metabolismo , Animales
6.
J Environ Manage ; 362: 121302, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824896

RESUMEN

Two industrial solid wastes, Ti-bearing blast furnace slag (TBFS) and diamond wire saw silicon waste (DWSSW), contain large amounts of Ti and Si, and their accumulation wastes resources and intensifies environmental pollution. In the present study, DWSSW was used as the silicon source to reduce titanium oxide in TBFS by electromagnetic induction smelting, and meanwhile Na3AlF6 was added as a flux to improve the recycling of the wastes. Ti and Si of the two wastes were simultaneously recovered in the form of alloy. The effects of different addition amount of Na3AlF6 flux in the mixture of DWSSW and TBFS on chemical composition, viscosity, basicity and structure of slag were investigated. The dissolution behavior of SiO2 in Na3AlF6 flux was theoretically deduced and experimentally verification. The optimized recovery rate of Ti and Si were obtained, and the research realizes the efficient recycling of DWSSW and TBFS simultaneously.


Asunto(s)
Aleaciones , Reciclaje , Silicio , Titanio , Titanio/química , Silicio/química , Aleaciones/química , Diamante/química , Residuos Industriales/análisis
7.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(4): e13375, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865211

RESUMEN

Increasing global consumption of protein over the last five decades, coupled with concerns about the impact on emissions of animal-based protein production, has created interest in alternative protein sources. Microbial proteins (MPs), derived through the fermentation of agro-industrial byproducts, present a promising option. This review assesses a century of advancements in this domain. We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis, examining 347 relevant research papers to identify trends, technological advancements, and key influencing factors in the production of MP. The analysis covered the types of feedstocks and microbes, fermentation methods, and the implications of nucleic acid content on the food-grade quality of proteins. A conditional inference tree model and Bayesian factor were used to ascertain the impact of various parameters on protein content. Out of all the studied parameters, such as type of feedstock (lignocellulose, free sugars, gases, and others), type of fermentation (solid, liquid, gas), type of microbe (bacteria, fungi, yeast, and mix), and operating parameters (temperature, time, and pH), the type of fermentation and microbe were identified as the largest influences on protein content. Gas and liquid fermentation demonstrated higher protein content, averaging 52% and 42%, respectively. Among microbes, bacterial species produced a higher protein content of 51%. The suitable operating parameters, such as pH, time, and temperature, were also identified for different microbes. The results point to opportunities for continued innovation in feedstock, microbes, and regulatory alignment to fully realize the potential of MP in contributing to global food security and sustainability goals.


Asunto(s)
Fermentación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Hongos/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(8): 237, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853194

RESUMEN

Industrial activities contribute to environmental pollution, particularly through unregulated effluent discharges, causing adverse effects on ecosystems. Vegetable oils, as insoluble substances, exacerbate this pollution, forming impermeable films and affecting the oxygen transfer, leading to serious habitat disruption. Organic wastes, such as soybean texturized waste, spent mushroom substrate, and stabilized poultry litter, were assessed for their efficacy in enhancing the degradation of vegetable oil in contaminated soil. For this purpose, contaminated soil was amended with each of the wastes (10% w/w) using microcosm systems, which were monitored physico-chemically, microbiologically and toxicologically. Results indicate that the wastes promoted significant oil degradation, achieving 83.1, 90.7, and 86.2% removal for soybean texturized waste, spent mushroom substrate, and stabilized poultry litter, respectively, within a 90-day period. Additionally, they positively influenced soil microbial activity, as evidenced by increased levels of culturable microorganisms and hydrolytic microbial activity. While bioassays indicated no phytotoxicity in most cases, soybean texturized waste exhibited inhibitory effects on seed germination and root elongation of Lactuca sativa. This study significantly enhances our comprehension of remediation techniques for sites tainted with vegetable oils, highlighting the critical role of organic waste as eco-friendly agents in soil restoration. Emphasizing the practical implications of these findings is imperative to underscore the relevance and urgency of addressing vegetable oil contamination in soil. Moving forward, tailored strategies considering both contaminant characteristics and soil ecosystem traits are vital for ensuring effective and sustainable soil remediation.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Glycine max , Aceites de Plantas , Aves de Corral , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Animales , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Glycine max/crecimiento & desarrollo , Glycine max/microbiología , Aceites de Plantas/metabolismo , Suelo/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lactuca/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacterias/metabolismo , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Residuos Industriales
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12655, 2024 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825597

RESUMEN

Potato peel waste (PPW) is an underutilized substrate which is produced in huge amounts by food processing industries. Using PPW a feedstock for production of useful compounds can overcome the problem of waste management as well as cost-effective. In present study, potential of PPW was investigated using chemical and thermochemical treatment processes. Three independent variables i.e., PPW concentration, dilute sulphuric acid concentration and liberation time were selected to optimize the production of fermentable sugars (TS and RS) and phenolic compounds (TP). These three process variables were selected in the range of 5-15 g w/v substrate, 0.8-1.2 v/v acid conc. and 4-6 h. Whole treatment process was optimized by using box-behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM). Highest yield of total and reducing sugars and total phenolic compounds obtained after chemical treatment was 188.00, 144.42 and 43.68 mg/gds, respectively. The maximum yield of fermentable sugars attained by acid plus steam treatment were 720.00 and 660.62 mg/gds of TS and RS, respectively w.r.t 5% substrate conc. in 0.8% acid with residence time of 6 h. Results recorded that acid assisted autoclaved treatment could be an effective process for PPW deconstruction. Characterization of substrate before and after treatment was checked by SEM and FTIR. Spectras and micrographs confirmed the topographical variations in treated substrate. The present study was aimed to utilize biowaste and to determine cost-effective conditions for degradation of PWW into value added compounds.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Industriales , Extractos Vegetales , Solanum tuberosum , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Técnicas de Química Analítica/normas , Solanum tuberosum/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Industria de Alimentos , Fermentación , Azúcares/análisis , Azúcares/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/análisis , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Ácidos/química , Vapor , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
10.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831400

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Optimal exploitation of the huge amounts of agro-industrial residuals that are produced annually, which endangers the ecosystem and ultimately contributes to climate change, is one of the solutions available to produce value-added compounds. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at the economic production and optimization of surfactin. Therefore, the production was carried out by the microbial conversion of Potato Peel Waste (PPW) and Frying Oil Waste (FOW) utilizing locally isolated Bacillus halotolerans. Also, investigating its potential application as an antimicrobial agent towards some pathogenic strains. RESULTS: Screening the bacterial isolates for surfactin production revealed that the strain with the highest yield (49 g/100 g substrate) and efficient oil displacement activity was genetically identified as B. halotolerans. The production process was then optimized utilizing Central Composite Design (CCD) resulting in the amelioration of yield by 11.4% (from 49 to 55.3 g/100 g substrate) and surface tension (ST) by 8.3% (from 36 to 33 mN/m) with a constant level of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) at 125 mg/L. Moreover, the physiochemical characterization studies of the produced surfactin by FTIR, 1H NMR, and LC-MS/MS proved the existence of a cyclic lipopeptide (surfactin). The investigations further showed a strong emulsification affinity for soybean and motor oil (E24 = 50%), as well as the ability to maintain the emulsion stable over a wide pH (4-10) and temperature (10-100 °C) range. Interestingly, surfactin had a broad-spectrum range of inhibition activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: Subsequently, the screening of the isolates and the utilized food-processing wastes along with the extraction technique resulted in a high yield of surfactin characterized by acceptable ST and CMC levels. However, optimization of the cultural conditions to improve the activity and productivity was achieved using Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) and Central Composite Design (CCD). In contrast, surface activity recorded a maximum level of (33 mN/n) and productivity of 55.3 g/100 g substrate. The optimized surfactin had also the ability to maintain the stability of emulsions over a wide range of pH and temperature. Otherwise, the obtained results proved the promising efficiency of the surfactin against bacterial and fungal pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus , Residuos Industriales , Lipopéptidos , Solanum tuberosum , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/aislamiento & purificación , Lipopéptidos/farmacología , Lipopéptidos/metabolismo , Lipopéptidos/biosíntesis , Lipopéptidos/química , Lipopéptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Solanum tuberosum/microbiología , Péptidos Cíclicos/farmacología , Péptidos Cíclicos/química , Péptidos Cíclicos/aislamiento & purificación , Péptidos Cíclicos/biosíntesis , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/metabolismo , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/aislamiento & purificación , Agricultura/métodos
11.
Water Environ Res ; 96(6): e11059, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812097

RESUMEN

The effective treatment of cadmium (Cd) in smelting wastewater is of great industrial importance. This study investigates the efficient removal of Cd from real industrial smelting wastewater via chemical precipitation using a series of experiments. In particular, the effects of different precipitants, agitation conditions, and the addition of NaOCl on Cd removal and pH variation are investigated. CaO (3.75 g/L), NaOH (3.50 g/L), and Ca(OH)2 (3.75 g/L) are found to be effective in elevating the wastewater pH and achieving high Cd removal rates (>99.9%), while the use of NaOH as a precipitant maintains a high Cd removal rate even at low agitation intensities. The properties of the produced sludge and supernatant are also determined using moisture content, particle size, and sludge leaching analyses due to the importance of economic and environmental sustainability in filtration, dewatering, and waste disposal processes. In addition, the addition of 2% NaOCl is tested, revealing that it can improve the Cd removal efficiency of Ca(OH)2, thus potentially reducing processing costs and enhancing the environmental benefits. Overall, these findings offer valuable insights into the removal of Cd from smelting wastewater, with potential implications for both environmental sustainability and economic viability. PRACTITIONER POINTS: CaO, NaOH, and Ca(OH)2 effectively remove Cd (>99.9%) from smelting wastewater. The use of NaOH leads to high Cd removal rates even at low agitation speeds. Adding 2% NaOCl can reduce the Ca(OH)2 dose for more economical Cd removal.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Precipitación Química , Residuos Industriales , Oxidación-Reducción , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Cadmio/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Aguas Residuales/química , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Hidróxido de Calcio/química
12.
Waste Manag ; 183: 143-152, 2024 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754182

RESUMEN

In the present study, press mud (PM), a major waste by-product from sugar industries, was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) to create resource recovery opportunities. The HTP process was performed with the PM samples in a laboratory scale high pressure batch reactor (capacity = 0.7 L) at 160 °C and 200 °C temperatures (solids content = 5 % and 30 %). The pretreatment resulted in separation of solid and liquid phases which are termed as solid hydrochar (HC) and process water (PW), respectively. High heating value (HHV) of HC was âˆ¼14-18 MJ kg-1, slightly higher than that of PM (14 MJ kg-1). The thermogravimetric analysis showed about 1.5-1.7 times higher heat release from HC burning compared to that observed from combustion of PM. Apart from this, the HC and PM showed no phytotoxicity during germination of mung bean (Vigna radiata). Moreover, the biochemical methane potential test on the PW showed a generation of 167-245 mL biogas per gram of chemical oxygen demand added. Hence, the HTP offers several resource recovery opportunities from PM which may also reduce the risks of environmental degradation.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Agua/química , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Biocombustibles/análisis , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Termogravimetría
13.
Braz J Microbiol ; 55(2): 1231-1241, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727921

RESUMEN

Laccase is an exothermic enzyme with copper in its structure and has an important role in biodegradation by providing oxidation of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines and decomposing lignin. The aim of this study is to reach maximum laccase enzyme activity with minimum cost and energy through optimization studies of Proteusmirabilis isolated from treatment sludge of a textile factory. In order to increase the laccase enzyme activities of the isolates, medium and culture conditions were optimized with the study of carbon (Glucose, Fructose, Sodium Acetate, Carboxymethylcellulose, Xylose) and nitrogen sources (Potassium nitrate, Yeast Extract, Peptone From Soybean, Bacteriological Peptone), incubation time, pH, temperature and Copper(II) sulfate concentration then according to the results obtained. Response Surface Method (RSM) was performed on six different variables with three level. According to the data obtained from the RSM, the maximum laccase enzyme activity is reached at pH 7.77, temperature 30.03oC, 0.5 g/L CuSO4, 0.5 g/L fructose and 0.082 g/L yeast extract conditions. After all, the laccase activity increased 2.7 times. As a result, laccase activity of P. mirabilis can be increased by optimization studies. The information obtained as a result of the literature studies is that the laccase enzymes produced in laboratory and industrial scale are costly and their amounts are low. This study is important in terms of obtaining more laccase activity from P.mirabilis with less cost and energy.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Cultivo , Lacasa , Proteus mirabilis , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Temperatura , Industria Textil , Lacasa/metabolismo , Proteus mirabilis/enzimología , Proteus mirabilis/aislamiento & purificación , Proteus mirabilis/metabolismo , Proteus mirabilis/genética , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Medios de Cultivo/química , Residuos Industriales , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12540, 2024 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822034

RESUMEN

Cyclosporine A (CyA) holds significant importance as a strategic immunosuppressive drug for organ transplant patients. In this study, we aimed to produce pure and cost-effective Cyclosporine A (CyA) by fermenting a culture medium containing dairy sludge, using Tolypocladium inflatum PTCC 5253. Following the fermentation stage, ethyl acetate extraction and fast protein liquid chromatography were employed for sample purification. The initial evaluation of the effectiveness of CyA obtained from these processes was performed through bioassay, wherein the antimicrobial clear zone diameter was found to be larger compared to the sample obtained from the fermentation culture. The concentration of CyA was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, yielding values of 334 mg/L, 456 mg/L, and 578 mg/L for the fermented, extracted, and purified samples, respectively. Further analysis utilizing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) confirmed a purity of 91.9% and proper agreement with the standard sample based on the ion intensity of Z/m 1205. To validate the structure of CyA, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy were employed. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses demonstrated that the purified CyA exhibited a crystal structure similar to the standard sample, characterized by two broad peaks at 2θ = 9° and 20°, and comparable glass transition temperatures (57-68 °C for the purified sample; 53-64 °C for the standard sample). Dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed a uniform particle size distribution in both the purified and standard samples. The zeta potentials of the purified and standard samples were determined to be - 25.8 ± 0.16 and - 23.63 ± 0.12 mV, respectively. Our results demonstrate that dairy sludge can serve as a suitable culture medium for the production of (CyA).


Asunto(s)
Ciclosporina , Fermentación , Residuos Industriales , Ciclosporina/química , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Hypocreales/química , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Agricultura , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Difracción de Rayos X , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 364, 2024 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the alterations in biochemical and physiological responses of oat plants exposed to antimony (Sb) contamination in soil. Specifically, we evaluated the effectiveness of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) and olive mill waste (OMW) in mitigating the effects of Sb contamination. The soil was treated with a commercial strain of AMF (Rhizophagus irregularis) and OMW (4% w/w) under two different levels of Sb (0 and 1500 mg kg-1 soil). RESULTS: The combined treatment (OMW + AMF) enhanced the photosynthetic rate (+ 40%) and chlorophyll a (+ 91%) and chlorophyll b (+ 50%) content under Sb condition, which in turn induced more biomass production (+ 67-78%) compared to the contaminated control plants. More photosynthesis in OMW + AMF-treated plants gives a route for phenylalanine amino acid synthesis (+ 69%), which is used as a precursor for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids (+ 110%), polyphenols (+ 26%), and anthocyanins (+ 63%) compared to control plants. More activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (+ 38%) and chalcone synthase (+ 26%) enzymes in OMW + AMF-treated plants under Sb stress indicated the activation of phenylpropanoid pathways in antioxidant metabolites biosynthesis. There was also improved shifting of antioxidant enzyme activities in the ASC/GSH and catalytic pathways in plants in response to OMW + AMF and Sb contamination, remarkably reducing oxidative damage markers. CONCLUSIONS: While individual applications of OMW and AMF also demonstrated some degree of plant tolerance induction, the combined presence of AMF with OMW supplementation significantly enhanced plant biomass production and adaptability to oxidative stress induced by soil Sb contamination.


Asunto(s)
Antimonio , Micorrizas , Olea , Contaminantes del Suelo , Micorrizas/fisiología , Olea/microbiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Antimonio/metabolismo , Adaptación Fisiológica , Residuos Industriales , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biomasa
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e282386, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695424

RESUMEN

Due to the need to achieve the principles of sustainable development and to understand the processes of formation of phytocenoses in areas that were adversely affected by the industrial impact, this study assessed the condition of the Grachevsky uranium mine (Kazakhstan), which underwent conservation procedures about 25 years ago. The purpose is to determine the level of water quality and phytocenosis of the shores of the reservoir accumulating natural effluents from reclaimed dumps and anthropogenic sites of a uranium mine, as well as quality indicators and toxicology. The assessment included a qualitative research method (analysis of documents) to determine agro-climatic conditions and empirical methods of collecting information. The authors studied the intensity of ionizing radiation of the gamma background of the water surface of the reservoir (and sections of the shoreline and territories adjacent to the reservoir), and hydrochemical parameters of the waters of the reservoir, and performed a description of the botanical diversity. The vegetation cover of the sections of the reservoir shore is at different stages of syngenesis and is represented by pioneer groupings, group thicket communities, and diffuse communities. Favorable ecological conditions for the settlement and development of plants develop within the shores of the reservoir. The intensity levels of ionizing radiation do not exceed the maximum permissible levels and practically do not affect the formation of phytocenoses. An anthropogenically modified dry meadow with the participation of plants typical of the steppe zone has been formed on the floodplain terrace. Concerning the indicators of quality and toxicology of this reservoir, the water can be used for household and drinking purposes under the condition of prior water treatment. It can be concluded that a high level of natural purification of the reservoir waters occurred within twenty years after the reclamation of the uranium mine.


Asunto(s)
Minería , Uranio , Calidad del Agua , Uranio/análisis , Biodiversidad , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Kazajstán , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Plantas/química , Plantas/clasificación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos
17.
Food Chem ; 453: 139596, 2024 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759441

RESUMEN

The pecan nutshell [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] (PNS) is a source of bioactives with important beneficial properties for the human health. PNS represents between 40-50 % of total mass of the nut, resulting as waste without any added value for the food industry. Even though a variety of methods were already developed for bioactive extraction from this waste, unconventional methodologies, or those which apart from green chemistry principles, were discarded considering the cost of production, the sustainable development goals of United Nations and the feasibility of real inclusion of the technology in the food chain. Then, to add-value to this waste, a low-cost, green and easy-scalable extraction methodology was developed based on the determination of seven relevant factors by means of a factorial design and a Response Surface Methodology, allowing the extraction of bioactives with antioxidant capacity. The pecan nutshell extract had a high concentration of phenolic compounds (166 mg gallic acid equivalents-GAE/g dry weight-dw), flavonoids (90 mg catechin equivalent-CE/g dw) and condensed tannins (189 mg CE/g dw) -related also to the polymeric color (74.6 %)-, with high antioxidant capacities of ABTS+. radical inhibition (3665 µmol Trolox Equivalent-TE/g dw) and of iron reduction (1305 µmol TE/g dw). Several compounds associated with these determinations were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, such as [Epi]catechin-[Epi]catechin-[Epi]gallocatechin, myricetin, dihydroquercetins, dimers A and B of protoanthocyanidins, ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives. Hence, through the methodology developed here, we obtained a phenolic rich extract with possible benefits for human health, and of high industrial scalability for this co-product transformation.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Carya , Residuos Industriales , Nueces , Extractos Vegetales , Carya/química , Nueces/química , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Residuos Industriales/economía , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/economía , Flavonoides/aislamiento & purificación , Flavonoides/química , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/química , Tecnología Química Verde
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 472: 134577, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749248

RESUMEN

Tailings ponds formed by long-term accumulation of mineral processing waste have become a global environmental problem. Even worse, tailings ponds are often simply abandoned or landfilled after they cease to be used. This allows pollution to persist and continue to spread in the environment. The significance of primary succession mediated by biological soil crusts for tailings pond remediation has been illustrated by previous studies. However, the process of primary succession may not be the same at different stages during the lifetime of tailings ponds. Therefore, we investigated the environmental differences and the successional characteristics of microbial communities in the primary successional stage of tailings ponds at three different states. The results showed that the primary succession process positively changed the environment of tailings ponds in any state of tailings ponds. The primary successional stage determined the environmental quality more than the state of the tailings pond. In the recently abandoned tailings ponds, abundant species were more subjected to heavy metal stress, while rare species were mainly limited by nutrient content. We found that as the succession progressed, rare species gradually acquired their own community space and became more responsive to environmental stresses. Rare species played an important role in microbial keystone species groups.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Suelo , Estanques/microbiología , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Bacterias/clasificación , Suelo/química , Residuos Industriales , Microbiota
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 402: 130807, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723727

RESUMEN

The textile industry discharges up to 5 % of their dyes in aqueous effluents. Here, use of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of commercial white button mushroom production and its aqueous extract, SMS tea, was assessed to remove textile dyes from water. A total of 30-90 % and 5-85 % of the dyes was removed after a 24 h incubation in SMS and SMS tea, respectively. Removal of malachite green and remazol brilliant blue R was similar in SMS and its tea. In contrast, removal of crystal violet, orange G, and rose bengal was higher in SMS, explained by sorption to SMS and by the role of non-water-extractable SMS components in discoloration. Heat-treating SMS and its tea, thereby inactivating enzymes, reduced dye removal to 8-58 % and 0-31 %, respectively, indicating that dyes are removed by both enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities. Together, SMS of white button mushroom production has high potential to treat textile-dye-polluted aqueous effluents.


Asunto(s)
Agaricus , Colorantes , Colorantes/química , Textiles , Biodegradación Ambiental , Color , Industria Textil , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Residuos Industriales
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(22): 33148-33154, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710848

RESUMEN

By 2050, the world's population is predicted to reach over 9 billion, which requires 70% increased production in agriculture and food industries to meet demand. This presents a significant challenge for the agri-food sector in all aspects. Agro-industrial wastes are rich in bioactive substances and other medicinal properties. They can be used as a different source for manufacturing products like biogas, biofuels, mushrooms, and tempeh, the primary ingredients in various studies and businesses. Increased importance is placed on resource recovery, recycling, and reusing (RRR) any waste using advanced technology like IoT and artificial intelligence. AI algorithms offer alternate, creative methods for managing agro-industrial waste management (AIWM). There are contradictions and a need to understand how AI technologies work regarding their application to AIWM. This research studies the application of AI-based technology for the various areas of AIWM. The current work aims to discover AI-based models for forecasting the generation and recycling of AIWM waste. Research shows that agro-industrial waste generation has increased worldwide. Infrastructure needs to be upgraded and improved by adapting AI technology to maintain a balance between socioeconomic structures. The study focused on AI's social and economic impacts and the benefits, challenges, and future work in AIWM. The present research will increase recycling and reproduction with a balance of cost, efficiency, and human resources consumption in agro-industrial waste management.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Inteligencia Artificial , Residuos Industriales , Administración de Residuos , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , Reciclaje
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