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1.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120712, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531127

RESUMEN

This review paper provides a comprehensive analysis of cement-based solidification and immobilisation of nuclear waste. It covers various aspects including mechanisms, formulations, testing and regulatory considerations. The paper begins by emphasizing the importance of nuclear waste management and the associated challenges. It explores the mechanisms and principles in cement-based solidification, with a particular focus on the interaction between cement and nuclear waste components. Different formulation considerations are discussed, encompassing factors such as cement types, the role of additives and modifiers. The review paper also examines testing and characterisation methods used to assess the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of solidified waste forms. Then the paper addresses the regulatory considerations and compliance requirements for cement-based solidification. The paper concludes by critically elaborating on the current challenges, emerging trends and future research needs in the field. Overall, this review paper offers a comprehensive overview of cement-based solidification, providing valuable insights for researchers, practitioners and regulatory bodies involved in nuclear waste management.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Radiactivos , Administración de Residuos , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Residuos Peligrosos
2.
Environ Res ; 251(Pt 2): 118617, 2024 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467362

RESUMEN

This study aims to improve the quality of fuel with high calorific value namely Sfuel - a commercial high-quality refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from hazardous waste via modifying the process design and operating parameters of thermal conversion process. The study analyses key parameters of RDF quality, such as calorific value and heavy metal content, before and after process modifications based on the combination of experimental and simulation using Aspen Plus. In this study, the temperature and pressure of the simulation system are varied from 100 to 700 °C and from 1 to 5 bar, respectively. Findings indicate that there are a total of eleven heavy metals and 179 volatile compounds in the "Sfuels". The quality of the targeted product is greatly improved by the metal evaporation at high temperatures and pressures. However, the calorific value of RDF significantly decreases at 700 °C due to a large amount of the carbon content being evaporated. Although the carbon content at high temperatures is significantly lost, the heat from the vapour stream reactor outlet, which is reused to preheat the nitrogen gas stream supplied to the system, reduces energy consumption while improving the thermal conversion efficiency of the system. Besides, low pressure along with high temperature are not the optimal conditions for quality Sfuels improvement by thermal conversion. Results also indicate that electric heating is more economically efficient than natural gas heating.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Metales Pesados/análisis , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Residuos Peligrosos/análisis , Calor
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(13): 20048-20072, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372924

RESUMEN

While several research studies considered the utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregates for asphalt and concrete pavements, very few attempted its possible utilization for precast concrete applications like concrete paver blocks (CPBs). Moreover, few attempts made in the recent past to improve the strength properties of RAP inclusive concrete mixes by incorporating certain supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) have reported an insignificant or marginal effect. The present study attempts to comprehensively investigate the utilization potential of some locally and abundantly available materials having suitable physicochemical properties to improve the performance of a zero-slump CPB mix containing 50% RAP aggregates. The studied filler materials, namely, wollastonite (naturally occurring calcium metasilicate mineral) and jarosite (hazardous zinc industry waste), were used to replace 5-15% and 10-20% by volume of Portland cement in the 50% RAP CPB mix. Apart from their individual effects, the efficacy of wollastonite-jarosite blends was also investigated. Considering the lack of indoor storage facilities and economic aspects of CPBs, the influence of water spray curing regime on the performance of the RAP CPB mixes was studied and compared to that of continuous water curing regime. Inclusion of the considered fillers was found to statistically and significantly enhance the flexural strength, tensile splitting strength, and abrasion resistance of the 50% RAP CPB mix; however, the compressive strength (in most cases), permeable voids, water absorption, and water permeability properties showed an insignificant improvement. Results of thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the occurrence of pozzolanic reactivity, and microstructure analysis revealed improvements in packing of concrete matrix and ITZ with filler inclusion qualitatively substantiating the improvements in strength and durability characteristics. The toxicity characteristics of heavy metals that may leach from the hazardous jarosite-based RAP CPB mixes were found to be within permissible limits. Based on the performance requirements specified by IS, IRC, and ASTM standards, all the RAP CPB mixes with filler inclusions fulfilled the acceptance criteria for heavy traffic applications, and water spray curing can enact as an alternate method for curing these mixes. However, to avail maximum performance benefits, it is recommended to use 5% wollastonite, 15% jarosite, and a combination of 10% wollastonite and 10% jarosite as a Portland cement substitute to produce sustainable eco-friendly RAP CPB mixes.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Calcio , Polvo , Compuestos Férricos , Hidrocarburos , Silicatos , Sulfatos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Excipientes , Residuos Peligrosos , Agua
4.
J Environ Manage ; 354: 120366, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364544

RESUMEN

In recent years, illegal dumping of hazardous waste (IDHW) in China has become a recurring problem. Effective identification and exploration of the factors influencing illegal dumping are crucial for incident prevention and hazardous waste management, but its analysis has rarely been reported. Thus, this study focused on 568 cases of IDHW officially reported by the government. Through regular expressions, the categories of dumped wastes and the provinces where the incidents occurred were extracted. Furthermore, a comprehensive set of influencing factors was constructed by text mining for the case content and by the integration from the existing literature. On this basis, the unstructured and structured data were integrated using a Boolean dataset to respectively explore the association rules of influencing factors for the overall IDHW and for major waste categories, in conjunction with the extracted province information. Subsequently, a Bayesian network was constructed by utilizing the results of association rules mining and the key factors were identified through corresponding analysis. The findings of this study reveal a close connection between various influencing factors, with distinct key factors identified for different categories of hazardous waste. Among them, law-enforcement emerges as a crucial factor in most IDHW cases, while the factor of public monitoring for metallic hazardous waste and the factor of government supervision for distillation residue waste and other waste play a key role in their respective cases of illegal dumping. These findings offer a fresh research perspective for investigating the factors influencing IDHW and present helpful insights for developing effective strategies to prevent and control such incidents.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Peligrosos , Administración de Residuos , Teorema de Bayes , China , Administración de Residuos/métodos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 354: 120464, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401504

RESUMEN

Brick kiln co-treatment is a novel industrial hazardous wastes (IHWs) utilization process. However, the effects of chlorine (Cl) in wastes on heavy metals (HMs) during this process are overlooked. This study investigated the stabilization/solidification (S/S) and volatilization, as well as long and short-term leaching, of HMs in Cl-containing bricks. The results indicated enhanced formations of stable mineral phases (NiFe2O4, Ni2SiO4, Cd3Al2Si3O12, CdSiO3, FeCr2O4, Cr2O3, CuFe2O4, and CuAl2O4) in bricks at a low sintering temperature (800 °C) due to the affinity between Cl and HMs. By comparing HM concentrations before and after sintering in bricks, the study observed that Cl's presence significantly elevated the volatilization rates for Cd and Cu by 30.8% and 14.2%, respectively. In contrast, the effect on volatilization for Ni and Cr was not significant. Additionally, utilizing the NEN 7375 method, the cumulative leaching rates of Ni, Cd, Cr, and Cu over a 64-day experiment under extremely acidic conditions were 0.22%, 7.18%, 0.01%, and 1.46%, respectively. Similarly, higher short-term leaching rates of Cd (4.03%) and Cu (5.73%) than those of Ni (0.94%) and Cr (0.08%) were observed. This finding might be attributed to the lower stability of the Cd and Cu solid phases under acidic environments compared to those of Ni and Cr. Surface wash-off, dissolution, and diffusion were the processes governing HM leaching from bricks. The 10-year projections revealed a minimal release of HMs during future extended leaching, implying the successful S/S of HMs. This study provides a reference for assessing the environmental impacts of brick kiln co-processing of Cl-containing IHWs.


Asunto(s)
Cloro , Metales Pesados , Cadmio , Residuos Peligrosos/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis
6.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295165, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare waste produced in healthcare activities entails higher risk of infection and injuries than municipal waste. In developing countries healthcare waste has not received much attention and has been disposed of together with municipal wastes. Modern method of disposal of healthcare waste have been introduced to most healthcare institutions mismanagement and increased in production in public health centres in Ethiopia is important issues. The aim of the study was to assess the type of healthcare waste generation and quantification in selected public health centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study were conducted from January to February 2018. Fifteen health centres in Addis Ababa City Administration were selected for this study. Data were collected by using by different color plastic bags (Black plastic bags for non-hazardous wastes, Yellow plastic bags for hazardous wastes and Yellow safety box for needles and Red bags for pharmaceutical wastes and toxic wastes). The collected wastes were measured by weighing scale and were written to data entry sheet. To assure the data quality calibration of weighing scale was made by the standard weight every morning. EPI INFO TM7 and IBM SPSS were used for data entry, cleaning and analysis. RESULTS: The mean healthcare waste generation was 10.64+5.79Kg/day of which 37.26% (3.96+2.20Kg/day) was general waste and 62.74% (6.68+4.29) was hazardous waste from the studies health centres. Total hazardous waste; sharps, infectious, pathological and pharmaceutical wastes constitutes mean (±SD) 0.97 ±1.03, 3.23 ± 2.60, 2.17±1.92 and 0.25 ±0.34 kg/day respectively. Healthcare waste 29.93% and 0.32% were generated from delivery and post-natal case team and nutrition and growth monitoring case team respectively. The annual mean+ SD of healthcare waste generation rate per health centres were 3807.53+ 2109.84 Kg/year. CONCLUSION: The finding in this study showed there was an increased in hazardous healthcare waste in amount as compared to the WHO standard 85% non-hazardous waste and 10% hazardous waste and 5% toxic wastes. The healthcare waste management practices about segregation, collection, transportation and disposal at the source is crucial to decrease in quantity. Generally unselective handling and disposal of healthcare wastes is a concern.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios , Residuos Sanitarios , Administración de Residuos , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/métodos , Salud Pública , Etiopía , Estudios Transversales , Residuos Sanitarios/análisis , Sustancias Peligrosas , Residuos Peligrosos/análisis , Atención a la Salud
7.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120148, 2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306856

RESUMEN

Arsenic-bearing neutralization (ABN) sludge is a classical hazardous waste commonly found in nonferrous metallurgy. However, the current storage of these hazardous wastes not only has to pay costly hazardous waste taxes but also poses significant risks to both the environment and human health. To address these issues and achieve the comprehensive utilization and minimization of ABN sludge, this study proposes a new combined process. The process involves selective reduction roasting, leaching, and carbonation, through which, the arsenate and gypsum in the ABN sludge were recovered in the form of As(s), high-purity CaCO3, and H2S. The selective reduction behaviors of arsenate and gypsum were investigated through thermodynamic analysis and roasting experiments. The results indicated that the 95.35 % arsenate and 96.55 % gypsum in the sludge were selectively reduced to As4(g) and CaS at 950 °C by carbothermic reduction. The As4(g) was condensed to As(s) and enriched in the dust (As, 96.78 wt %). In the leaching process, H2S gas was adopted to promote the leaching of CaS, and resulted in 97.41 % of CaS in the roasted product was selectively leached in the form of Ca(HS)2, leading to a 74.11 % reduction in the weight of the ABN sludge. Then, the Ca(HS)2 was subjected to capture CO2 for the separation of Ca2+ and S2-. The result depicted that 99.69 % of Ca2+ and 99.12 % of S2- were separated as high-purity (99.12 wt %) CaCO3 and H2S (24.89 vol %) by controlling the terminal carbonation pH to below 6.55. The generated H2S can be economically converted to sulfur by the Clause process. The whole process realized the comprehensive resource recovery and the minimization of the sludge, which provides an alternative solution for the clean treatment of hazardous ABN waste.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Humanos , Arsénico/análisis , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Arseniatos , Sulfato de Calcio , Residuos Peligrosos
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(5): 7712-7727, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170352

RESUMEN

The multi-source hazardous waste co-disposal system, a recent innovation in the industry, offers an efficient approach for hazardous waste disposal. The incineration fly ash (HFA) produced by this system exhibits characteristics distinct from those of typical incineration fly ash, necessitating the use of adjusted disposal methods. This study examined the physicochemical properties, heavy metal content, heavy metal leaching concentration, and dioxin content of HFA generated by the new co-disposal system and compared them with those of conventional municipal waste incineration fly ash. This study investigated the solidification and stabilization of HFA disposal using the organic agent sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate combined with cement on a field scale. The findings revealed significant differences in the structure, composition, and dioxin content of HFA and FA; HFA contained substantially lower levels of dioxins than FA did. Concerning the heavy metal content and leaching; HFA exhibited an unusually high concentration of zinc, surpassing the permitted emission limits, making zinc content a critical consideration in HFA disposal. After stabilization and disposal, the heavy metal leaching and dioxin content of HFA can meet landfill disposal emission standards when a 1% concentration of 10% sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and 150% silicate cement were employed. These results offer valuable insights into the disposal of fly ash resulting from incineration of mixed hazardous waste.


Asunto(s)
Dioxinas , Metales Pesados , Eliminación de Residuos , Ceniza del Carbón/química , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Material Particulado , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Residuos Peligrosos , Carbono , Incineración , Metales Pesados/análisis , Zinc , Ditiocarba
9.
Chemosphere ; 350: 141123, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185426

RESUMEN

Pollution is a global menace that poses harmful effects on all the living ecosystems and to the Earth. As years pass by, the available and the looming rate of pollutants increases at a faster rate. Although many treatments and processing strategies are waged for treating such pollutants, the by-products and the wastes or drain off generated by these treatments further engages in the emission of hazardous waste. Innovative and long-lasting solutions are required to address the urgent global issue of hazardous pollutant remediation from contaminated environments. Myco-remediation is a top-down green and eco-friendly tool for pollution management. It is a cost-effective and safer practice of converting pernicious substances into non-toxic forms by the use of fungi. But these pollutants can be transformed into useable products along with multiple benefits for the environment such as sequestration of carbon emissions and also to generate high valuable bioactive materials that fits as a sustainable economic model. The current study has examined the possible applications of fungi in biorefineries and their critical role in the transformation and detoxification of pollutants. The paper offers important insights into using fungal bioremediation for both economically and environmentally sound solutions in the domain of biorefinery applications by combining recent research findings.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Biodegradación Ambiental , Ecosistema , Residuos Peligrosos
10.
Waste Manag Res ; 42(4): 344-351, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37277997

RESUMEN

Marine litter is a growing environmental problem for which fisheries-sourced waste remains poorly understood. In Peru, there is an ongoing challenge of waste management from the small-scale fisheries fleet given the lack of facilities to receive the variety of debris produced by fishers, which includes hazardous wastes such as batteries. In this study, onboard solid waste production was monitored daily by land-based observers upon landing at the port of Salaverry, Peru, from March to September 2017. The analysed small-scale gillnet and longline fishing fleets produced annually an estimated 11,260 kg of solid waste. Of particular concern is the production of single use plastics (3427 kg) and batteries (861 kg) due to their potential long-lasting impacts on the environment and challenges related to their proper disposal. A management plan for solid waste has been developed for Salaverry; therefore, a subsequent assessment was conducted in 2021-2022 of the behaviours and perceptions of fishers regarding the implementation of this plan. Most fishers (96%) reported disposing of their waste on land, except organic waste which is disposed of at sea. While fishers in Salaverry have become more conscious of the issues surrounding at-sea waste disposal and have an interest in better segregating and managing their waste, there remains a need for improved waste management and recycling protocols and procedures at the port to make this possible.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Residuos Sólidos , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Perú , Residuos Peligrosos , Plásticos , Residuos
11.
Waste Manag Res ; 42(2): 95-110, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37313954

RESUMEN

Ayurveda hospitals generate biomedical wastes (BMW). However, details on composition, quantities and characteristics are very scarce, details which are important to formulate a proper waste management plan for subsequent implementation and continual improvement. Therefore, this article presents a mini review of the composition, quantities and characteristics of BMW generated from Ayurveda hospitals. Additionally, this article presents some best possible treatment and disposal procedures. Most of the information was gleaned from peer-reviewed journals, although some information was collected by the author and from grey literature available to the author; 70-99% (by wet weight) of the solid waste is non-hazardous; biodegradables contributing to 44-60% by wet weight due to more used Kizhi (medicinal bags for fomentation) and other medicinal/pharmaceutical wastes (excluding waste medicated oils, which is 12-15% of the liquid medicinal waste stream and are not readily biodegradable) largely derived from plants. The hazardous waste component includes infectious wastes, sharps, blood as pathological wastes (from Raktamoksha - bloodletting), heavy metal containing pharmaceutical wastes, chemical wastes and heavy metal rich wastes. Quantities of infectious wastes followed by sharps and blood form a major portion of hazardous wastes. Most of the infectious waste material contaminated with blood or other body fluids and sharps from Raktamoksha are very similar (appearance, moisture content and bulk density) to what is generated from hospitals practicing Western medicine. However, hospital-specific waste studies are required in future to better understand the sources, areas of generation, types, quantities and characteristics of BMW, and hence to formulate more accurate waste management plans.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios , Metales Pesados , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/métodos , Hospitales , Residuos Peligrosos , Sur de Asia , Residuos Sólidos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas
12.
J Environ Manage ; 351: 119730, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38086123

RESUMEN

In this study, the behavior of heavy metal transformation during the co-thermal treatment of hazardous waste incineration fly ash (HWIFA) and Fe-containing hazardous waste (including hazardous waste incineration bottom slag (HWIBS) and electroplating sludge (ES)) was investigated. The findings demonstrated that such a treatment effectively reduced the static leaching toxicity of Cr and Pb. Moreover, when the treatment temperature exceeded 1000 °C, the co-thermal treated sample exhibited low concentrations of dynamically leached Cr, Pb, and Zn, indicating that these heavy metals were successful detoxified. Thermodynamic analyses and phase transformation results suggested that the formation of spinel and the gradual disappearance of chromium dioxide in the presence of Fe-containing hazardous wastes contributed to the solidification of chromium. Additionally, the efficient detoxification of Pb and Zn was attributed to their volatilization and entry into the liquid phase during the co-thermal treatment process. Therefore, this study sets an excellent example of the co-thermal treatment of hazardous wastes and the control of heavy metal pollution during the treatment process.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Eliminación de Residuos , Ceniza del Carbón , Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Aguas del Alcantarillado/análisis , Residuos Peligrosos/análisis , Galvanoplastia , Plomo , Incineración/métodos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Carbono , Material Particulado/análisis
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(5): 7396-7407, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38159187

RESUMEN

Amid China's rapid economic expansion, the country's industrial solid waste (ISW) problem is escalating. As each sector generates distinct types of ISW, a multi-indicator assessment of each sector is essential to address China's New Solid Waste Policy. To investigate the ISW situation of each sector and perform a comprehensive assessment, we formulate an industrial solid waste ecological analysis framework based on ISW generation and ISW flow in the sector. Various indicators (i.e., solid waste utilization coefficient, solid waste threat coefficient, and solid waste threat intensity) are employed to assess the utilization of solid waste generated for each sector, as well as the threat of solid waste originating in each sector to society. Ecological network analysis probes the interrelationships between diverse sectors. Taking Shanghai in 2017 as an example, the study indicates that some sectors (e.g., production and supply of electric power and heat power (EH) and metal smelting and rolling processing sector (MS)) exhibit higher direct ISW generation and the direct industrial solid waste value-added coefficient (SVAC) for common industrial solid waste (CISW). Specifically, the direct CISW generation of EH and MS is 539.21Mt and 277.00Mt respectively. The direct SVAC of EH and MS is 157.06kg/103RMB and 126.27kg/103RMB respectively. These sectors should prioritize reducing emissions at the source. Additionally, the threats to society from various sectors are relatively insignificant for the CISW, while for the hazardous waste (HW), all sectors pose a considerable threat to Shanghai's society. Moreover, some sectors (e.g., mining industry) exhibit the highest mutualism relationships in the CISW and the HW. Enhancing mining sector technologies is a vital strategy for mitigating ISW sources. Specifically, MI has 9 pairs of mutualism relationships in the CISW and 8 pairs in the HW. These insights will provide empirical evidence for tackling the ISW problem in Shanghai.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Industriales , Residuos Sólidos , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , China , Industrias , Minería , Residuos Peligrosos , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico
14.
Waste Manag ; 174: 575-584, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142563

RESUMEN

Hazardous waste rotary kiln incineration, as the most effective and comprehensive technology to reduce and detoxify waste, generally faces problems such as low load rate and short continuous operating periods. However, there are few studies on the actual operation of such facilities and evaluation of their technical efficiency. Based on the 77-week time-series data of the case company, this study introduces in-depth key operating parameters and evaluates long-term technical efficiency through the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. The results show that the continuous operating period of the rotary kiln incineration facility can reach more than half a year, with an average load rate of 91.7%. In the analysis of 9 input indicators, the amount of injected activated carbon could not be effectively evaluated due to the lack of relevant standards and online real-time monitoring of dioxins, which might become a weak link in the control of flue gas pollution. The average comprehensive technical efficiency of rotary kiln incineration facilities was 0.939, of which the average pure technical efficiency was 0.949 while the average scale efficiency was 0.989. With 33 of the 77 decision-making units being invalid, there is scope for improvement. The amount of incineration could be increased by 5.34%, and among the input variables, dosage of urea, calcium hydroxide and lye with a relatively high improvement ratio. Based on the results, targeted suggestions were proposed to advance the scientific and precise compatibility of hazardous waste, strengthen the control of dioxin emissions, and promote the intelligent control of the entire process.


Asunto(s)
Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Residuos Peligrosos/análisis , Incineración/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental
15.
J Environ Manage ; 350: 119567, 2024 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007927

RESUMEN

Dealing with the current defaults of environmental toxicity, heating, waste management, and economic crises, exploration of novel non-edible, toxic, and waste feedstock for renewable biodiesel synthesis is the need of the hour. The present study is concerned with Buxus papillosa with seeds oil concentration (45% w/w), a promising biodiesel feedstock encountering environmental defaults and waste management; in addition, this research performed simulation based-response surface methodology (RSM) for Buxus papillosa bio-diesel. Synthesis and application of novel Phyto-nanocatalyst bimetallic oxide with Buxus papillosa fruit capsule aqueous extract was advantageous during transesterification. Characterization of sodium/potassium oxide Phyto-nanocatalyst confirmed 23.5 nm nano-size and enhanced catalytic activity. Other characterizing tools are FTIR, DRS, XRD, Zeta potential, SEM, and EDX. Methyl ester formation was authenticated by FTIR, GC-MS, and NMR. A maximum 97% yield was obtained at optimized conditions i.e., methanol ratio to oil (8:1), catalyst amount (0.37 wt%), reaction duration (180 min), and temperature of 80 °C. The reusability of novel sodium/potassium oxide was checked for six reactions. Buxus papillosa fuel properties were within the international restrictions of fuel. The sulphur content of 0.00090% signified the environmental remedial nature of Buxus papillosa methyl esters and it is a highly recommendable species for biodiesel production at large scale due to a t huge number of seeds production and vast distribution.


Asunto(s)
Buxus , Administración de Residuos , Residuos Peligrosos , Biocombustibles/análisis , Ésteres , Catálisis , Sodio , Aceites de Plantas
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(11): 1380, 2023 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37889377

RESUMEN

Attention given to environmental pollution caused by environmental analytical (EA) laboratories is very poor in Sri Lanka (an economically developing country). This article discusses EA laboratory effluents and hazardous solid wastes, current environmental management practices, and the legislative requirements in Sri Lanka. Effluent quantities generated are low (29.99-63.09 L/week), but characterized with variable pH, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metals, and very high ecotoxicity. Quantities of chemical-contaminated solid wastes is 80-100 kg/year (excluding outdated and rejected chemicals). Most laboratories dispose chemical-contaminated solid wastes mixed with non-hazardous recyclables using the services of local authorities and some laboratories (particularly in areas where there is no municipal solid waste collection), practice backyard dumping or open burning, while a few laboratories employ private parties to dispose or burn these wastes elsewhere. Only one laboratory is disposing chemical-contaminated solid wastes through co-processing. Appropriate waste management strategies (including some cleaner production concepts) are discussed in this paper for selected streams of hazardous wastes.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Peligrosos , Eliminación de Residuos , Laboratorios , Residuos Sólidos , Países en Desarrollo , Sri Lanka , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno
17.
Chemosphere ; 345: 140449, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839747

RESUMEN

In a recent estimate, 96 million tons of hazardous waste were produced in the European Union, most of which were handled among the member states. Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are applied as flame retardants and plasticizers and are present in many products, e.g., electronics, which end up in the hazardous waste stream upon disposal. Given the growing body of information suggesting potential adverse health effects of OPEs, waste recycling workers who handle hazardous waste could potentially be at risk of elevated exposure to these chemicals. Using silicone wristbands, we evaluated OPE exposure among waste recycling workers who handled hazardous waste and compared their exposure to that of administrative workers from the same waste companies. Wristbands were extracted and analyzed for six OPEs, which were all detected in >75% of wristbands. Overall, the sum of tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (∑TCIPP) isomers was the most abundant OPE across all wristbands collected within the study. In general, the sum of tri(methyl phenyl) phosphate isomers (∑TMPP) was elevated for all waste workers (10ß = 7.9), whereas tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), and ∑TMPP were 3-12 times higher among those specifically handling electronic and hazardous waste compared to the administrative workers (p < 0.05). Repeated wristband measurements from the same worker had fair to good consistency in OPE concentrations (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.54-0.77), except for the two most volatile chlorinated OPEs. Taken together, our results suggest that waste recycling workers who handle electronic and hazardous waste have significantly elevated exposure to OPEs, and efforts to reduce these exposures should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Retardadores de Llama , Humanos , Siliconas , Organofosfatos , Fosfatos , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Residuos Peligrosos , Ésteres , Dinamarca , Monitoreo del Ambiente
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(48): 105030-105055, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37725301

RESUMEN

Globally, industrialisation and urbanisation have led to the generation of hazardous waste (HW). Sustainable hazardous waste management (HWM) is the need of the hour for a safe, clean, and eco-friendly environment and public health. The prominent waste management strategies should be aligned with circular economic models considering the economy, environment, and efficiency. This review critically discusses HW generation and sustainable management with the strategies of prevention, reduction, recycling, waste-to-energy, advanced treatment technology, and proper disposal. In this regard, the major HW policies, legislations, and international conventions related to HWM are summarised. The global generation and composition of hazardous industrial, household, and e-waste are analysed, along with their environmental and health impacts. The paper critically discusses recently adapted management strategies, waste-to-energy conversion techniques, treatment technologies, and their suitability, advantages, and limitations. A roadmap for future research focused on the components of the circular economy model is proposed, and the waste management challenges are discussed. This review stems to give a holistic and broader picture of global waste generation (from many sources), its effects on public health and the environment, and the need for a sustainable HWM approach towards the circular economy. The in-depth analysis presented in this work will help build cost-effective and eco-sustainable HWM projects.


Asunto(s)
Administración de Residuos , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Residuos Peligrosos , Salud Pública , Políticas , Administración de la Seguridad , Reciclaje , Residuos Sólidos
19.
New Solut ; 33(2-3): 158-164, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37644813

RESUMEN

In 2021, the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, also known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL), became law, with one component being an investment to clean-up Superfund and Brownfield sites. Through BIL funding, the Environmental Protection Agency announced $3.5 billion to clean-up Superfund sites that have been awaiting funding for years in mostly historically underserved communities. As in many states, the 3 Superfund sites used as examples in this essay are in a metropolitan or surrounding area and in residential communities. The photos in this essay help highlight how hazardous waste sites have come to look like normal industrial sites and that communities are often unaware of the dangerous exposures they face. The author suggests that in the age of social media, taking pictures and documentation of hazardous waste sites today in our communities can help mobilize public awareness and drive action to be taken toward delayed clean-up.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias Peligrosas , Residuos Peligrosos , Estados Unidos , Humanos , New Jersey , Residuos Peligrosos/prevención & control , United States Environmental Protection Agency
20.
Chemosphere ; 340: 139840, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37597624

RESUMEN

The solar photovoltaic (PV) industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years, resulting in a substantial increase in the amount of end-of-life (EOL) waste generated by these panels. Proper waste management is crucial to minimize environmental and health risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the EOL solar PV waste management policies and regulations in China and the United States, identifying challenges and recommending policy implications for enhancing sustainable waste management practices. China has promulgated policies and regulations for managing PV EOL waste, including the National Solid Waste Law and GB or GB/T standards. In the US, federal regulations and guidelines such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state-specific hazardous waste programs, universal waste rules, and waste recycling programs are enacted. The findings of this study indicate that China and the US face distinct challenges in solar PV end-of-life waste management. China lacks comprehensive local government-level regulations, while the USA exhibits variations in coverage and specific management requirements across states. In light of these observations, as policy implications, it is recommended. Firstly, there is a need for greater harmonization between federal and local/state-level policies and regulations. Secondly, continued research and development efforts are crucial to explore cost-effective and environmentally responsible recycling and disposal options for PV panels. Furthermore, promoting collaboration among policymakers, industry stakeholders, and researchers can facilitate knowledge sharing and the exchange of best practices. Such measures will contribute to the effective and sustainable management of solar PV EOL waste in China and the USA.


Asunto(s)
Muerte , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , China , Residuos Peligrosos , Políticas
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