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1.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(5): 729-739, 2022 Mar 11.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485130

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Public hospitals in Africa are experiencing major organizational dysfunctions, which are particularly acute in waste management. The opening of a new reference hospital in Niamey offers the opportunity to study the implementation of an innovative waste management system. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: The objective of this study was to document the agents’ representations, practices, and construction of waste management standards in a new tertiary hospital in Niamey. We sought to study the implementation of innovative materials in waste management and the progressive construction of protocols, habits, and levers of adaptation. This research was carried out using a socio-spatial approach and essentially mobilized the tools of qualitative investigation. RESULTS: Our study highlighted that a hospital waste management culture is progressively established, thanks to an effort to plan activities, to promote the sector, the activities and the emergence of a profession organized around waste management. However, the distinct waste management sectors are struggling to stabilize due to the differentiated statuses and perceptions of the agents. Finally, the success of hospital waste management depends on waste collection at the city level. CONCLUSIONS: The Niamey referral hospital is intended to be an infrastructure of excellence, a showcase for neighboring countries. In this respect, our study shows that it is crucial to invest in planning, the enhancement of the profession and the recognition of all the agents involved in waste management.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Sanitarios , Administración de Residuos , Hospitales , Humanos , Niger , Derivación y Consulta , Administración de Residuos/métodos
2.
J Wound Care ; 31(Sup4): S24-S30, 2022 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404716

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Conventional skin graft fixation uses a tie-over bolus dressing with splint fixation. However, splints are highly uncomfortable and contribute considerably to medical waste. Previous study has shown positive results using hydrofiber for skin graft fixation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using adhesive hydrofiber foam for skin graft fixation. METHOD: In this retrospective study, patients reconstructed with split-thickness skin graft that was fixated only with adhesive hydrofiber foam from April 2017 until April 2019 were included. RESULTS: A total of 44 patients took part, of whom 32 were male and 12 female, with a mean age of 56±19 years. The mean operative time was 77.5±91 minutes. The average defect size was 42±37cm2. The mean skin graft take was 97±5%. The mean length of hospital admission after skin grafting until discharge was 8.5±9.2 days. Excluding those patients undergoing other procedures at the same time as the skin graft gave a total of 34 patients. Their mean operative time was 32±20 minutes, and mean length of hospital stay after skin grafting was 4.0±4.7 days. CONCLUSION: Adhesive hydrofiber foam for skin graft fixation was technically very easy to apply, resulting in a waterproof, non-bulky, secure dressing. Splints were not required. Patients were allowed to mobilise. This method resulted in increased patient comfort and decreased medical waste. From these findings, we believe that this is an extremely simple and effective method of skin graft fixation.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Sanitarios , Trasplante de Piel , Adhesivos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trasplante de Piel/métodos , Cicatrización de Heridas
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266888, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482740

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Biomedical wastes (BMWs) generated from medical laboratories are hazardous and can endanger both humans and the environment. Highly infectious biomedical wastes are produced at an unacceptably high rate from health laboratories in developing countries with poor management systems, such as Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of biomedical waste generation, management practices, and associated factors in public healthcare medical laboratories in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 13 to September 25, 2020, a health institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 hospital laboratories and 20 health centres laboratories in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of biomedical waste management and generation rate were collected d in health facilities using pre tested data collection tools. SPSS version 20 was used to manage the data. To identify independent predictors of the dependent variable, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, linear, and logistic regression analysis were used. The strength of the association was determined using an odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: In this study, the mean ± SD daily generation rate of biomedical wastes was 4.9 ± 3.13 kg/day per medical laboratory. Nineteen medical laboratories (74.3%) had proper biomedical waste management practice, which is significantly associated with professionals' knowledge of biomedical waste management policies and guidelines, the availability of separate financial sources for biomedical waste management, and the level of training of professionals. CONCLUSION: The study found that medical laboratories in Addis Ababa's public healthcare facilities generate a significant amount of biomedical waste. Nearly two-thirds of hospitals performed proper waste segregation, collection, storage, and treatment procedures for biomedical waste generated in their laboratories. However, there was a poor transportation and disposal method. As a result, paying special attention and implementing the current national guidelines for biomedical waste management is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios , Residuos Sanitarios , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Humanos , Laboratorios , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/métodos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 827: 154416, 2022 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276163

RESUMEN

Disposal of medical waste (MW) must be considered as a vital need to prevent the spread of pandemics during Coronavirus disease of the pandemic in 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the globe. In addition, many concerns have been raised due to the significant increase in the generation of MW in recent years. A structured evaluation is required as a framework for the quantifying of potential environmental impacts of the disposal of MW which ultimately leads to the realization of sustainable development goals (SDG). Life cycle assessment (LCA) is considered as a practical approach to examine environmental impacts of any potential processes during all stages of a product's life, including material mining, manufacturing, and delivery. As a result, LCA is known as a suitable method for evaluating environmental impacts for the disposal of MW. In this research, existing scenarios for MW with a unique approach to emergency scenarios for the management of COVID-19 medical waste (CMW) are investigated. In the next step, LCA and its stages are defined comprehensively with the CMW management approach. Moreover, ReCiPe2016 is the most up-to-date method for computing environmental damages in LCA. Then the application of this method for defined scenarios of CMW is examined, and interpretation of results is explained regarding some examples. In the last step, the process of selecting the best environmental-friendly scenario is illustrated by applying weighting analysis. Finally, it can be concluded that LCA can be considered as an effective method to evaluate the environmental burden of CMW management scenarios in present critical conditions of the world to support SDG.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Animales , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Pandemias/prevención & control , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Desarrollo Sostenible
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056037, 2022 03 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301210

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Medical waste management (MWM)-related factors affecting the health of medical waste handlers (MWHs) and their health risks in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are an important public health concern. Although studies of MWM-related factors and health risks among MWHs in LMICs are available, literature remains undersynthesised and knowledge fragmented. This systematic review will provide a comprehensive synthesis of evidence regarding the individual, system and policy-level MWM-related factors that affect MWHs' health and their experiences of health risks in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All qualitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2021 with full texts available and accessible will be included in the review. Seven specific electronic databases (eg, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL, ProQuest and PsycINFO) will be searched. Two authors will review the citations and full texts, extract data and complete the quality appraisal independently. A third reviewer will check discrepancies when a consensus cannot be reached on differences between the two reviewers. Data extraction will be conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute standardised data extraction form for qualitative research. The quality of articles will be assessed using a Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Results from eligible articles will be synthesised into a set of findings using the thematic framework analysis approach and will be reported according to the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review is based on published articles, which does not require ethical approval because there is no collection of primary data. Findings from this review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant public health conferences. This protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020226851.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Sanitarios , Administración de Residuos , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162400

RESUMEN

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global medical emergency. The unforeseen occurrence of a pandemic of this magnitude has resulted in overwhelming levels of medical waste and raises questions about management and disposal practices, and environmental impacts. The amount of medical waste generated from COVID-19 since the outbreak is estimated to be 2.6 million tons/day worldwide. In Australia, heaps of single-use gowns, facemasks/face shields, aprons, gloves, goggles, sanitizers, sharps, and syringes are disposed everyday as a result of the pandemic. Moreover, the establishment of new home/hotel quarantine facilities and isolation/quarantine centres in various Australian states and territories have increased the risks of transmission among people in these facilities and the likelihoods of general waste becoming contaminated with medical waste. This warrants the need to examine management and disposal practices implemented to reduce the transmission and spread of the virus. This study reviews the various management and disposal practices adopted in Australia for dealing with medical waste from the COVID-19 pandemic and their impacts on public health and the environment. To achieve the aims of this study, prior studies from 2019-2021 from various databases are collected and analysed. The study focuses on generation of medical waste from COVID-19, management and disposal methods, current problems/challenges and environmental and public health impacts. Considering the enormous risks involved and the significance of appropriate handling and disposal of medical waste from COVID-19, this study provides insights on short and long term responses towards managing COVID-19 waste in Australia. The study contributes to Australia's efforts against the transmission and spread of COVID-19 and provides recommendations for the development of workable and sustainable strategies for mitigating similar pandemics in the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Australia/epidemiología , Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Residuos Sólidos/análisis
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262741, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192618

RESUMEN

The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has generated an immense amount of potentially infectious waste, primarily face masks, which require rapid and sanitary disposal in order to mitigate the spread of the disease. Yet, within Africa, large segments of the population lack access to reliable municipal solid waste management (SWM) services, both complicating the disposal of hazardous waste, and public health efforts. Drawing on extensive qualitative fieldwork, including 96 semi-structured interviews, across four different low-income communities in Blantyre, Malawi and Durban, South Africa, the purpose of this article is to respond to a qualitative gap on mask disposal behaviours, particularly from within low-income and African contexts. Specifically, our purpose was to understand what behaviours have arisen over the past year, across the two disparate national contexts, and how they have been influenced by individual risk perceptions, established traditional practice, state communication, and other media sources. Findings suggest that the wearing of cloth masks simplifies disposal, as cloth masks can (with washing) be reused continuously. However, in communities where disposable masks are more prevalent, primarily within Blantyre, the pit latrine had been adopted as the most common space for 'safe' disposal for a used mask. We argue that this is not a new behaviour, however, and that the pit latrine was already an essential part of many low-income households SWM systems, and that within the Global South, the pit latrine fulfils a valuable and uncounted solid waste management function, in addition to its sanitation role.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Máscaras , Residuos Sanitarios , Pandemias , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Saneamiento , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiología , Pobreza , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
8.
Chemosphere ; 297: 134022, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202672

RESUMEN

This study investigates the Covid-19 driven indiscriminate disposal of PPE wastes (mostly face mask and medical wastes) in Chittagong metropolitan area (CMA), Bangladesh. Based on the field monitoring, the mean PPE density (PPE/m2± SD) was calculated to be 0.0226 ± 0.0145, 0.0164 ± 0.0122, and 0.0110 ± 0.00863 for July, August, and September 2021, respectively (during the peak time of Covid-19 in Bangladesh). Moreover, gross information on PPE waste generation in the city was calculated using several parameters such as population density, face mask acceptance rate by urban population, total Covid-19 confirmed cases, quarantined and isolated patients, corresponding medical waste generation rate (kg/bed/day), etc. Moreover, the waste generated due to face mask and other PPEs in the CMA during the whole Covid-19 period (April 4, 2020 to September 5, 2021) were calculated to be 64183.03 and 128695.75 tons, respectively. It has been observed that the negligence of general people, lack of awareness about environmental pollution, and poor municipal waste management practices are the root causes for the contamination of the dwelling environment by PPE wastes. As a result, new challenges have emerged in solid waste management, which necessitates the development of an appropriate waste management strategy. The ultimate policies and strategies may help to achieve the SDG goals 3, 6, 11, 12, 13, and 15, and increase public perception on the use and subsequent disposal of PPEs, especially face masks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , Bangladesh/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal , Plásticos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0259207, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073321

RESUMEN

COVID-19 greatly challenges the human health sector, and has resulted in a large amount of medical waste that poses various potential threats to the environment. In this study, we compiled relevant data released by official agencies and the media, and conducted data supplementation based on earlier studies to calculate the net value of medical waste produced in the Hubei Province due to COVID-19 with the help of a neural network model. Next, we reviewed the data related to the environmental impact of medical waste per unit and designed four scenarios to estimate the environmental impact of new medical waste generated during the pandemic. The results showed that a medical waste generation rate of 0.5 kg/bed/day due to COVID-19 resulted in a net increase of medical waste volume by about 3366.99 tons in the Hubei Province. In the four scenario assumptions, i.e., if the medical waste resulting from COVID-19 is completely incinerated, it will have a large impact on the air quality. If it is disposed by distillation sterilization, it will produce a large amount of wastewater and waste residue. Based on the results of the study, we propose three policy recommendations: strict control of medical wastewater discharge, reduction and transformation of the emitted acidic gases, and attention to the emission of metallic nickel in exhaust gas and chloride in soil. These policy recommendations provide a scientific basis for controlling medical waste pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Residuos Sanitarios/análisis , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , COVID-19/economía , China/epidemiología , Cloruros/análisis , Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Gases/análisis , Humanos , Incineración/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Administración de Residuos/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 15-26, jan./jun. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354396

RESUMEN

Introdução: os Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde (RSS) têm sido uma fonte de preocupação para os gestores hospitalares, pois necessitam atender às exigências legais; nos últimos anos houve mudanças no Brasil com a publicação da atual Resolução de Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 222/18, que normatiza o gerenciamento interno dos resíduos. Objetivo: comparar a RDC 306/04 com a RDC 222/18 quanto ao gerenciamento de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde, bem como apresentar as implicações da legislação em vigência. Material e Método: trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória e descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa do tipo documental; para tal, criou-se um roteiro de análises baseado nas etapas de gerenciamento dos RSS; os resultados foram apresentados em tabelas por grupos (A, B, C, D e E) que foram as categorias documentais para a comparação da legislação RDC 306/04 com a RDC 222/18. Resultados: observou-se importantes mudanças na lei atual, com impacto para os gestores e profissionais que atuam em hospitais, como o descarte de bolsas de sangue e peças anatômicas caracterizadas como A1, liberação de descarte de equipamentos de proteção individual (EPIs) como resíduos do Grupo D comum, seringas e agulhas podem ser desconectadas quando tiverem o dispositivo de segurança, novos critérios para descarte de oito grupos de medicamentos, entre outras. Discussão: as mudanças citadas necessitam ser incorporadas nos planos de gerenciamento, planejamento de novos fluxos de segregação de resíduos e aquisição de novos coletores que em médio prazo podem contribuir na redução de custo financeiro, e diminuição dos impactos ambientais desses resíduos quando descartados de forma segura. Conclusão: ao comparar as duas legislações, o presente estudo contribui para direcionar as adequações necessárias, a fim de atender a atual legislação, com informações diretas para orientar novos critérios de classificação, acondicionamento, tratamento e destinação final para o gerenciamento seguro dos resíduos nos serviços de saúde.


Introduction: Waste from Health Services (RSS) has been a source of concern for hospital managers, as they need to meet legal requirements; in recent years there have been changes in Brazil with the publication of the current Resolution of the Collegiate Board 222/18, which regulates the internal management of waste. Objective: to compare Resolution of the Collegiate Board 306/04 with Resolution of the Collegiate Board 222/18 regarding the management of RSS, as well as present the implications of the legislation in force. Material and Method: this is an exploratory and descriptive research, with a qualitative approach of the documentary type; for this, an analysis script was created based on the steps of managing the RSS; the results were presented in tables by groups (A, B, C, D and E) which were the document categories for the comparison of legislation Resolution of the Collegiate Board 306/04 with Resolution of the Collegiate Board 222/18. Results: important changes were observed in the current law, with an impact on managers and professionals working in hospitals, such as the disposal of blood bags and anatomical parts characterized as A1, release of disposal of Personal Protective Equipment as waste from Group D common, syringes and needles can be disconnected when they have the safety device, new criteria for disposing of eight groups of drugs, among others. Discussion: the aforementioned changes need to be incorporated into management plans, planning new waste segregation flows and acquisition of new collectors that in the medium term can contribute to reducing the financial cost, and reducing the environmental impacts of these wastes when disposed of safely. Conclusion: by comparing the two legislations, this study contributes to direct the necessary adjustments, in order to meet the current legislation, with direct information to guide new classification, packaging, treatment and final disposal criteria for the safe management of waste in the services of health.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud , Administración de Residuos , Servicios de Salud , Residuos Sanitarios , Colectores , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Agujas
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(10): 14830-14845, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622401

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the massive generation of biomedical waste (BMW) and plastic waste (PW). This sudden spike in BMW and PW has created challenges to the existing waste management infrastructure, especially in developing countries. Safe disposal of PW and BMW is essential; otherwise, this virus will lead to a waste pandemic. This paper reviews the generation of BMW and PW before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, the regulatory framework for BMW management, policy interventions for COVID-19-based BMW (C-BMW), the capacity of BMW treatment and disposal facilities to cope with the challenges, possible management strategies, and perspectives in the Indian context. This study indicated that policy intervention helped minimize the general waste treated as C-BMW, especially during the second pandemic. Inadequacy of common BMW treatment facilities' (CBMWTFs) capacity to cope with the BMW daily generation was observed in some states resulting in compromised treatment conditions. Suggestions for better management of BMW and PW include decontamination of used personal protective equipment (PPEs) and recycling, alternate materials for PPEs, segregation strategies, and use of BMW for co-processing in cement kilns. All upcoming CBMWTFs should be equipped with higher capacity and efficient incinerators for the sound management of BMW. Post-pandemic monitoring of environmental compartments is imperative to assess the possible impacts of pandemic waste.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , Administración de Residuos , Humanos , Incineración , Pandemias/prevención & control
12.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 72(3): 222-234, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543158

RESUMEN

Home care services (HCS) are important to assist patients with difficulties in accessing conventional health services. Nevertheless, in times of COVID-19 pandemic, the traditionally offered service needs to be restructured to protect health professionals, patients and their families. In this context, this article aims to identify the impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic on home medical waste management (MWM), converting threats into opportunities, and weaknesses into management strengths. Three months before the pandemic (from October to December), a comprehensive survey was conducted on the practices of home care services and MWM with health professionals, caregivers and patients in Caruaru (Brazil). Quali-quantitative information was collected by structured and semi-structured interviews. For evaluation, the SWOT-TOWS analysis was applied to identify the threats and weaknesses of the practices of HCS and MWM, and to propose strategies to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. The results showed that the main weaknesses found were the lack of training of health professionals and the lack of guidance given by them to caregivers of patients, both related to MWM. Except for sharp waste, all other MWM practices have proved to be inadequate, posing threats, especially in a pandemic period. Four action strategies to improve HCS and MWM were identified: (i) providing MWM training to HCS personnel based on ISO standards; (ii) providing MWM information to caregivers and patients; (iii) planning actions to optimize the service during the pandemic; and (iv) sharing HCS management with municipal decision makers. Between December 2020 and January 2021, semi-structured interviews were performed only with health professionals, to verify the impacts and changes that have occurred in HCS in the COVID-19 pandemic. Comparing the results of the two surveys, improvements were achieved, including the incorporation during the pandemic of some strategies identified in the first phase of the research.Implications: Home care service plays a fundamental role in the quality of life of patients and in the sustainability of the public health system in Brazil. In the pandemic period, HCS was impacted with routine changes and the adoption of new personal protective equipment. Our results showed the need to promote strategies to improve HCS to preserve the health of professionals and patients attended, in the pandemic and post-pandemic period. The strategies identified in the study contributed to improvements in the provision of the service and in the management of medical waste that is still inadequate. Such issues are of interest to municipal health management, which has adopted some of the suggested strategies. The thousands of HCS distributed in Brazilian municipalities can also adopt the strategic actions resulting from this research.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , Administración de Residuos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Environ Manage ; 303: 114161, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861500

RESUMEN

To dispose of the medical waste generated during the COVID-19 pandemic, a new type of mobile emergency incinerator (MEI) was used in Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, China, and consequently, it produced a number of medical bottom ashs (MBAs). In this study, the characterization and environmental risk evaluation of these MBAs were conducted to evaluate the disposal effect of this MEI used during the pandemic. Three types of leaching tests, EN 12457-2, TCLP 1311, and HJ/T 299-2007, were compared to investigate the release behaviors of major and trace elements from these MBAs. Lack of detection of COVID-19 in MBAs showed that this mobile emergency incinerator could thoroughly eliminate the COVID-19 virus in medical wastes to avoid secondary transmission. The results indicated that the increasing usage of chlorinated disinfectants and physiological saline solutions resulted in high Cl contents in MBAs. In addition, the increasing usage of polypropylene (PP) products changed the chemical properties and compositions of MBAs, with Ca as the main element. The leachability investigation revealed that the main metals in leachates were Ca, Na and K, and the toxic heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr in MBAs were difficult to extract because of the high pH (>12) of these MBAs. This study could provide consultation for the treatment and management of MBAs produced from MEIs dealing with emergent infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , Metales Pesados , Eliminación de Residuos , Ceniza del Carbón , Hospitales , Humanos , Incineración , Metales Pesados/análisis , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 32(1): 155-167, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183563

RESUMEN

In this study, an integration of multi-criteria evaluation, geographic information system, and remote sensing techniques were used for site selection of medical waste landfills in Kermanshah, Iran. Also, an environmental risk assessment for the selected site has been conducted in order to minimize the possible hazardous. The GIS and remote sensing were used for acquiring and preparing layers and maps and the multi-criteria evaluation was used for setting aim, criteria selection, criteria weighting, and final decision making. The results showed that only 1.2% of the study area is scored high-suitable, while 90% of the area is considered unsuitable that makes this region critical for preservation. After further assessment and field visits, a suitable site was selected for landfilling. Environmental risk assessment showed that the selected site poses a low-level of risks to the environment and surrounding areas and this is because various environmental and health aspects have been considered in the site selection process.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Sanitarios , Eliminación de Residuos , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Irán , Residuos Sólidos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos
16.
Waste Manag Res ; 40(4): 470-481, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044644

RESUMEN

Considering the widespread transmission of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) globally, India is also facing the same crisis. As India already has inadequate waste treatment facilities, and the sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 virus has led to significant growth of Bio-medical waste (BMW), consequently safe disposal of a large quantity of waste has become a more serious concern. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of BMW of India before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, this article highlights the gaps in the implementation of BMW rules in India. This study uses various government and non-government organizations, reports and data specifically from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). The finding of the study demonstrated that most of the States/Union Territories (UTs) of India are lacking in terms of COVID-19 waste management. India has generated over 32,996 mt of COVID-19 waste between June and December 2020. During this period, Maharashtra (789.99 mt/month) is highest average generator of COVID-19 waste, followed by Kerala (459.86 mt/month), Gujarat (434.87 mt/month), Tamil Nadu (427.23 mt/month), Uttar Pradesh (371.39 mt/month), Delhi (358.83 mt/month) and West Bengal (303.15 mt/month), and others respectively. We draw attention to the fact that many gaps were identified with compliance of BMW management rules. For example, out of all 35 States/UTs, health care facilitates (HCFs), only eight states received authorization as per BMW management rules. Moreover, the government strictly restricted the practice of deep burials; however, 23 States/UTs are still using the deep burial methods for BMW disposal. The present research suggests that those States/UTs generated on an average of 100 mt/month COVID-19 waste in the last 7 months (June-December 2020) should be considered as a high priority state. These states need special attention to implement BMW rules and should upgrade their BMW treatment capacity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 128037, 2022 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906873

RESUMEN

High contents of heavy metals and Cl are major challenges for incineration residue disposal. Classification by the Chinese government and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic have changed the characteristics of incineration residues, thereby increasing the difficulty of disposal. In this study, medical waste incineration fly ash (MWI FA) was proposed as an additive to promote chlorination volatilization of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) and medical waste incineration slag (MWI S). When the mixing ratio of MWI FA to MSWI FA was 1:3, the chlorination volatilization efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd at 1000 °C for 60 min were 50.2%, 99.4%, 99.7%, and 97.9%, respectively. When MWI FA was mixed with MWI S at a ratio of 1:1, the chlorination volatilization efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd at 1200 °C for 40 min were 88.9%, 99.7%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively. Adding MWI FA can replenish Cl in MSWI FA and MWI S while increasing the surface area and forming pore structures by sublimation of NaCl and decomposition of CaSO4, or can reduce the melting point and viscosity by Na2O destroying the glass matrix. Therefore, MWI FA can be co-disposed with MSWI FA and MWI S respectively to enhance the chlorination volatilization of heavy metals.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , Metales Pesados , Eliminación de Residuos , Carbono , Ceniza del Carbón , Halogenación , Humanos , Incineración , Metales Pesados/análisis , Material Particulado , SARS-CoV-2 , Residuos Sólidos , Volatilización
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127294, 2022 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592595

RESUMEN

Herbal medicine wastes (HMWs) are byproducts of medicine factories, which are mainly landfilled for their environmental problems. Only bearing in mind the contamination and concerns caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and environmental emissions, the worth of herbal medicine wastes management and conversion to green products can be understood. In this work, subcritical water treatment was carried out batch-wise in a stainless tube reactor in the pressure range of 0.792-30.0 MPa, varying the temperature (127-327 °C) and time (1-60 min) of extraction. This resulted in new and green material sources, including organic acids, amino acids, and sugars. Amazingly, at very low extraction times (below 5 min) and high temperatures (above 277 °C), about 99% of HMWs were efficaciously converted to clean products by subcritical hydrothermal treatment. The results of hydrothermal extraction after 5 min indicated that at low temperatures (127-227 °C), the total organic carbon in the aqueous phase increased as the residual solid phase decreased, reaching a peak around 220 °C. Acetone soluble extracts or fat phase appeared above 227 °C and reached a maximum yield of 21% at 357 °C. Aspartic acid, threonine, and glycine were the primary amino acids; glycolic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid were obtained as the main organic acids, glucose, fructose, and cellobiose were substantial sugars produced from the aqueous phase after 5 min of hydrothermal subcritical hydrolysis extraction.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Residuos Sanitarios , Purificación del Agua , Medicina de Hierbas , Humanos , Hidrólisis , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 810: 152302, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896492

RESUMEN

The surge of medical waste (MW) generated during the COVID-19 pandemic has exceeded the disposal capacity of existing facilities. The timely, safe, and efficient emergency disposal of MW is critical to prevent the epidemic spread. Therefore, this review presents the current status of MW generation and disposal in China and analyzes the characteristics and applicability of emergency disposal technologies. The results show that movable disposal facilities can dispose of infectious MW on site, even though most of their disposal capacity is at a low level (<5 t/day). Co-disposal facilities need to be reformed completely for emergency MW disposal, in which separate feeding systems should be taken seriously. Specifically, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration facilities have great potential to improve emergency MW disposal capacities. For hazardous waste incineration facilities, compatibility of the wastes must be matched to the composition and calorific value of the waste. As for cement kiln, MW can only be used as an alternative fuel instead of a raw material for cement. Based on the environmental risk and technical adaptability, the six emergency MW disposal technologies are recommended to be prioritized as follows: movable microwave sterilization, movable steam sterilization, movable incineration, co-incineration with hazardous waste, co-incineration with MSW and co-disposal in cement kilns. Infectious MW, especially COVID-19 MW, should be prioritized for disposal by centralized and movable disposal facilities, while non-infectious MW can be disposed of using co-disposal facilities. All stakeholders should strengthen the delicacy management of the end-of-life stage of MW, including collection, classification, packaging identification, transportation, and disposal. Currently, it is necessary for centralized disposal enterprises to follow the emergency disposal operation flowchart. From a long-term strategic perspective, making full use of regional movable and co-disposal facilities in the megacities can effectively enhance the emergency MW disposal capacity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios , Residuos Sanitarios , Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Incineración , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos
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