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1.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668684

RESUMEN

The disposal of food waste is a current and pressing issue, urging novel solutions to implement sustainable waste management practices. Fish leftovers and their processing byproducts represent a significant portion of the original fish, and their disposal has a high environmental and economic impact. The utilization of waste as raw materials for the production of different classes of biofuels and high-value chemicals, a concept known as "biorefinery", is gaining interest in a vision of circular economy and zero waste policies. In this context, an interesting route of valorization is the extraction of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) for nutraceutical application. These fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have received attention over the last decades due to their beneficial effects on human health. Their sustainable production is a key process for matching the increased market demand while reducing the pressure on marine ecosystems and lowering the impact of waste production. The high resale value of the products makes this waste a powerful tool that simultaneously protects the environment and benefits the global economy. This review aims to provide a complete overview of the sustainable exploitation of fish waste to recover ω-3 FAs for food supplement applications, covering composition, storage, and processing of the raw material.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Peces/metabolismo , Alimentos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Residuos/análisis , Animales , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/química , Aceites de Pescado/química , Aceites de Pescado/aislamiento & purificación , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112104, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548680

RESUMEN

Seafloor macrolitter is ubiquitous in world's oceans; still, huge knowledge gaps exist on its interactions with benthic biota. We report here the colonization of plastic substrates by the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum (L. 1758), occurring both in controlled conditions and in the wild at ca. 85 m depth in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Juveniles settled on seafloor macro-litter, with either arborescent or encrusting morphology, ranging from 0.6 to 3.5 mm in basal diameter and 0.2-7.1 years of age, also including a fraction (20%) of potentially sexually mature individuals. In controlled conditions, larvae settled and survived on plastic substrates for >60 days. Our insights show that marine plastic debris can provide favourable substrate for C. rubrum settlement either in controlled conditions or in the wild, suggesting their possible use in restoration activities. However, we pinpoint here that this potential benefit could result in adverse effects on population dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Plásticos , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Mar Mediterráneo , Residuos/análisis
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112095, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561713

RESUMEN

Rivers are a major pathway for the transport of plastics into the ocean. Plastic pollution capture devices offer one way to reduce the accumulation of plastic in the environment. This paper provides a framework for selecting a device to reduce plastic pollution in freshwater, synthesizing information of forty prevailing plastic pollution capture devices. We distinguish three major components of plastic pollution technology (booms, receptacles, and watercraft vehicles) and collect details on each technology including its features, limitations, efficiency, reported costs, and maintenance requirements. A framework is developed to aid in device selection by water and waste managers, which highlights the need for a watershed assessment, an understanding of site conditions, the attainment of community buy-in, and a long-term maintenance plan. While plastic pollution capture devices can help reduce the flux of plastic waste from freshwater, management of plastic waste at the source is also needed to ultimately clean our oceans and waterways.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Ríos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Agua Dulce , Océanos y Mares , Residuos/análisis
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112116, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581569

RESUMEN

Marine plastic pollution is a global issue, from the shores to the open ocean. Understanding the pathway and fate of plastic debris is fundamental to manage and reduce plastic pollution. Here, the fate of floating plastic pollution discharged along the coasts is studied by comparing two sources, one based on river discharges and the other on mismanaged waste from coastal populations, using a Lagrangian numerical analysis in a global ocean circulation model. About 1/3 of the particles end up in the open ocean and 2/3 on beaches. The input scenario largely influences the accumulation of particles toward the main subtropical convergence zones, with the South Pacific and North Atlantic being mostly fed by the coastal population inputs. The input scenario influences the number of beached particles that end up in several coastal areas. Beaching occurs mainly locally, although a significant number of particles travel long distances, allowing for global connectivity.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Contaminación Ambiental , Océanos y Mares , Ríos , Residuos/análisis
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112100, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581571

RESUMEN

Marine debris is a global issue with adverse impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics, and economies of nations. Several studies have been conducted to quantify the plastic debris along Indian beaches. This baseline study describes the results of a survey conducted on the types of plastic litters and their quantification during January to March 2020 along Mandvi beach in Gujarat. A quadrate having 10 × 10 m size was used for sampling the plastic litter on the shoreline. A total of 10 quadrates along the shore was considered for quantification of the plastic materials based on their density, color, and weight. The plastic material observed includes gutkha pouches, food wrappers, and fragments, along with plastic straws, cutleries, and fragments of various dimensions and thickness. The major contributing factors for the debris abundance in Mandvi beach are land-based sources and recreational activities. The results suggest that similar long-term projects covering extensive areas should be undertaken for accurate quantification of available debris and their impacts on coastal habitats of Gujarat.


Asunto(s)
Playas , Residuos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Plásticos , Residuos/análisis
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112117, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607455

RESUMEN

The distribution and abundance of buried litter on seventeen public beaches around the Sea of Marmara were investigated in the period of 12-28 August 2018. The mean weight of total litter was found to be 73 mg/m2 and the mean number of pieces was found to be 66.2/m2. Most of the litter on the public beaches originated from the tourism activities and plastic was the most common litter which accounted for 48.07% and 76% of the total items in terms of weight and number respectively. The abundance of debris by the total number of items was higher in Istanbul Kumburgaz beach (130.6 items/m2) followed by Istanbul Menekse beach (117 items/m2). Balikesir Erdek beach stood out with the least litter (25.3 items/m2). Considering the findings of the study as a potentially useful baseline for this region with a limited literature, stands out as the originality of the study.


Asunto(s)
Playas , Residuos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Turquia , Residuos/análisis
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112160, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610106

RESUMEN

Understanding public perceptions, opinions and knowledge about marine plastic litter issue is a critical step in effectively engaging society and changing human behaviour in order to reduce litter inputs. The study performs a segmentation analysis that jointly considers opinions about sources and impacts of a sample of 605 Italians with a twofold objective: i. to identify homogeneous segments of people according to the importance they attach to different sources and impacts of plastic litter; ii. to understand if behavioural aspects and personal characteristics emerged for each cluster of people. Gender, education and living areas significantly affect respondents' opinions, knowledge and behaviour. A high level of awareness and concern emerged. Four clusters- "the silent majority", "the least concerned and involved", "the little conscious of litter sources", and "the most severe and committed"-, reveal the heterogeneity of people's profiles. Policy implications in terms of knowledge, education and behaviour for reducing marine plastic pollution are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Opinión Pública , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Italia , Residuos/análisis
8.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116734, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621733

RESUMEN

Seabirds are apex predators in the marine environment and well-known ecosystem engineers, capable of changing their terrestrial habitats by introducing marine-derived nutrients via deposition of guano and other allochthonous inputs. However, with the health of the world's oceans under threat due to anthropogenic pressures such as organic, inorganic, and physical pollutants, seabirds are depositing these same pollutants wherever they come to land. Using data from 2018 to 2020, we quantify how the Flesh-footed Shearwater (Ardenna carneipes) has inadvertently introduced physical pollutants to their colonies on Lord Howe Island, a UNESCO World Heritage site in the Tasman Sea and their largest breeding colony, through a mix of regurgitated pellet (bolus) deposition and carcasses containing plastic debris. The density of plastics within the shearwater colonies ranged between 1.32 and 3.66 pieces/m2 (mean ± SE: 2.18 ± 0.32), and a total of 688,480 (95% CI: 582,409-800,877) pieces are deposited on the island each year. Our research demonstrates that seabirds are a transfer mechanism for marine-derived plastics, reintroducing items back into the terrestrial environment, thus making seabird colonies a sink for plastic debris. This phenomenon is likely occurring in seabird colonies across the globe and will increase in severity as global plastic production and marine plastic pollution accelerates without adequate mitigation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Aves , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Islas , Océanos y Mares , Residuos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
9.
Water Res ; 193: 116883, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561605

RESUMEN

The unique characteristics of bacterial communities on plastic debris and microplastics in the environment have been widely studied in recent years. However, due to the randomness of sampling, it is hard to identify whether the unique characteristics of bacterial communities on plastic debris is due to the plastics as substrate itself, or the accumulation and transportation by plastics. Therefore, the ecological effects of bacterial communities on plastic debris, including the species invasion, are still not clear. To investigate such issue, we took the Haihe Estuary (Tianjin, China) as an example, and designed a strategy to sample and redeploy randomly collected environmental plastic debris for 6 weeks, thus the variation of bacterial communities on plastic debris could be assessed. At the same time, commercial experimental plastic debris was used as the control group to monitor the growth of local bacterial communities on plastics in the cultivation environment. Our study discussed the bacterial communities on the environmental plastic debris from three aspects, including colonization characteristics, taxonomic analysis and molecular metabolism estimation. We found that the bacterial communities on environmental plastic debris tended to show local characteristics, which were less affected by their original characteristics. Therefore, the results reminded us that the ecological risks of bacterial communities on plastics, which were brought by the transportation of plastic debris in the environment, may not be as serious as it was expected previously.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bacterias/genética , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Humanos , Plásticos , Residuos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112019, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548806

RESUMEN

We evaluated the status of anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) in two natural mangrove forests on Mauritius, one of which in proximity to human settlement (Mahebourg) and the other more remote (Ferney). AMD was collected monthly from October to December 2018 in 1500 m2 at both sites and classified into material composition and their potential sources. In all, 2127 items (150.07 kg) was sampled at Mahebourg and 1098 items (43.71 kg) at Ferney. In line with global studies, plastic made up most of the debris in terms of both count (42.92%, 43.66%) and total weight (40.65%, 32.08%) at Mahebourg and Ferney respectively. Most debris originated from shoreline and recreational activities. This work sets a baseline to assess impacts of AMD on mangroves, public awareness required and future strategies for waste monitoring and management in mangroves that may be applied both locally and on other small islands.


Asunto(s)
Residuos , Humedales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Islas , Mauricio , Océanos y Mares , Plásticos , Residuos/análisis
11.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 6614565, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564314

RESUMEN

Background: Mismanagement of healthcare waste (HCW) during the COVID-19 pandemic can facilitate the transmission of coronavirus. Regarding this problem, there is gap of evidence in Ethiopia, and this study aimed to assess the HCW generation rate and management in Tepi General Hospital, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional and case studies were conducted. The total amount of waste generated and its type among various case teams were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess the correlation between the total numbers of patients and the total amount of HCW generated. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim, translated to English, and analyzed with Open Code version 4.02 software, and content analysis was followed. Results: The total mean weight (±SD) of waste generation rate in all service units of the hospital was 492.5 ± 11.5 kg/day. The higher proportion (61.9%) of the total HCW produced was general waste and the remaining (38.1%) was hazardous waste. There was a statistically significant (X 2 = 82.1, p < 0.001) difference in daily HCW generation rate among different case teams. Similarly, the hospital waste generation amount and total patient flow had a strong positive linear relationship (r = 0.7, p=0.032). COVID-19-related medical wastes were not properly handled, segregated, stored, and disposed. There was a scarcity of resources needed to manage HCW, and available resources were utilized poorly. Overall, healthcare wastes were managed as usual (pre-COVID-19). Conclusion: The mean HCW generation rate in Tepi General Hospital was high. Overall, wastes were mismanaged, and COVID-19-related HCWs have been managed as usual. Availing of important resources and training the concerned bodies should be considered during the crisis of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/métodos , Residuos/análisis , /prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Hospitales Generales , Humanos , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Residuos/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Waste Manag ; 124: 203-212, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631445

RESUMEN

A heterogeneous amount of waste of different origins is continuously generated along Italian coasts in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, using information regarding the quantities and the different types of marine litter based on Project AWARE's "Dive Against Debris" data, we try to identify the main sources of this waste. In particular, the methodological approach used associates the origin of marine litter sources with the dataset of geo-localised state-owned maritime concessions, which are loaded by the granting bodies (regions, municipalities, port authorities) on the State Property Information System (Sid). The sources of marine litter were evaluated using the matrix scoring technique (MST). Then, to assess the weight of each source in each station, the community-level weighted mean (CWM) was calculated. Single-use plastic accounted for the highest percentage (19.13%), followed by glass beverage bottles (10.90%), shopping bags (9.03%), aluminium beverage cans (4.91%), and cigarette butts (4.61%). Tourism and beach users contributed to 42.3% of the litter found, followed by fishing (15.7%) and yachting (11.3%). The overlapping of the data collected by scuba divers with the state concessions of activities from offshore and mainland areas was used to distinguish the anthropic pressures that impact the coast. Policy makers and the local administrator may use these results to define new methods of collection and reuse of anthropic waste through a more harmonised approach in the management of marine waste.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Residuos , Italia , Mar Mediterráneo , Plásticos , Residuos/análisis
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112167, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610112

RESUMEN

The eastern Mediterranean is a region that has been relatively understudied with regards to anthropogenic marine litter despite potential for environmental and social costs. Here, coastal marine litter accumulation was assessed at eight beach locations along the coast of Northern Cyprus. Monthly surveys were performed between January 2017 and January 2019. All items ≥ 2.5 cm in diameter within the same 250 m2 plot were collected and processed. A total of 59,556 separate items were collected with a total mass of 697 kg. At the worst affected site (Ronnas Bay) litter accumulation averaged 1114 items and 11.9 kg per month. Plastic and polystyrene litter accounted for 82% (622.71 kg) of all litter types by mass and 96% (57,231) by frequency. Plastic bags, plastic pieces, drinks containers, caps/lids were the four most abundant forms of plastic by mass and by frequency. This suggests dumping/poor domestic waste governance as the main driver of marine litter in the region.


Asunto(s)
Playas , Residuos , Chipre , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Residuos/análisis
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112168, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611233

RESUMEN

The accumulation of plastic debris in the Algerian coasts is due to inadequate solid waste management and the inhabitants' behavior. To quantify and characterize the plastic pollution, we collected plastic items (≥1 mm) in the sediment of nine beaches covering 124 km of the Algerian western coast. The plastic concentration varied between 7.6 ± 18.8 and 66 ± 107.28 items/m2. With 83.27%, fragments were the predominant items as micro- and macro-plastics, whereas pellets were mainly present as microplastics (14.93%); films represented 1.03%. We recorded the highest values for the number of plastic items/m2 in beaches located close to coastal villages. Regarding the number and the weight of the plastic debris, we registered significant differences between the locations. Although the plastic pollution is currently moderate in the study area, local authorities are compelled to be aware of its increase. Therefore, the improvement of the solid waste management is urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Playas , Plásticos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Microplásticos , Residuos/análisis
15.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(2): 198-212, 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475108

RESUMEN

The presence of plastics in the marine environment poses a threat to ocean life and has received much scientific and public attention in recent years. Plastics were introduced to the market in the 1950s and since then, global production figures and ocean plastic littering have increased exponentially. Of the 359 million tonnes (Mt) produced in 2018, an estimated 14.5 Mt has entered the ocean. In particular smaller plastic particles can be ingested by marine biota causing hazardous effects. Plastic marine debris (PMD) is exposed to physical, chemical and biological stressors. These cause macro and microplastic to break down into smaller fragments, including sub micrometre sized nanoplastic particles, which may account for an important but so far unevaluated fraction of the ocean plastic budget. Physicochemical and biological deterioration of PMD also leads to the release of more volatile compounds and the terminal oxidation of PMD, which most likely accounts for an important but also unevaluated fraction in the ocean plastic budget. This minireview provides an overview on (1) the quantity of plastic production and waste, pathways for plastics to enter the marine realm, the inventory of PMD and the negative effects of PMD to ocean life. (2) We discuss plastic degradation mechanisms in the ocean, expanding on the processes of photodegradation and biodegradation. (3) This review also highlights the emerging topic of nanoplastics in the sea and provides an overview on their specific physical and chemical properties, potential harm to ocean life, and nanoplastic detection techniques.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Biodegradación Ambiental , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microplásticos , Océanos y Mares , Residuos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 111974, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485020

RESUMEN

Aerial and underwater imaging is being widely used for monitoring litter objects found at the sea surface, beaches and seafloor. However, litter monitoring requires a considerable amount of human effort, indicating the need for automatic and cost-effective approaches. Here we present an object detection approach that automatically detects seafloor marine litter in a real-world environment using a Region-based Convolution Neural Network. The neural network is trained on an imagery with 11 manually annotated litter categories and then evaluated on an independent part of the dataset, attaining a mean average precision score of 62%. The presence of other background features in the imagery (e.g., algae, seagrass, scattered boulders) resulted to higher number of predicted litter items compare to the observed ones. The results of the study are encouraging and suggest that deep learning has the potential to become a significant tool for automatically recognizing seafloor litter in surveys, accomplishing continuous and precise litter monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Plásticos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Residuos/análisis
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112010, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485022

RESUMEN

Caribbean islands, including Puerto Rico, are biodiversity hotspots threatened by microplastics (<5 mm). Little is known about the extent of microplastic pollution in coastal sandy beaches of Puerto Rico. Sand from six northern beaches was collected in the high tide line to determine microplastic abundance (0.3-4.75 mm). Península La Esperanza, the most polluted beach, exhibited higher average abundance (17 items/kg dw) and diversity. High urbanization, industrial/port activities, and riverine input are likely sources of plastic debris on this beach. The other beaches showed lower and similar average abundance (3 to 7 items/kg dw) despite having distinct potential point and non-point sources. Overall, fibers (40%), fragments (28%) and foams (27%) predominated (n = 102 particles). Results showed comparable levels to other world beaches, some classified as highly contaminated, but only when transforming units to items/m2. Preliminary ATR-FTIR analysis identified mainly polyethylene. It is imperative to have plastics source reduction through waste management.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Playas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Puerto Rico , Residuos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Indias Occidentales
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112039, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515827

RESUMEN

The abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris from 2012 to 2014 was assessed according to three bottom trawl surveys conducted on the upper continental slope between 198 m and 501 m off the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The surveys quantitated marine debris as follows: 33.52-164.62 items km-2 (January to July 2012), 91.68-215.11 items km-2 (November 2012 to May 2013), and 160.13-178.19 items km-2 (November 2013 to May 2014). Plastic bags or household materials mainly dominated terrestrial sources of debris. Principal component analysis latitudinally divided the study area according to debris abundance caused by geographical and hydrodynamic features. The long-term effect of tsunami-associated debris on the seafloor environment was recognized, because terrestrial sources such as heavy household materials were most abundant throughout the study period, with the additional accumulation of fishing gear and plastic bags.


Asunto(s)
Terremotos , Tsunamis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Japón , Plásticos , Residuos/análisis
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112021, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515831

RESUMEN

Marine debris is widespread worldwide, from coastal areas to remote protected oceanic islands. We assessed marine macro-debris on the shores of Fernando de Noronha, an archipelago 360 km off Brazil that encompasses no-take and multiple-use areas. The windward uninhabited coast, more exposed to oceanic currents and winds and inside a no-take area, presented higher abundance of plastic debris. The leeward coast, within the multiple-use urban area, presented more disposable plastics and cigarette butts. These patterns may be explained by the marine debris transportation by ocean currents to the windward side and by locally generated debris by the high quantity of beach users in the leeward coast. These results indicate that oceanographic characteristics and tourism infrastructure play important roles in the accumulation of marine debris in a protected archipelago. They also serve as a baseline for future monitoring initiatives and to improve strategies to tackle plastic pollution within this remote archipelago.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Brasil , Islas , Océanos y Mares , Residuos/análisis
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 163: 105219, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418462

RESUMEN

Plastic found in the coastal zone is a result of waste mismanagement. This material comes directly from offshore disposal or by fishing debris, other marine activities, and by marine currents and winds, as well as urban drainage systems and estuaries. Specifically, in the case of plastic pellets, which are spheres with 2-5 mm that constitute the raw material for the manufacture of plastic products, the Santos Port and the plastic factories in Cubatão city (Brazilian southeastern coast), are considered the main local sources for the São Paulo state coast. Consequently, the beaches most affected by this pollutant are those near Santos estuary, like Enseada do Guarujá beach. However, some questions are still open, such as: what are the mechanisms which control the pellets deposition, and which locations are most favorable for deposition on the beach? To answer these questions, a four-step research was carried out at Enseada beach: 1) Plastic pellets geodetic survey based on GNSS positioning; 2) Beach geomorphometric parameters (altitude, aspect, and slope) derived by Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) Strandline altitude estimated through wave climate and tide height; and, 4) Plastic pellets deposition Suitability Index (PSI). The joint analysis of the altimetric, geomorphometric and meteoceanographic aspects showed that the beach areas with altitudes higher than those calculated for the strandline (>2.06 m), slope ~ 3° and facing the same direction of the higher energy waves (157.5-202.5°) were more susceptible to pellet deposition. This indicates that the accumulation of this pollutant on the beach is controlled not only by its physical characteristics, but mainly by storm surge events. Besides, surveys with geodetic reference (fixed, univocal, and relatively stable on time) bring up altimetric information as a result of all interactions and can be compared with other beaches anywhere on the planet - thus contributing to a standardization of the survey methodology.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Plásticos , Playas , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Residuos/análisis
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