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1.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(2): 95-103, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977947

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to investigate a charge nurse pilot training program as an effective, evidence-based training modality to improve leadership style and resiliency. BACKGROUND: Leadership is inherent and necessary in the charge nurse role. Little published research about charge nurse leadership training programs exists. METHODS: A pre-post design, with intervention and comparison groups, was conducted at an integrated healthcare system. A random sample of charge nurses was selected to pilot a standardized charge nurse leadership training program including in-person learning to foster leadership skills and nurture resiliency. RESULTS: The sample included 19 control participants and 22 intervention participants. Significant improvement was noted in transformational, transactional, leadership outcomes, and resiliency from preintervention to postintervention for the all subjects. Of the 22 intervention participants, the training elicited higher satisfaction with leadership behavior, followed by effectiveness and their ability to motivate. Charge nurses who attended training had higher resiliency scores pre-post intervention. CONCLUSION: The charge nurse pilot training was an effective program that led to improved leadership style and resiliency.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Enfermeras Administradoras/educación , Enfermeras Administradoras/psicología , Rol de la Enfermera/psicología , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/educación , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Supervisión de Enfermería/organización & administración , Resiliencia Psicológica , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sudeste de Estados Unidos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
BMJ ; 368: l6880, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992555

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (referred to here as autism) is one of several overlapping neurodevelopmental conditions that have variable impacts on different individuals. This variability results from dynamic interactions between biological and non-biological risk factors, which result in increasing differentiation between individuals over time. Although this differentiation continues well into adulthood, the infancy period is when the brain and behavior develop rapidly, and when the first signs and symptoms of autism emerge. This review discusses advances in our understanding of the causal pathways leading to autism and overlapping neurodevelopmental conditions. Research is also mapping trajectories of brain and behavioral development for some risk groups, namely later born siblings of children with autism and/or infants referred because of developmental concerns. This knowledge has been useful in improving early identification and establishing the feasibility of targeted interventions for infant risk groups before symptoms arise. However, key knowledge gaps remain, such as the discovery of protective factors (biological or environmental) that may mitigate the impact of risk. Also, the dynamic mechanisms that underlie the associations between risk factors and outcomes need further research. These include the processes of resilience, which may explain why some individuals at risk for autism achieve better than expected outcomes. Bridging these knowledge gaps would help to provide tools for early identification and intervention that reflect dynamic developmental pathways from risk to outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Desarrollo Infantil , Factores Protectores , Trastorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Trastorno Autístico/epidemiología , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Diagnóstico Precoz , Humanos , Lactante , Pronóstico , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores de Riesgo
3.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(1): 113-119, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960403

RESUMEN

The article describes the author's nursing experience providing psychiatric homecare to a patient with chronic schizophrenia using the concept of resilience. Holistic nursing assessments were conducted via clinical observations during home visits every two weeks from May 24th to September 20th, 2018. Through these assessments, the main health problems of the patient were defined as ineffective self-health management, ineffective coping skills, and insufficient resilience. The nursing interventions implemented were designed to establish the patient's capacity to effectively and correctly self-manage health status, achieve emotional accommodation, and reduce parent-child conflicts. In order to enhance the resilience of the patient, the patient was guided to review important support resources over the course of illness, to detect the barriers of returning society, to apply the beneficial skills of health management, and then extend the status of employment and to enhance self-fulfillment.


Asunto(s)
Resiliencia Psicológica , Esquizofrenia/enfermería , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Adaptación Psicológica , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Humanos , Automanejo/psicología
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919935, 2020 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995212

RESUMEN

Importance: Understanding suicide ideation (SI) during combat deployment can inform prevention and treatment during and after deployment. Objective: To examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime and past-year stressors, and mental disorders with 30-day SI among a representative sample of US Army soldiers deployed in Afghanistan. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this survey study, soldiers deployed to Afghanistan completed self-administered questionnaires in July 2012. The sample was weighted to represent all 87 032 soldiers serving in Afghanistan. Prevalence of lifetime, past-year, and 30-day SI and mental disorders was determined. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors associated with SI. Data analyses for this study were conducted between August 2018 and August 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Suicide ideation, lifetime and 12-month stressors, and mental disorders were assessed with questionnaires. Administrative records identified sociodemographic characteristics and suicide attempts. Results: A total of 3957 soldiers (3473 [weighted 87.5%] male; 2135 [weighted 52.6%] aged ≤29 years) completed self-administered questionnaires during their deployment in Afghanistan. Lifetime, past-year, and 30-day SI prevalence estimates were 11.7%, 3.0%, and 1.9%, respectively. Among soldiers with SI, 44.2% had major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19.3% had posttraumatic stress disorder in the past 30-day period. A series of analyses of the 23 grouped variables potentially associated with SI resulted in a final model of sex; race/ethnicity; lifetime noncombat trauma; past 12-month relationship problems, legal problems, and death or illness of a friend or family member; and MDD. In this final multivariable model, white race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 3.1 [95% CI, 1.8-5.1]), lifetime noncombat trauma (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1-4.0]), and MDD (past 30 days: OR, 31.8 [95% CI, 15.0-67.7]; before past 30 days: OR, 4.9 [95% CI, 2.5-9.6]) were associated with SI. Among the 85 soldiers with past 30-day SI, from survey administration through 12 months after returning from deployment, 6% (5 participants) had a documented suicide attempt vs 0.14% (6 participants) of the 3872 soldiers without SI. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that major depressive disorder and noncombat trauma are important factors in identifying SI risk during combat deployment.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Suicidio/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Campaña Afgana 2001- , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Resiliencia Psicológica , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
5.
Codas ; 32(2): e20190093, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939494

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The attitude of mothers of children who stutter is believed to be crucial in the management of therapy process. Therefore, this study aimed at the description of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of mothers of children with stuttering, as well as at the exploration of the relationship between them. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 33 mothers of children with stuttering aged 6-12 years. The data were gathered using the following instruments: Mother Resilience Scale, Revised Parental Social Support Scale, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Stuttering Severity Instrument-4, and a personal information form. RESULTS: Resilience of mothers of children who stutter was high, whereas perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of the participants were lower. Mother's increased level of perceived social support resulted in increased resilience level and decreased trait anxiety level. The trait anxiety levels of mothers with a college degree were significantly lower than those of mothers with other education levels. No statistically significant correlation was observed between stuttering severity and the levels of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety. CONCLUSION: Although mothers of stuttering children present the required skills to cope with the situation, it is believed that they need more social support. Consequently, offering professional support to mothers in the course of stuttering management and referring them to appropriate intervention programs are emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Madres/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Apoyo Social , Tartamudeo/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Percepción , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18461, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895777

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to examine the effect of protective factors on the relationship between crisis episodes and depression in the elderly population in Taiwan.In this study, the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging was used as basis for a cross-sectional secondary data analysis. After eliminating respondents below the age of 65 years and those with missing values, 2426 samples were collected. Predictive variables, such as crisis episodes, personal resources, family ties, social participation, and social support, were investigated, and the dependent variable of "depression status" was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale.According to the results of regression analysis, the protective factors of self-assessed health (ß = -0.290, P < .001), instrumental support (ß = -0.153, P < .001), financial satisfaction (ß = -0.126, P < .001), emotional support (ß = -0.101, P < .001), crisis episodes (ß = 0.087, P < .001), support satisfaction (ß = -0.081, P < .001), leisure participation (ß = -0.053, P < .05), family ties (ß = -0.048, P < .05), and community participation (ß = -0.042, P < .05) had a significant effect on depression status. Moreover, leisure participation had a moderating effect on the relationship between crisis episodes and depression (ß = -0.07, P < .01). In addition, according to path analysis results, family ties had a significant negative predictive power on depression (ß = -0.225, P < .001), as did social support (ß = -0.978, P < .001). The predictive power of crisis episodes on depression through social support was 0.197 (-0.201 × -0.978 = 0.197, P < .001), and it was -0.324 (-0.331 × -0.978 = -0.324, P < .001) through social participation, which indicated that social support plays a mediating role between crisis episodes and depression and between social participation and depression.Strengthening effective protective factors can improve the resilience of elderly people and enable them to cope with dilemmas rapidly and effectively when faced with crisis episodes as well as restore their health status and enjoy a satisfactory life.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores Protectores , Apoyo Social , Taiwán/epidemiología
7.
Disasters ; 44(1): 125-151, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231816

RESUMEN

Resilience has become a dominant disaster governance discourse. It has been criticised for insufficiently addressing systemic vulnerabilities while urging the vulnerable to self-organise. The urban resilience discourse involves a particular disconnect: it evokes 'robustness' and unaffectedness at the city scale on the one hand, and self-organisation of disaster-affected people and neighbourhoods on the other. This paper explains and illustrates the dual discourse through a case study on the reconstruction of informal and low-income settlements in the aftermath of the fire in Valparaíso, Chile, in 2014, focusing on the communication contents of two non-governmental organisations (NGOs). These NGOs deployed the discourse differently, yet both called for affected neighbourhoods to build a more robust city through self-organisation, and both suggested their work as the missing link between self-organisation and robustness. A danger in deploying the dual discourse is that it requires people who live in informal and low-income settlements to earn their right to the robust city through 'better' self-organisation based on fragmented visions.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Características de la Residencia , Resiliencia Psicológica , Población Urbana , Chile , Ciudades , Humanos
8.
Disasters ; 44(1): 103-124, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231821

RESUMEN

Urban planning can serve to minimise the effects of a tsunami and enhance community resilience. This study explores to what extent urban planning has addressed tsunami resilience in four villages on Chile's South Pacific coast, each of which was struck by tsunamis in 1960, 2010, and 2015. Through a detailed policy review and semi-structured interviews with residents, this paper analyses whether tsunami mitigation policies were incorporated into regional and local planning tools. It finds that although the government proposed relocation to tsunami-safe areas after the tsunami of 1960, urban development continued mainly in tsunami inundation zones-in the context of weak local planning frameworks and in the absence of community participation. In only one of the four case studies did participatory planning bring about the relocation of an entire village to a safe location. This paper concludes that incorporating participatory risk zone planning into urban planning enhances tsunami resilience.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades/organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad/psicología , Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Resiliencia Psicológica , Tsunamis , Chile , Humanos , Riesgo
9.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 10(3): 43-59, dez. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049897

RESUMEN

Este artigo objetivou mensurar os níveis de Bem-Estar Subjetivo (BES) e de resiliência em diabéticos, além de verificar a correlação entre a resiliência e os fatores que compõem o bem-estar subjetivo. Foram aplicadas as escalas de BES e de resiliência em 104 diabéticos (média de idade= 56,16; DP= 13,01), residentes na cidade de João Pessoa- PB. Os resultados evidenciaram que 65,4% dos participantes apresentaram altos níveis de BES. Quanto à resiliência, constatou-se que a maioria possui entre moderada (63,5%) e alta capacidade (28,8%), além de melhor desempenho na dimensão de ações e valores. Observou-se também, correlação positiva entre a dimensão afeto positivo da escala BES com as dimensões ações e valores (r= 0,58) e autoconfiança (r= 0,23) da escala da resiliência. Dessa forma, o aumento da vivência de emoções positivas entre os diabéticos pode atuar de forma a incrementar melhor aceitação de si no tocante à doença e sua terapêutica (AU).


This article aims to measure the levels of Subjective Well-Being (SWB) and resilience in diabetics, as well as to verify the correlation between resilience and the factors that make up the subjective well-being. The SWB and resilience scales were applied in 104 diabetic patients (mean age= 56.16; SD= 13.01), living in the city of João Pessoa- PB. The results showed that 65.4% of the participants presented high levels of SWB. With respect to resilience, it was verified that the majority have between moderate (63.5%) and high capacity (28.8%), besides a better performance in the dimension of actions and values. It was found that the positive affect dimension of the SWB scale correlated with the actions and values dimensions (r = 0.58) and self-confidence (r = 0.23) of the resilience scale. Thus, increasing the experience of positive emotions among diabetics, can act to increase better acceptance of self in relation to the disease and its treatment (AU).


El objetivo del siguiente artículo fue la medición de los niveles del Bienestar Subjetivo (BES) y la resiliencia en diabéticos, además de verificar la correlación entre la resiliencia y los factores que componen el bienestar subjetivo. Se aplicaron las escalas de BES y de resiliencia en 104 diabéticos (edad media= 56,16, DP = 13,01), residentes en la ciudad de João Pessoa - PB. Los resultados evidenciaron que el 65,4% de los participantes presentaron altos niveles de BES. En cuanto a la resiliencia, se constató que la mayoría posee entre moderada (63,5%) y alta capacidad (28,8%), además de un mejor desempeño en la dimensión de acciones y valores. Se observó también correlación positiva entre la dimensión afectiva positiva de la escala BES con las dimensiones acciones y valores (r = 0,58) y autoconfianza (r = 0,23) de la escala de la resiliencia. De esta forma, el aumento de la vivencia de emociones positivas entre los diabéticos puede actuar para incrementar mejor aceptación de sí en lo referente a la enfermedad y su terapéutica (AU).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica , Diabetes Mellitus , Resiliencia Psicológica
10.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(5): 618-627, 2019 May.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859894

RESUMEN

Medical resilience is a dynamic capacity, which has the potential to improve the well-being of physicians and to enhance the quality of the clinical relationship. Strategies to promote resilience are important to achieve a sustainable medical practice and improve patient care. Mindfulness training has demonstrated to be an effective tool to promote resilience in physicians. This paper contextualizes the place of mindfulness in medical practice and describes the ways through which it can contribute to resilience in medicine. The concept of mindfulness, its relationship with health practice is reviewed and the benefits of the practice of mindfulness in the clinical relationship are described. We suggest that the benefits achieved through a mindfulness-based medical practice are mediated by two axes. One is the nonspecific and specific effect of mindfulness-based practices and the other is the integration of explicit and implicit knowledge of clinical practice. We conclude that medical practice that integrates mindfulness can contribute to the challenge of achieving greater levels of individual, staff and institutional resilience. There is a need to have continuing mindfulness training programs for health professionals and to integrate this concept in the curriculum of health care professionals.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Atención al Paciente/psicología , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Resiliencia Psicológica , Agotamiento Psicológico/psicología , Empatía , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico
11.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 292-318, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019286

RESUMEN

Abstract Resilience implies a process of positive adjustment to adverse conditions. The growing interest in their study demands the need for valid and reliable measurement instruments that allow assessments with scientific rigor in different types of populations. The aim of the present research was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Resilience Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents. 512 students from a high school of the University of Guadalajara, Mexico, participated. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-dimensional composition with 18 items than explain 61.18% of the variance, with an excellent level of reliability (a = .90). Through confirmatory factor analysis, the model was corroborated, presenting adequate levels of adjustment. Convergent validity was assessed using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, obtaining significant positive correlations with the dimensions of resilience. The divergent validity was assessed through the Depression Scale of the Epidemiological Studies Center - Revised, showing significant negative correlations. Results and practical implications are discussed.


Resumo O estudo da resiliência, capacidade que implica um processo de adaptação positiva às condições de adversidade, passou por um crescente interesse nos últimos anos que demanda a necessidade de contar com instrumentos de medição válidos e confiáveis que permitam realizar avaliações com rigor científico em diferentes tipos de população. Por esse motivo, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar as propriedades psicométricas do Questionário de Resiliência para Crianças e Adolescentes com uma amostra de 512 estudantes do Ensino Médio preparatório da Universidade de Guadalajara, no México. Inicialmente, realizou-se uma análise fatorial exploratória que resultou em uma composição de quatro dimensões com 18 itens que explicam 61,18% da variância, com um nível de confiabilidade alto (a = .90), e uma análise fatorial confirmatória com a qual se corroborou o modelo, com níveis adequados de ajuste. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a validade convergente do instrumento com a Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, com a qual foram obtidas correlações positivas significativas com as dimensões da resiliência. E, por último, aplicou-se a validade divergente com a Escala de Depressão do Centro de Estudos Epidemiológicos (Revisada), com a qual foram encontradas correlações negativas significativas. Por fim, discutem-se os resultados e as implicações práticas.


Resumen El estudio de la resiliencia, capacidad que implica un proceso de adaptación positiva a condiciones de adversidad, ha tenido un creciente interés en los últimos años que demanda la necesidad de contar con instrumentos de medición válidos y confiables que permitan hacer evaluaciones con rigor científico en diferentes tipos de poblaciones. Por esta razón, la presente investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Resiliencia para Niños y Adolescentes con una muestra de 512 estudiantes de una preparatoria de la Universidad de Guadalajara, México. Inicialmente, se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio que arrojó una composición de cuatro dimensiones con 18 ítems que explican 61.18% de la varianza, con un nivel de confiabilidad alto (a = .90); y un análisis factorial confirmatorio con el que se corroboró el modelo, con niveles adecuados de ajuste. Posteriormente, se evaluó la validez convergente del instrumento con la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, donde se obtuvieron correlaciones positivas significativas con las dimensiones de la resiliencia. Y, por último, se valoró la validez divergente con la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos (Revisada), donde se encontraron correlaciones significativas negativas. Al final se discuten los resultados y las implicaciones prácticas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Análisis Factorial , Adolescente , Resiliencia Psicológica
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 479-489, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705509

RESUMEN

Understanding of the psychopathology of various psychiatric disorders is evolving, with newer avenues of research enlightening us from genetics, epigenetics, functional neurobiology, neural circuits, hormones and social/environmental determinants. We are now aware that neurobiological factors are contributing to the development of psychiatric illnesses coupled with their interaction with psychosocial factors. Resilience is defined as the ability to bounce back after an adversity or life event that was traumatic and life-changing. It is a factor that is a unique psychopathological construct as it is a biopsychosocial factor which determines an individual's response to an illness and recovery from the same. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stress and to revert to a positive state. There has been now a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience with respect to stress risk vulnerability and such dimensions of psychopathology. Resilience is a factor that must be evaluated in every patient and that shall help us determine the outcome of psychiatric disorders and will also be a determinant in the occurrence of relapses. Early identification of vulnerable patients shall lead to the implementation of resilience-based interventions in these populations and shall prevent against future occurrence of these disorders. In this chapter, we posit the construct of resilience as a psychopathological construct for mental disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Psicopatología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Neurobiología
13.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(5): 403-432, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736046

RESUMEN

The increasing impacts of disasters, caused by more frequent extreme events coupled with the growth of adverse anthropogenic activities, has raised the importance of fostering more resilient communities. Measuring resilience is a vital step in the process of building and strengthening a community's resilience as it helps with identifying the priorities and monitoring the progress. The objective of the current research is to catalog variables proposed in the literature as measures of households' resilience to disasters. Searching the literature through content analysis and applying three selection criteria resulted in a list of 149 variables. These criteria required the variables to be influential on disaster resilience of households, to be quantitatively measurable, and to be obtainable from publicly available data sources. Additionally, a selection of resilience and vulnerability assessment models suggested in the literature were reviewed to highlight the importance of resilience variables in addressing their planned objectives. The variables were classified into five categories titled demographic, socioeconomic, infrastructural, environmental, and institutional. Further analysis of the variables led to identification of the most prevalent variables and commonalities among the categories, aimed to provide a more integrated approach toward resilience planning. This research can serve as an initial yet relatively extensive inventory for selecting variables that are deemed to be influential on households' resilience to extreme events. Further, quantifying a community's resilience using resilience variables can help with identifying and prioritizing the resilience needs, monitoring the progress, and justifying the costs of resilience programs.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Resiliencia Psicológica , Planificación en Desastres , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Salud Pública
14.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(5): 385-401, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736045

RESUMEN

Situated in Yogyakarta's northern region, Merapi is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. Surrounded by densely populated farming communities, Merapi has had 68 eruptions since 1548. Merapi's 2010 eruption was marked by bursts of ash clouds, subsidence of its top-most layer, inundation of rivers and soils by lava currents, and the alteration of its surrounding natural landscapes. Local communities depend on the natural resources on Merapi's slope for farming, livelihood, and subsistence. The eruption had sizable impacts on community lives in terms of living conditions, livelihood, and social and political structures. The dynamics of community life in response to Merapi's volcanic activities are highlighted. Using a particular focus on farming communities as the case study, the article discusses community user groups' adaptive management capacity to dynamic natural landscape frequently marked by volcanic eruptions. The discussions support local government in fostering community resilience and social cohesion in response to Merapi's activities. Empirical findings suggest that social institutions and local rules come into play and the people practice collective disaster management on behalf of the community. These social institutions take the form of neighborly ties, reciprocity, collective identity, and social and ecological responsibilities. Merapi's pasture is not free access, but dynamically governed by local and informal rules to maintain its benefits for the safety of the community.


Asunto(s)
Creación de Capacidad , Participación de la Comunidad , Conducta Cooperativa , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Desastres , Erupciones Volcánicas/efectos adversos , Humanos , Indonesia , Resiliencia Psicológica
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1413, 2019 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664974

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is crucial period for laying the foundations for healthy development and mental well-being. The increasing prevalence of mental disorders amongst adolescents makes promotion of mental well-being and prevention interventions at schools important. UPRIGHT (Universal Preventive Resilience Intervention Globally implemented in schools to improve and promote mental Health for Teenagers) is designed as a whole school approach (school community, students and families) to promote a culture of mental well-being and prevent mental disorders by enhancing resilience capacities. The present article aims at describing the rationale, conceptual framework, as well as methodology of implementation and evaluation of the UPRIGHT intervention. METHODS: UPRIGHT project is a research and innovation project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under grant agreement No. 754919 (Duration: 48 months). The theoretical framework has been developed by an innovative and multidisciplinary approach using a co-creation process inside the UPRIGHT Consortium (involving seven institutions from Spain, Italy, Poland, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland). Resulted is the UPRIGHT programme with 18 skills related to 4 components: Mindfulness, Coping, Efficacy and Social and Emotional Learning. Among the five Pan-European regions, 34 schools have been currently involved (17 control; 17 intervention) and around 6000 adolescents and their families are foreseen to participate along a 3-year period of evaluation. Effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated as a randomized controlled trial including quantitative and qualitative analysis in the five Pan-European regions representative of the cultural and socioeconomic diversity. The cost-effectiveness assessment will be performed by simulation modelling methods. DISCUSSION: We expect a short- to medium-term improvement of mental well-being in adolescents by enhancing resilience capacities. The study may provide robust evidence on intrapersonal, familiar and social environmental resilience factors promoting positive mental well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03951376 . Registered 15 May 2019.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Resiliencia Psicológica , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 46(5): 521-530, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566347

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to clarify and conceptualize the phenomenon of the resilience of patients on hemodialysis. Three phases of a hybrid model were applied. In the theoretical phase, a working definition of the resilience of patients on hemodialysis was developed via literature review. In the fieldwork phase, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 patients. Qualitative data from the interviews were analyzed to find attributes of resilience for patients on hemodialysis. The final analytical phase interpreted and compared findings of the theoretical and fieldwork phases. The concept of the resilience of patients on hemodialysis was as a complex phenomenon possessing several dimensions and attributes, delineating how patients on hemodialysis perceive and overcome hemodialysis. This conceptualization could lead to demonstrating a theoretical construct of resilience of patients on hemodialysis.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Diálisis Renal/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Humanos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17518, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626112

RESUMEN

Little is known about the relationship between levels of self-esteem and the development of depression in young adults. The present study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and depression to determine whether self-esteem levels are a risk factor for the development of depression in young adults. This study was conducted with 113 college students aged 19 to 35 (major depressive disorder (MDD) n = 44, Mild Depressive Symptoms (MDS) n = 37, Healthy Control n = 32). The levels of clinical symptoms, self-esteem, resilience, social support, and quality of life, as well as personality traits, were assessed (by Patient Health Questionnaire-9, generalized anxiety disease-7, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S, Resilience Appraisal Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Quality of Life, and NEO-personality inventory (NEO-PI)). The MDS group with high self-esteem reported having the lowest levels of social support, resilience, agreeableness, and extraversion compared to those of the MDD group and control group with high self-esteem. In contrast, the MDS group with low self-esteem showed no differences in social support, resilience, agreeableness and openness according to the NEO-PI scale. Sex and age had no significant impact on the results. Levels of self-esteem are strongly associated with the development of depression. Results suggest that early intervention for depression in young adults needs to focus on improving their levels of social support, resilience, and positive domains of personality. Further studies on the effects of high self-esteem in the development of depression are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Autoimagen , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidad , Inventario de Personalidad , Calidad de Vida , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores de Riesgo , Apoyo Social , Adulto Joven
18.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 37(3): [E05], 15 Octubre 2019. Tab 1, Tab 2
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1023484

RESUMEN

Objective. The study sought to explore the relationship between levels of stress and resilience with the use of the mobile phone in nursing students. Methods. Cross-sectional study conducted with 102 nursing students from several Nursing schools in India who were invited to participate in the research. The data were gathered by using the following instruments: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen, The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC), and Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ) by Walsh. Results. Most of the participants were women (94.1%), studying in the undergraduate (70.6%), with a mean age of 25.2 years. In all, 77.5% of the students had stress perception between moderate and high, 20.6% had high resilience capacity, and 25.5% were frequent mobile phone users. Perceived stress was correlated significantly and negatively with age and resilience capacity. Graduate students had greater capacity to recover than undergraduate students. Conclusion. This study indicates the negative relation of resilience capacity with stress and the use of mobile phones among nursing students. Hence, it is necessary for institutions preparing nurses to develop intervention strategies to enhance the resilience capacity, improve skills to manage stress, and healthy use of the mobile phone.


Objetivo. Explorar la relación entre los niveles de estrés y resiliencia con el uso del teléfono móvil en estudiantes hindúes de enfermería. Métodos. Estudio de corte transversal realizado con 102 estudiantes de enfermería de varias escuelas de enfermería en la India a quienes se invitó a participar en la investigación. Los datos se recopilaron con la ayuda de los siguientes instrumentos: Percibed Stress Scale (PSS) de Cohen, The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) y Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ) de Walsh. Resultados La mayoría de los participantes fueron mujeres (94.1%), estudiaban pregrado (70.6%) y tenían un promedio de edad de 25.2 años. El 77.5% de los estudiantes tenía una percepción de estrés entre moderada y alta; el 20.6% tenía alta capacidad de resiliencia y el 25.5% eran usuarios frecuentes de teléfonos móviles. El estrés percibido se correlacionó significativamente y de manera negativa con la edad y la capacidad de resiliencia. Los estudiantes de posgrado tuvieron mayor capacidad de recuperación que los estudiantes de pregrado. Conclusión. El presente estudio indica la relación negativa de la capacidad de resiliencia con el estrés y el uso de teléfonos móviles entre los estudiantes hindúes de enfermería. Por lo tanto, es necesario que las instituciones formadoras de enfermeros desarrollen estrategias de intervención para fortalecer la capacidad de resiliencia, mejorando las habilidades para manejar el estrés y el uso saludable del teléfono móvil.


Objetivo. Explorar a relação entre os níveis de estresse e resiliência com o uso do telefone móbil em estudantes de enfermagem. Métodos. Estudo de corte transversal realizado com 102 estudantes de enfermagem de várias escolas de enfermagem na Índia que foram convidados a participar na investigação. Os dados se recopilaram utilizando os seguintes instrumentos: Percibed Stress Scale (PSS) de Cohen, The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) e Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (MPIQ) de Walsh. Resultados A maioria dos participantes eram mulheres (94.1%), estudavam graduação (70.6%)e tinham uma média de idade de 25.2 anos. 77.5% dos estudantes tinham uma percepção de estresse entre moderada e alta, 20.6% tinha alta capacidade de resiliência e 25.5% eram usuários frequentes de telefones móbeis. O estresse percebido se correlacionou significativamente e de maneira negativa com a idade e a capacidade de resiliência. Os estudantes de pós-graduação tiveram maior capacidade de recuperação que os estudantes de graduação. Conclusão. O presente estudo indica a relação negativa da capacidade de resiliência com o estresse e o uso de telefones móbeis entre os estudantes de enfermagem. Por tanto, é necessário que as instituições formadoras de enfermeiros desenvolvem estratégias de intervenção para fortalecer a capacidade de resiliência, melhorando as habilidades para manejar o estresse e o uso saudável do telefone móbil.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Estrés Fisiológico , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resiliencia Psicológica , Uso del Teléfono Celular
19.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 23-26, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540652

RESUMEN

Burnout among vascular surgery trainees is a significant problem and needs to be addressed at the level of the individual, training program duties, and at each institution. The clinical challenges and patient-oriented care required of a vascular surgeon generate a level of stress that requires its recognition and development of coping methods to promote well-being and personal happiness. There are ways to minimize burnout during surgical training, including acknowledgment of its symptoms, mentorship, self-care, and access to resources for stress reduction. Crucial factors in maintaining a positive outlook and a sense of meaningful work are faculty entrustability, receptive leadership, celebrating small victories, and recognition that resiliency is a skill that can be learned. Successful vascular surgeon training is a mission that requires everyone involved to actively promote well-being behavior and a supportive work environment. With appropriate implementation of these practices, our training programs can cultivate surgeons who are competent, compassionate, and committed to advancing vascular care.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Salud Mental , Cirujanos/educación , Cirujanos/psicología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares/educación , Agotamiento Profesional/etiología , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Curriculum , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Liderazgo , Mentores , Resiliencia Psicológica , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
20.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 884-899, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524422

RESUMEN

Adverse early experiences have been associated with higher mortality risk, but evidence varies by type of experiences, and relatively little is known about the role of favorable early experiences on health in later life. This study evaluated the independent contributions to longevity of favorable and unfavorable early experiences, including psychosocial stressors, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), and close relationships. We also examined 4 midlife psychosocial factors as vulnerability and resilience pathways potentially mediating these associations. The sample included 1,042 men from the VA Normative Aging Study. Early experiences were assessed retrospectively in 1961-1970 and 1995. Midlife psychosocial factors were measured in 1985-1991 and included stressful life events (SLEs), negative affect, life satisfaction, and optimism. Mortality was assessed through 2016. In multiple mediator structural equation models, which account for the overlap among pathways, higher number of SLEs in midlife mediated the association of having more childhood psychosocial stressors to reduced longevity, supporting stress continuity as a vulnerability pathway. Higher optimism in midlife also mediated the association of higher childhood SES to greater longevity. In single mediator models, higher life satisfaction in midlife transmitted the benefits of higher childhood SES and presence of close relationships onto longevity. Higher optimism also mediated the association of fewer childhood psychosocial stressors to longevity. However, these indirect effects were attenuated when accounting for shared variance among mediators, suggesting overlapping pathways. Findings offer novel evidence on unique and shared pathways linking specific dimensions of early experiences to longevity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Longevidad/fisiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resiliencia Psicológica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
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