Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.620
Filtrar
2.
Behav Processes ; 192: 104500, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509563

RESUMEN

Ladybird beetles present as key predator of many agricultural pests. Among them, Eriopis connexa stands out due some important traits for pest management programs such as common occurrence, population selected for resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, and possibility to be commercially available by rearing using alternative prey. Despite that, little is known about the role of polyandry and its effect on paternity in this species. Ladybird beetles engage in multiple matings, raising questions about the benefits of polyandry and paternity. We studied the selection of mating pair, sperm precedence, and offspring paternity by performing experiments on (1) the age of sexual maturity, (2) the frequency and refractory mating behavior within a photophase period, (3) the preference of insecticide-susceptible females to mate with either susceptible or resistant male phenotypes; and (4) the effect of multiple matings, on progeny paternity. Sexual maturity in E. connexa was found to begin within 3 days of adult emergence for both sexes, but fully developed after 5 days. The highest frequency of mating exhibited by sexual mature pairs occurred within first hour of pairing and the phenotype for insecticide resistance did not affect the choice of a mating partner. The resistance trait marker in the resistant beetle phenotype indicates that progeny paternity results from a mixture of available sperm and do not depend on mating order. These data suggest that released beetles would have a simple prospect for progeny production for both insecticide resistant and susceptible beetles.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Piretrinas , Animales , Padre , Femenino , Humanos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Masculino , Reproducción , Conducta Sexual Animal , Espermatozoides
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 460, 2021 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542704

RESUMEN

The chemical-based tick management method is gradually losing its clutch due to the establishment of resistant ticks. For development of region-specific tick management strategies, the present study was aimed to evaluate the comparative resistance profile of Rhipicephalus microplus isolates collected from seven districts of Uttar Pradesh, a northern state of India. Comparative analysis of the dose-response data using adult immersion test (AIT) against coumaphos, malathion, deltamethrin, ivermectin, and fipronil revealed that all the isolates were resistant to discriminating concentration of deltamethrin having LC50 of 295.12-436.52 ppm with a resistance ratio of 22.02-32.58. An emerging low level of ivermectin resistance (resistance ratio, RR50 = 1.03-2.26) with LC50 in the range of 22.39-48.98 ppm was found across the isolates. The coumaphos was highly effective against all except Amethi (AMT) isolate. Similarly, malathion was efficacious against most of the isolates except Pratapgarh (PRT) and Sultanpur (SUL) isolates showing LC50 of 5128.61 and 5623.41 ppm, respectively. All the isolates were responsive to fipronil. Comparative detoxifying enzymes profiles revealed a significant correlation between the increased activity of esterase and deltamethrin resistance. The GST activity was 51.2% correlated with RR50 of malathion while esterase activity was significantly correlated (68.9%) with RR50 of coumaphos. No correlation between the ivermectin resistance and enzyme activity was established. Multiple sequence analysis of S4-5 linker region of the sodium channel gene of all the isolates revealed a point mutation at 190th position (C190A) which is associated with deltamethrin resistance. The possible tick management strategies in this part of the country are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Acaricidas , Piretrinas , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/farmacología , Animales , Cumafos , India , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Ivermectina/farmacología , Malatión/farmacología , Nitrilos , Pirazoles , Piretrinas/farmacología
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 639, 2021 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479486

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Resistance of pest insect species to insecticides, including B. thuringiensis (Bt) pesticidal proteins expressed by transgenic plants, is a threat to global food security. Despite the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, being a major pest of maize and having populations showing increasing levels of resistance to hybrids expressing Bt pesticidal proteins, the cell mechanisms leading to mortality are not fully understood. RESULTS: Twenty unique RNA-seq libraries from the Bt susceptible D. v. virgifera inbred line Ped12, representing all growth stages and a range of different adult and larval exposures, were assembled into a reference transcriptome. Ten-day exposures of Ped12 larvae to transgenic Bt Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize roots showed significant differential expression of 1055 and 1374 transcripts, respectively, compared to cohorts on non-Bt maize. Among these, 696 were differentially expressed in both Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize exposures. Differentially-expressed transcripts encoded protein domains putatively involved in detoxification, metabolism, binding, and transport, were, in part, shared among transcripts that changed significantly following exposures to the entomopathogens Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Metarhizium anisopliae. Differentially expressed transcripts in common between Bt and entomopathogen treatments encode proteins in general stress response pathways, including putative Bt binding receptors from the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Putative caspases, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factors were identified among transcripts uniquely up-regulated following exposure to either Bt protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the up-regulation of genes involved in ER stress management and apoptotic progression may be important in determining cell fate following exposure of susceptible D. v. virgifera larvae to Bt maize roots. This study provides novel insights into insect response to Bt intoxication, and a possible framework for future investigations of resistance mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis , Escarabajos , Plaguicidas , Animales , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Supervivencia Celular , Escarabajos/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidad , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Larva/genética , Control Biológico de Vectores , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Regulación hacia Arriba , Zea mays/genética
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246436, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495159

RESUMEN

Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Hemolisinas , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Fertilizantes , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Larva , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética
6.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117889, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358866

RESUMEN

Climate warming is expected to impact the response of species to insecticides. Recent studies show that this interaction between insecticides and temperature can depend on other factors. Here, we tested for the influence of transgenerational effects on the Insecticide × Temperature interaction in the crop pest moth Spodoptera littoralis. Specifically, we analysed reaction norms among experimental clutches based on a split-plot design crossing the factors temperature, insecticide and clutch. The study was performed on 2280 larvae reared at four temperatures (23, 25, 27 and 29 °C), and their response to the insecticide deltamethrin (three concentrations and a control group) was tested. Temperature had a global influence with effects on larval survival, duration of development, pupal body mass, and significant reaction norms of the clutches for temperature variations of only 2 °C. In addition to the expected effect of deltamethrin on mortality, the insecticide slightly delayed the development of S. littoralis, and the effects on mortality and development differed among the clutches. Projection models integrating all the observed responses illustrated the additive effects of deltamethrin and temperature on the population multiplication rate. Variation in the response of the clutches showed that transgenerational effects influenced the impact of insecticide and temperature. Although no evidence indicated that the Insecticide × Temperature interaction depended on transgenerational effects, the studies on the dependence of the Insecticide × Temperature interaction on other factors continue to be crucial to confidently predict the combined effects of insecticides and climate warming.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Larva , Spodoptera , Temperatura
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356655

RESUMEN

Calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is vital for insect development and metabolism, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major intracellular reservoir for Ca2+. The inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate receptor (IP3R) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) are large homotetrameric channels associated with the ER and serve as two major actors in ER-derived Ca2+ supply. Most of the knowledge on these receptors derives from mammalian systems that possess three genes for each receptor. These studies have inspired work on synonymous receptors in insects, which encode a single IP3R and RyR. In the current review, we focus on a fundamental, common question: "why do insect cells possess two Ca2+ channel receptors in the ER?". Through a comparative approach, this review covers the discovery of RyRs and IP3Rs, examines their structures/functions, the pathways that they interact with, and their potential as target sites in pest control. Although insects RyRs and IP3Rs share structural similarities, they are phylogenetically distinct, have their own structural organization, regulatory mechanisms, and expression patterns, which explains their functional distinction. Nevertheless, both have great potential as target sites in pest control, with RyRs currently being targeted by commercial insecticide, the diamides.


Asunto(s)
Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/química , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insectos/metabolismo , Canal Liberador de Calcio Receptor de Rianodina/química , Canal Liberador de Calcio Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Animales , Señalización del Calcio , Control de Insectos , Proteínas de Insectos/química , Insectos/fisiología , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Mamíferos/metabolismo
8.
Elife ; 102021 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355693

RESUMEN

Monitoring local mosquito populations for insecticide resistance is critical for effective vector-borne disease control. However, widely used phenotypic assays, which are designed to monitor the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance (technical resistance), do not translate well to the efficacy of vector control products to suppress mosquito numbers in the field (practical resistance). This is because standard testing conditions such as environmental conditions, exposure dose, and type of substrate differ dramatically from those experienced by mosquitoes under field conditions. In addition, field mosquitoes have considerably different physiological characteristics such as age and blood-feeding status. Beyond this, indirect impacts of insecticide resistance and/or exposure on mosquito longevity, pathogen development, host-seeking behavior, and blood-feeding success impact disease transmission. Given the limited number of active ingredients currently available and the observed discordance between resistance and disease transmission, we conclude that additional testing guidelines are needed to determine practical resistance-the efficacy of vector control tools under relevant local conditions- in order to obtain programmatic impact.


Asunto(s)
Culicidae , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Insecticidas , Control de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vectores , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/prevención & control , Animales , Guías como Asunto
9.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379759

RESUMEN

The insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has remained the major threat for vector control programs but the fitness effects conferred by these mechanisms are poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study aimed at testing the hypothesis that antibiotic oxytetracycline could have an interaction with insecticide resistance genotypes and consequently inhibit the fecundity in An. gambiae. Four strains of An. gambiae: Kisumu (susceptible), KisKdr (kdr (L1014F) resistant), AcerKis (ace-1 (G119S) resistant) and AcerKdrKis (both kdr (L1014F) and ace-1 (G119S) resistant) were used in this study. The different strains were allowed to bloodfeed on a rabbit previously treated with antibiotic oxytetracycline at a concentration of 39·10-5 M. Three days later, ovarian follicles were dissected from individual mosquito ovaries into physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl) under a stereomicroscope and the eggs were counted. Fecundity was substantially lower in oxytetracycline-exposed KisKdr females when compared to that of the untreated individuals and oxytetracycline-exposed Kisumu females. The exposed AcerKis females displayed an increased fecundity compared to their nontreated counterparts whereas they had reduced fecundity compared to that of oxytetracycline-exposed Kisumu females. There was no substantial difference between the fecundity in the treated and untreated AcerKdrKis females. The oxytetracycline-exposed AcerKdrKis mosquitoes had an increased fecundity compared to that of the exposed Kisumu females. Our data indicate an indirect effect of oxytetracycline in reducing fecundity of An. gambiae mosquitoes carrying kdrR (L1014F) genotype. These findings could be useful for designing new integrated approaches for malaria vector control in endemic countries.


Asunto(s)
Anopheles/genética , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Oxitetraciclina , Animales , Femenino , Fertilidad
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104946, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446184

RESUMEN

Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) is a widely distributed, highly polyphagous pest that can cause severe damage to a variety of economically important crops. Various populations have developed resistance to different classes of insecticides. In this study, we report on two indoxacarb-resistant S. litura populations, namely Ind-R (resistance ratio = 18.37-fold) derived from an indoxacarb-susceptible (Ind-S) population and a population caught from a field (resistance ratio = 46.72-fold). A synergist experiment showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) combined with indoxacarb produced higher synergistic effects (synergist ratio = 5.29) in the Ind-R population as compared to Ind-S (synergist ratio = 3.08). Elevated enzyme activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) was observed for Ind-R (2.15-fold) and the Field-caught population (4.03-fold) as compared to Ind-S, while only minor differences were noticed in the activities of esterases and glutathione S-transferases. Furthermore, expression levels of P450 genes of S. litura were determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR to explore differences among the three populations. The results showed that the mRNA levels of CYP6AE68, a novel P450 gene belonging to the CYP6 family, were constitutively overexpressed in Ind-R (32.79-fold) and in the Field-caught population (68.11-fold). CYP6AE68 expression in S. litura was further analyzed for different developmental stages and in different tissues. Finally, we report that RNA interference-mediated silencing of CYP6AE68 increased the mortality of fourth-instar larvae exposed to indoxacarb at the LC50 dose level (increase by 33.89%, 29.44% and 22.78% for Ind-S, Ind-R and the Field-caught population, respectively). In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that expression levels of CYP6AE68 in S. litura larvae are associated with indoxacarb resistance and that CYP6AE68 may play a significant role in detoxification of indoxacarb.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/genética , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Insecticidas/farmacología , Larva/genética , Oxazinas/farmacología , Spodoptera/genética
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104911, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446187

RESUMEN

Commercial insecticide aerosol sprays are widely used in households for controlling Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, the primary vectors of dengue virus and filarial worm, respectively. In Thailand, however, both mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids conferred by knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, V1016G and F1534C in Ae. aegypti and L1014F in Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study evaluated the efficacy of five sprays (coded as AS1-AS5) with different formulations of pyrethroids against wild mosquitoes by using a cage bioassay in a furnished bedroom of a house. Five cages containing wild mosquitoes and five cages containing a pyrethroid susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti (25 females each), as a bio-indicator, were allocated in the room and spraying was operated for 15 s. Survivors and dead mosquitoes were genotyped individually for the kdr mutations using allele-specific PCR methods. Both mosquito species showed a high resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin with 12.5-58.0% mortality rates. For controlling Ae. aegypti, the spray AS4 showed the highest efficacy (mortality rates 76.0-100.0%, mean 95.2%), followed by AS2 (73.0-100.0%, mean 93.8%). For controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, the best result was obtained from AS4 (66.0-98.0% mortality, mean 89.8%), followed by AS2 (73.0-97.0%, mean 84.5%). The sprays (AS4 and AS2) containing both type I and type II pyrethroids were more effective than those containing only type I pyrethroids or pyrethrum with the synergist piperonyl butoxide. The mutant G1016 and F1014 allele frequencies were significantly higher in the survivor groups than the dead groups of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively, (P < 0.05). The efficacy of the sprays varied depending on the mosquito species, formulations, nozzles and locations of caged mosquitoes. The V1016G and L1014F mutations are associated with the reduced efficacy of sprays used in households for controlling resistant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Culex , Insecticidas , Piretrinas , Aedes/genética , Aerosoles , Animales , Culex/genética , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Insecticidas/farmacología , Mosquitos Vectores/genética , Tailandia
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104924, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446200

RESUMEN

The sulfoximines, as exemplified by sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™active), are a relatively new class of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) competitive modulator (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee [IRAC] Group 4C) insecticides that provide control of a wide range of sap-feeding insect pests. The sulfoximine chemistry and sulfoxaflor exhibits distinct interactions with metabolic enzymes and nAChRs compared to other IRAC Group 4 insecticides such as the neonicotinoids (Group 4A). These distinctions translate to notable differences in the frequency and degree of cross-resistance between sulfoxaflor and other insecticides. Most insect strains exhibiting resistance to a variety of insecticides, including neonicotinoids, exhibited little to no cross-resistance to sulfoxaflor. To date, only two laboratory-based studies involving four strains (Koo et al. 2014, Chen et al. 2017) have observed substantial cross-resistance (>100 fold) to sulfoxaflor in neonicotinoid resistant insects. Where higher levels of cross-resistance to sulfoxaflor are observed the magnitude of that resistance is far less than that of the selecting neonicotinoid. Importantly, there is no correlation between presence of resistance to neonicotinoids (i.e., imidacloprid, acetamiprid) and cross-resistance to sulfoxaflor. This phenomenon is consistent with and can be attributed to the unique and differentiated chemical class represented by sulfoxalfor. Recent studies have demonstrated that high levels of resistance (resistance ratio = 124-366) to sulfoxaflor can be selected for in the laboratory which thus far appear to be associated with enhanced metabolism by specific cytochrome P450s, although other resistance mechanisms have not yet been excluded. One hypothesis is that sulfoxaflor selects for and is susceptible to a subset of P450s with different substrate specificity. A range of chemoinformatic, molecular modeling, metabolism and target-site studies have been published. These studies point to distinctions in the chemistry of sulfoxaflor, and its metabolism by enzymes associated with resistance to other insecticides, as well as its interaction with insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, further supporting the subgrouping of sulfoxaflor (Group 4C) separate from that of other Group 4 insecticides. Herein is an expansion of an earlier review (Sparks et al. 2013), providing an update that considers prior and current studies focused on the mode of action of sulfoxaflor, along with an analysis of the presently available resistance / cross-resistance studies, and implications and recommendations regarding resistance management.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Neonicotinoides/toxicidad , Nitrocompuestos/toxicidad , Piridinas/toxicidad , Compuestos de Azufre
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104925, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446201

RESUMEN

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major pest of pome fruit and walnuts worldwide. Although environmentally compatible integrated control strategies, such as mating disruption, attract-kill strategy, and sterile insect technique have been conducted for management of this notorious pest, effects to control of codling moth have mainly relied on insecticides. In consequence, different levels of insecticide resistance towards organophosphates, neonicotinoids, hydrazines, benzoylureas, pyrethroids, diamides, spinosyns, avermectins, JH mimics, carbamates, oxadiazines and C. pomonella granulovirus (CpGVs) have developed in codling moth in different countries and areas. Both metabolic and target-site mechanisms conferring resistance have been revealed in the codling moth. In this review, we summarize the current global status of insecticide resistance, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved, and the implications for resistance management.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Mariposas Nocturnas , Piretrinas , Animales , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Insecticidas/farmacología , Neonicotinoides
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104937, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446204

RESUMEN

For a devastating agricultural pest, functional genomics promotes the finding of novel technology to control Spodoptera frugiperda, such as the genetics-based strategies. In the present study, 11 yellow genes were identified in Spodoptera frugiperda. The transcriptome analysis showed the tissue-specific expression of part yellow genes, which suggested the importance of yellow genes in some biological processes in S. frugiperda, such as pigmentation. Among these yellow genes, the expression profiles of yellow-y gene showed that it was expressed in all life stages. In order to realize the further study of yellow-y, we employed CRISPR/Cas9 system to knock out this gene. Following knock out, diverse phenotypes were observed, such as color changes in both larvae and adults. Different from the wild-type larvae and adults, G0 mutants were yellowed since hatching. However, no color difference was observed with the pupal cuticle between the wild-type and mutant pupae before the 8th day. On the basis of the single-pair strategy of G0 generation, the yellow-y gene was proved to be a recessive gene. The G1 yellowish larvae with biallelic mutations displayed a relatively longer development period than wild-type, and often generated abnormal pupae and moths. The deletion of yellow-y also resulted in a decline in the fecundity. The results revealed that yellow-y gene was important for S. frugiperda pigmentation, as well as in its development and reproduction. Besides, the present study set up a standard procedure to knock out genes in S. frugiperda, which could be helpful for our understanding some key molecular processes, such as functional roles of detoxification genes as insecticide resistance mechanisms or modes of action of insecticides to facilitate the management of this insect pest.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Larva/genética , Spodoptera/genética
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104943, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446209

RESUMEN

Structural cuticular proteins (CPs) are major components of the insect cuticle, and they play critical roles in insect development and insecticide resistance. Here, a total of 196 CP genes were successfully annotated in the Plutella xylostella genome. On the basis of motif analysis, these CPs were classified into 10 different families, including 122 CPR, 12 CPAP1, 8 CPAP3, 9 CPLCP, 2 Tweedle, 1 CPF, 1 CPFL, 1 CPCFC, 17 CPG and 2 18 aa proteins, and the remaining 21 unclassified CPs were classed as cuticular proteins hypothetical (CPH). A phylogenetic analysis of CPs from different insects revealed species-specific clades of RR-1 and RR-2 genes, suggesting that CP gene duplication might occur independently among insect taxa, while we also found that some other CPs (such as CPAP1 and CPAP3) had a closer relationship based on their conserved domain architecture. Using available RNAseq libraries, the expression profiles of the CPs were analyzed over the four developmental stages of the insect (i.e., egg, larva, pupa, and adult), revealing stage-specific expression patterns for the CPs. In a chlorpyrifos resistant strain, 18 CP genes were found to be more than two-fold upregulated compared to the susceptible control strain, and qRT-PCR analysis showed that these CP genes were overexpressed after exposure to chlorpyrifos, suggesting a potential role in the molecular mechanism of insecticide resistance in P. xylostella. This study provides the tools and molecular basis to study the role of CPs in the post-embryonal development and the mechanisms of insecticide resistance of P. xylostella.


Asunto(s)
Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Proteínas de Insectos/genética , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Larva/genética , Mariposas Nocturnas/genética , Filogenia
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(9): e1325-e1331, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216565

RESUMEN

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs. However, there is presently little evidence to reach this conclusion and we therefore recommend that a broader perspective to evaluate ITN effectiveness in terms of access to nets, use of nets, bioefficacy, and durability should be taken. We argue that a single focus on insecticide resistance misses the bigger picture. To improve the effects of ITNs, net coverage should increase by increasing funding for programmes, adopting improved strategies for increasing ITN uptake, and enhancing the longevity of the active ingredients and the physical integrity of nets, while simultaneously accelerating the development and evaluation of novel vector control tools.


Asunto(s)
Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Malaria/prevención & control , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Humanos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(11): 5202-5212, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272799

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., and the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.), are now widely regarded as important public health pests following their rapid global resurgence, largely due to insecticide resistance and an increased rate of global travel. The insecticide resistance mechanisms are well documented in C. lectularius, however, only one mechanism is validated in C. hemipterus thus far. This demands further understanding on the resistance mechanisms involved in C. hemipterus. RESULTS: Here, we identified differences in resistance to fenitrothion (organophosphate) and imidacloprid (neonicotinoid) related cuticle thickness in C. hemipterus. There is evidence of a possible association between cuticle thickness and resistance, but the association can be tenuous, likely because resistance is multifactorial in C. hemipterus. We also discovered a novel T1011 residue in domain IIS6 of the voltage-gated sodium channel that likely enhanced susceptibility to deltamethrin (pyrethroid) despite the presence of a L1014F mutation known to confer pyrethroid resistance in C. hemipterus. Our findings also confirmed that the M918I mutation enhanced resistance to pyrethroid when present with the L1014F mutation, which was consistent with a super-kdr phenotype, as reported previously. Multiple resistance mechanisms can be found within a single C. hemipterus population, and the presence of both M918I + L1014F mutations likely masked the influence of cuticle thickness in conferring resistance against deltamethrin. The elevated metabolic enzyme activities in some strains were not necessarily associated with increased insecticide resistance. CONCLUSION: This study has enhanced our understanding on the penetration resistance mechanism and target site insensitivity of sodium channels in C. hemipterus.


Asunto(s)
Chinches , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Insecticidas , Piretrinas , Canales de Sodio Activados por Voltaje , Animales , Chinches/genética , Fenitrotión , Insecticidas/farmacología , Mutación , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompuestos , Piretrinas/farmacología , Canales de Sodio Activados por Voltaje/genética
18.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(11): 5236-5245, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310008

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Resistance evolution of lepidopteran pests to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins produced in maize and cotton is a significant issue worldwide. Effective toxin stewardship requires reliable detection of field-evolved resistance to enable the implementation of mitigation strategies. Currently, visual estimates of maize injury are used to document changing susceptibility. In this study, we evaluated an existing maize injury monitoring protocol used to estimate Bt resistance levels in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). RESULTS: We detected high interobserver variability across multiple injury metrics, suggesting that the precision and accuracy of maize injury detection could be improved. To do this, we developed a computer vision-based algorithm to measure H. zea injury. Algorithm estimates were more accurate and precise than a sample of human observers. Moreover, observer estimates tended to overpredict H. zea injury, which may increase the false-positive rate, leading to prophylactic insecticide application and unnecessary regulatory action. CONCLUSIONS: Automated detection and tracking of lepidopteran resistance evolution to Bt toxins are critical for genetically engineered crop stewardship to prevent the use of additional insecticides to combat resistant pests. Advantages of this computerized screening are: (i) standardized Bt injury metrics in space and time, (ii) preservation of digital data for cross-referencing when thresholds are reached, and (iii) the ability to increase sample sizes significantly. This technological solution represents a significant step toward improving confidence in resistance monitoring efforts among researchers, regulators and the agricultural biotechnology industry.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Computadores , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Humanos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Mariposas Nocturnas/genética , Control Biológico de Vectores , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Zea mays/genética
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(11): 5286-5293, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310830

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Biological control is a cornerstone of integrated pest management and could also play a key role in managing the evolution of insecticide resistance. Ecological theory predicts that the fitness cost of insecticide resistance can be increased under exposure to invertebrate natural enemies or pathogens, and can therefore increase the value of integrating biological control into pest management. In this study of the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, we aimed to identify whether insecticide resistance affected fitness and vulnerability of different aphid clones to the entomopathogenic fungus Akanthomyces muscarius. RESULTS: Insecticide resistant clones were found to be slightly less susceptible to the pathogen than susceptible clones. However, this pattern could also be explained by the influence of length of laboratory culture, which was longer in susceptible clones and was positively correlated with susceptibility to fungi. Furthermore, resistance status did not affect aphid development time or intrinsic rate of increase of aphids. Finally, in a cage trial the application of fungus did not increase the competitive fitness of insecticide resistant clone 'O'. CONCLUSION: We found no fitness cost in reproductive rate or pathogen susceptibility associated with chemical resistance in M. persicae. In contrast, some susceptible clones, particularly those subject to decades of laboratory rearing, showed enhanced susceptibility to a fungal pathogen, but not reduced reproductive fitness, an observation consistent with down-regulation of costly immune functions in culture. Overall, fungal pathogen control is compatible with insecticides and should not increase the selection pressure for resistance of M. persicae to chemical insecticides.


Asunto(s)
Áfidos , Hypocreales , Insecticidas , Animales , Células Clonales , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Insecticidas/farmacología
20.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(2): e21834, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288075

RESUMEN

The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of potato plants worldwide and is notorious for its ability to develop resistance to insecticides. Cry3 toxins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis have been used successfully to manage this pest. Resistance to Cry toxins is a concerning problem for many insect pests; therefore, it is important to determine the mechanisms by which insects acquire resistance to these toxins. Cadherin-like and ABC transporter proteins have been implicated in the mode of action of Cry toxins as mutations in these genes render lepidopterans resistant to them; however, clear consensus does not exist on whether these proteins also play a role in Cry3 toxin activity and/or development of resistance in coleopterans. In the current study, we identified the L. decemlineata orthologues of the cadherin (LdCAD) and the ABCB transporter (LdABCB1) that have been implicated in the mode of action of Cry toxins in other coleopterans. Suppression of LdABCB1 via RNA interference reduced toxin-related larval mortality, whereas partial silencing of LdCAD did not. Our results suggest that the ABCB is involved in the mode of action of Cry3Aa toxins; however, no evidence was found to support the role of cadherin as a receptor of Cry3Aa in L. decemlineata.


Asunto(s)
Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/genética , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/farmacología , Escarabajos , Endotoxinas/farmacología , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacología , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/metabolismo , Animales , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/farmacología , Cadherinas/genética , Cadherinas/metabolismo , Escarabajos/efectos de los fármacos , Escarabajos/metabolismo , Escarabajos/microbiología , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insectos/genética , Proteínas de Insectos/metabolismo , Insecticidas/metabolismo , Insecticidas/farmacología , Larva/efectos de los fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/microbiología , Control Biológico de Vectores , Interferencia de ARN
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...