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1.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(3): 219-227, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934808

RESUMEN

The novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for a worldwide pandemic. Although media transmission through contaminated surfaces is one of the most recognized ways of transmission, the study on the number and viability of viruses surviving on a surface after leaving the host represents a "blind spot" in current research. In this paper we have reviewed studies on the physical process of droplet evaporation on media surfaces, and analyzed the recent literature related to experiments on the decay of the viral concentration and infectious activity of SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses on those surface and in the air. The huge differences in the risk of media transmission of large saliva and sputum droplets were analyzed in terms of time elapsed. Due to the rapid decrease of water content in the evaporated droplets and the increased concentration of each component, the living environment of the virus tended to deteriorate sharply, and virus concentration plummeted within a few minutes. Although a virus can be detected in a matter of hours, tens of hours, or days, the risk of transmission is negligible compared to when it first left the host. This study suggests that the key to prevention and control is to start from the source, the earlier the better. It is extremely important to develop good public health habits, wear masks, and wash hands frequently. That said, excessive disinfection and sterilization of surfaces during a later period may have adverse effects.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Moco/virología , Saliva/virología , Esputo/virología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de los Virus , Microbiología del Aire , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Tos , Desecación , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Contaminación de Equipos , Fómites , Humanos , Humedad , Higiene , Tamaño de la Partícula , Respiración , Riesgo , Estornudo , Habla , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo , Carga Viral , Virus/aislamiento & purificación
2.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211009407, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888007

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The application of prone positioning with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in non-intubation patients is increasing gradually, applying prone positioning for more high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNC) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) patients. This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy and tolerance of prone positioning combined with non-invasive respiratory support in patients with AHRF or ARDS. METHODS: We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (prospective or retrospective cohort studies, RCTs and case series) published in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1 January 2000 to 1 July 2020. We included studies that compared prone and supine positioning with non-invasive respiratory support in awake patients with AHRF or ARDS. The meta-analyses used random effects models. The methodological quality of the RCTs was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. RESULTS: A total of 16 studies fulfilled selection criteria and included 243 patients. The aggregated intubation rate and mortality rate were 33% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-0.42, I2 = 25%], 4% (95% CI: 0.01-0.07, I2 = 0%), respectively, and the intolerance rate was 7% (95% CI: 0.01-0.12, I2 = 5%). Prone positioning increased PaO2/FiO2 [mean difference (MD) = 47.89, 95% CI: 28.12-67.66; p < 0.00001, I2 = 67%] and SpO2 (MD = 4.58, 95% CI: 1.35-7.80, p = 0.005, I2 = 97%), whereas it reduced respiratory rate (MD = -5.01, 95% CI: -8.49 to -1.52, p = 0.005, I2 = 85%). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the intubation rate of shorter duration prone (⩽5 h/day) and longer duration prone (>5 h/day) were 34% and 21%, respectively; and the mortality rate of shorter duration prone (⩽5 h/day) and longer duration prone (>5 h/day) were 6% and 0%, respectively. PaO2/FiO2 and SpO2 were significantly improved in COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Prone positioning could improve the oxygenation and reduce respiratory rate in both COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients with non-intubated AHRF or ARDS.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , /mortalidad , Humanos , Intubación Intratraqueal , Oxígeno/sangre , Posición Prona , Respiración
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5806-5814, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835790

RESUMEN

The nitroheterocyclic 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is an ingredient of insensitive explosives increasingly used by the military, becoming an emergent environmental pollutant. Cometabolic biotransformation of NTO occurs in mixed microbial cultures in soils and sludges with excess electron-donating substrates. Herein, we present the unusual energy-yielding metabolic process of NTO respiration, in which the NTO reduction to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO) is linked to the anoxic acetate oxidation to CO2 by a culture enriched from municipal anaerobic digester sludge. Cell growth was observed simultaneously with NTO reduction, whereas the culture was unable to grow in the presence of acetate only. Extremely low concentrations (0.06 mg L-1) of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone inhibited NTO reduction, indicating that the process was linked to respiration. The ultimate evidence of NTO respiration was adenosine triphosphate production due to simultaneous exposure to NTO and acetate. Metagenome sequencing revealed that the main microorganisms (and relative abundances) were Geobacter anodireducens (89.3%) and Thauera sp. (5.5%). This study is the first description of a nitroheterocyclic compound being reduced by anaerobic respiration, shedding light on creative microbial processes that enable bacteria to make a living reducing NTO.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Nitrocompuestos , Bacterias/genética , Geobacter , Respiración , Triazoles
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804913

RESUMEN

Aiming at continuous unobtrusive respiration monitoring, motion robustness is paramount. However, some types of motion can completely hide the respiration information and the detection of these events is required to avoid incorrect rate estimations. Therefore, this work proposes a motion detector optimized to specifically detect severe motion of infants combined with a respiration rate detection strategy based on automatic pixels selection, which proved to be robust to motion of the infants involving head and limbs. A dataset including both thermal and RGB (Red Green Blue) videos was used amounting to a total of 43 h acquired on 17 infants. The method was successfully applied to both RGB and thermal videos and compared to the chest impedance signal. The Mean Absolute Error (MAE) in segments where some motion is present was 1.16 and 1.97 breaths/min higher than the MAE in the ideal moments where the infants were still for testing and validation set, respectively. Overall, the average MAE on the testing and validation set are 3.31 breaths/min and 5.36 breaths/min, using 64.00% and 69.65% of the included video segments (segments containing events such as interventions were excluded based on a manual annotation), respectively. Moreover, we highlight challenges that need to be overcome for continuous camera-based respiration monitoring. The method can be applied to different camera modalities, does not require skin visibility, and is robust to some motion of the infants.


Asunto(s)
Respiración , Frecuencia Respiratoria , Humanos , Lactante , Monitoreo Fisiológico , Movimiento (Física) , Piel
5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250432, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886642

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemics, masking policies have been advocated. While masks are known to prevent transmission towards other individuals, it is unclear if different types of facial masks can protect the user from inhalation. The present study compares in-vitro different commercial and custom-made facial masks at different distances and breathing patterns. METHODS: Masks were placed on a head mannequin connected to a lung simulator, using a collecting filter placed after the mannequin airway. Certified, commercial and custom-made masks were tested at three different distances between the emitter and the mannequin: 40 cm, 80 cm and 120 cm. Two patterns of breathing were used, simulating normal and polypneic respiration. A solution of methylene blue was nebulized with a jet nebulizer and different mask-distance-breathing pattern combinations were tested. The primary endpoint was the inhaled fraction, defined as the amount of methylene blue detected with spectrophotometry expressed as percent of the amount detected in a reference condition of zero distance and no mask. FINDINGS: We observed a significant effect of distance (p < 0.001), pattern of breathing (p = 0.040) and type of mask (p < 0.001) on inhaled fraction. All masks resulted in lower inhaled fraction compared to breathing without mask (p < 0.001 in all comparisons), ranging from 41.1% ± 0.3% obtained with a cotton mask at 40 cm distance with polypneic pattern to <1% for certified FFP3 and the combination of FFP2 + surgical mask at all distances and both breathing pattern conditions. DISCUSSION: Distance, type of device and breathing pattern resulted in highly variable inhaled fraction. While the use of all types of masks resulted relevantly less inhalation compared to distancing alone, only high-grade certified devices (FFP3 and the combination of FFP2 + surgical mask) ensured negligible inhaled fraction in all conditions.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Máscaras , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Maniquíes , Respiración , /aislamiento & purificación
6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 114501, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798375

RESUMEN

We demonstrate flow rectification, valveless pumping, or alternating to direct current (AC-to-DC) conversion in macroscale fluidic networks with loops. Inspired by the unique anatomy of bird lungs and the phenomenon of directed airflow throughout the respiration cycle, we hypothesize, test, and validate that multiloop networks exhibit persistent circulation or DC flows when subject to oscillatory or AC forcing at high Reynolds numbers. Experiments reveal that disproportionately stronger circulation is generated for higher frequencies and amplitudes of the imposed oscillations, and this nonlinear response is corroborated by numerical simulations. Visualizations show that flow separation and vortex shedding at network junctions serve the valving function of directing current with appropriate timing in the oscillation cycle. These findings suggest strategies for controlling inertial flows through network topology and junction connectivity.


Asunto(s)
Aves/fisiología , Pulmón/fisiología , Modelos Biológicos , Animales , Aves/anatomía & histología , Simulación por Computador , Pulmón/anatomía & histología , Modelos Anatómicos , Respiración
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806426

RESUMEN

Microwave radar technology is very attractive for ubiquitous short-range health monitoring due to its non-contact, see-through, privacy-preserving and safe features compared to the competing remote technologies such as optics. The possibility of radar-based approaches for breathing and cardiac sensing was demonstrated a few decades ago. However, investigation regarding the robustness of radar-based vital-sign monitoring (VSM) is not available in the current radar literature. In this paper, we aim to close this gap by presenting an extensive experimental study of vital-sign radar approach. We consider diversity in test subjects, fitness levels, poses/postures, and, more importantly, random body movement (RBM) in the study. We discuss some new insights that lead to robust radar heart-rate (HR) measurements. A novel active motion cancellation signal-processing technique is introduced, exploiting dual ultra-wideband (UWB) radar system for motion-tolerant HR measurements. Additionally, we propose a spectral pruning routine to enhance HR estimation performance. We validate the proposed method theoretically and experimentally. Totally, we record and analyze about 3500 seconds of radar measurements from multiple human subjects.


Asunto(s)
Radar , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitoreo Fisiológico , Movimiento (Física) , Respiración
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809602

RESUMEN

An electronic circuit for contactless detection of impedance changes in a tissue is presented. It operates on the principle of resonant frequency change of the resonator having the observed tissue as a dielectric. The operating frequency reflects the tissue dielectric properties (i.e., the tissue composition and on the tissue physiological changes). The sensor operation was tested within a medical application by measuring the breathing of a patient, which was an easy detectable physiological process. The advantage over conventional contact bioimpedance measurement methods is that no direct contact between the resonator and the body is required. Furthermore, the sensor's wide operating range, ability to adapt to a broad range of measured materials, fast response, low power consumption, and small outline dimensions enables applications not only in the medical sector, but also in other domains. This can be extended, for example, to food industry or production maintenance, where the observed phenomena are reflected in dynamic dielectric properties of the observed object or material.


Asunto(s)
Respiración , Impedancia Eléctrica , Humanos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799472

RESUMEN

Background: Natural environment inhalation topography provides useful information for toxicant exposure, risk assessment and cardiopulmonary performance. Commercially available wearable respiratory monitors (WRMs), which are currently used to measure a variety of physiological parameters such as heart rate and breathing frequency, can be leveraged to obtain inhalation topography, yet little work has been done. This paper assesses the feasibility of adapting these WRMs for measuring inhalation topography. Methods: Commercially available WRMs were compiled and assessed for the ability to report chest motion, data analysis software features, ambulatory observation capabilities, participant acceptability, purchasing constraints and affordability. Results: The following WRMs were found: LifeShirt, Equivital EQ02 LifeMonitor, Smartex WWS, Hexoskin Smart Garment, Zephyr BioHarness, Nox T3&A1, BioRadio, SleepSense Inductance Band, and ezRIP & zRIP Durabelt. None of the WRMs satisfied all six assessment criteria in a manner enabling them to be used for inhalation topography without modification and development. Conclusions: The results indicate that there are WRMs with core technologies and characteristics that can be built upon for ambulatory inhalation topography measurement in the NE.


Asunto(s)
Respiración , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Administración por Inhalación , Estudios de Factibilidad , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2073, 2021 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824313

RESUMEN

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by autosomal recessive variants in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), leading to systemic accumulation of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) that may reach neurotoxic levels. A homozygous Pah-R261Q mouse, with a highly prevalent misfolding variant in humans, reveals the expected hepatic PAH activity decrease, systemic L-Phe increase, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan decrease, and tetrahydrobiopterin-responsive hyperphenylalaninemia. Pah-R261Q mice also present unexpected traits, including altered lipid metabolism, reduction of liver tetrahydrobiopterin content, and a metabolic profile indicative of oxidative stress. Pah-R261Q hepatic tissue exhibits large ubiquitin-positive, amyloid-like oligomeric aggregates of mutant PAH that colocalize with selective autophagy markers. Together, these findings reveal that PKU, customarily considered a loss-of-function disorder, can also have toxic gain-of-function contribution from protein misfolding and aggregation. The proteostasis defect and concomitant oxidative stress may explain the prevalence of comorbid conditions in adult PKU patients, placing this mouse model in an advantageous position for the discovery of mutation-specific biomarkers and therapies.


Asunto(s)
Amiloide/metabolismo , Hígado/enzimología , Mutación/genética , Estrés Oxidativo , Fenilalanina Hidroxilasa/genética , Agregado de Proteínas , Animales , Autofagia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Cruzamiento , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Genotipo , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Metaboloma , Ratones , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Neurotransmisores/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Hidroxilasa/metabolismo , Fenilcetonurias/enzimología , Pterinas/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Respiración , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinación
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917263

RESUMEN

Tongue pressure plays a critical role in the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing, contributing considerably to bolus formation and manipulation as well as to safe transporting of food from the mouth to the stomach. Smooth swallowing relies not only on effective coordination of respiration and pharynx motions but also on sufficient tongue pressure. Conventional methods of measuring tongue pressure involve attaching a pressure sheet to the hard palate to monitor the force exerted by the tongue tip against the hard palate. In this study, an air bulb was inserted in the anterior oral cavity to monitor the pressure exerted by the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue. The air bulb was integrated into a noninvasive, multisensor approach to evaluate the correlation of the tongue pressure with other swallowing responses, such as respiratory nasal flow, submental muscle movement, and thyroid cartilage excursion. An autodetection program was implemented for the automatic identification of swallowing patterns and parameters from each sensor. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method is sensitive in measuring the tongue pressure, and the tongue pressure was found to have a strong positive correlation with the submental muscle movement during swallowing.


Asunto(s)
Deglución , Lengua , Faringe , Presión , Respiración
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922563

RESUMEN

This paper introduces an automatic non-contact monitoring method based on the synchronous evaluation of a 3D time-of-flight (ToF) camera and a microwave interferometric radar sensor for measuring the respiratory rate of neonates. The current monitoring on the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) has several issues which can cause pressure marks, skin irritations and eczema. To minimize these risks, a non-contact system made up of a 3D time-of-flight camera and a microwave interferometric radar sensor is presented. The 3D time-of-flight camera delivers 3D point clouds which can be used to calculate the change in distance of the moving chest and from it the respiratory rate. The disadvantage of the ToF camera is that the heartbeat cannot be determined. The microwave interferometric radar sensor determines the change in displacement caused by the respiration and is even capable of measuring the small superimposed movements due to the heartbeat. The radar sensor is very sensitive towards movement artifacts due to, e.g., the baby moving its arms. To allow a robust vital parameter detection the data of both sensors was evaluated synchronously. In this publication, we focus on the first step: determining the respiratory rate. After all processing steps, the respiratory rate determined by the radar sensor was compared to the value received from the 3D time-of-flight camera. The method was validated against our gold standard: a self-developed neonatal simulation system which can simulate different breathing patterns. In this paper, we show that we are the first to determine the respiratory rate by evaluating the data of an interferometric microwave radar sensor and a ToF camera synchronously. Our system delivers very precise breaths per minute (BPM) values within the norm range of 20-60 BPM with a maximum difference of 3 BPM (for the ToF camera itself at 30 BPM in normal mode). Especially in lower respiratory rate regions, i.e., 5 and 10 BPM, the synchronous evaluation is required to compensate the drawbacks of the ToF camera. In the norm range, the ToF camera performs slightly better than the radar sensor.


Asunto(s)
Radar , Frecuencia Respiratoria , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Microondas , Monitoreo Fisiológico , Respiración , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801797

RESUMEN

An electrically small patch antenna with a low-cost high-permittivity ceramic substrate material for use in a ground-penetrating radar is proposed in this work. The antenna is based on a commercial ceramic 915 MHz patch antenna with a size of 25 × 25 × 4 mm3 and a weight of 12.9 g. The influences of the main geometric parameters on the antenna's electromagnetic characteristics were comprehensively studied. Three bandwidth improvement techniques were sequentially applied to optimize the antenna: tuning the key geometric parameters, adding cuts on the edges, and adding parasitic radiators. The designed antenna operates at around 1.3 GHz and has more than 40 MHz continuous -3 dB bandwidth. In comparison to the original antenna, the -3 and -6 dB fractional bandwidth is improved by 1.8 times and 4 times, respectively. Two antennas of the proposed design together with a customized radar were installed on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for a quick search for survivors after earthquakes or gas explosions without exposing the rescue staff to the uncertain dangers of moving on the debris.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Electromagnéticos , Radar , Electricidad , Humanos , Respiración
14.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(1): 81-88, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648037

RESUMEN

The snorkel allows a surface swimmer to observe the underwater world through the face mask without being disturbed by inhaling. The effect of a snorkel on breathing resistance and cost is widely held to be substantial. This study aims to model these parameters and to measure indirectly the actual increases. Further, resistances of differing designs and dimensions were assessed and recommendations were made concerning use and choice. Maximal voluntary ventilation in 12 seconds (MVV12) was measured in 19 volunteers seated on dry land with and without a classic J-type snorkel (inner diameter 20.5 mm). The extra and total resistances and costs were calculated using the MVV12 data and using estimated airways resistance extrapolated from subject's demography and spirometric literature data. MVV12 measurements with snorkel showed a minute volume of 152 ±38 L∙min-1, 6.0 ±3.7% lower than without snorkel (p = 7.0x10-6). The theoretical MVV12, calculated from snorkel and airways resistances, decreased by 3.2%. Experimental total breathing resistance (457±83 Pa∙s∙L-1) was 6.5 ± 3.2% higher than without snorkel (p = 2.6x10-7), but the total mechanical breathing cost was unaffected by the snorkel (13.58 Watts with; 13.64 Watts without). Divers' estimations of resistance increase were exaggerated (8.8% at rest, 23% swimming). Classical J-type snorkels with an inner diameter ≥19.5 mm add 3-16% resistance . There is no risk of hypercapnia. Scuba divers are recommended to use their snorkel to breathe more comfortably on the surface. It is recommended the snorkel be made a mandatory safety accessory. The best multipurpose snorkel (19-21 mm) has no top appendages and no water release valve.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia de las Vías Respiratorias/fisiología , Buceo/fisiología , Respiración , Equipo Deportivo , Natación/fisiología , Algoritmos , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Hipercapnia/etiología , Mecánica Respiratoria/fisiología , Equipo Deportivo/efectos adversos
17.
Respirology ; 26(5): 416-418, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660369
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112152, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780781

RESUMEN

The relationship between soil respiration (SR) and microbial community structure (MCS) is relevant to changes in forest soil ecosystem stability and chemical cycling under acid rain. Simulated acid rain treatments of pH 4.5 (control), 4.0, 3.25 and 2.5 were applied to two forest stands in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing. We used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to observe the MCS in the 0-10 cm soil layer and measured SR in situ from January 2016 to December 2017. Additionally, we determined the effects of soil properties on the MCS and SR. Acid rain simulation significantly increased the fungal PLFA abundance and decreased the bacterial PLFA abundance in the mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (CF). However, in the evergreen broad-leaved forest (BF), the abundance of bacterial and fungal PLFAs did not differ significantly among treatments. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that significant changes in the MSC were mainly due to the C/N ratio, hydrolysable N content, content, fine root biomass and sucrase activity. Acid rain simulation in the CF and BF significantly inhibited SR, but the SR sensitivity to simulated acid rain differed among forests. In 2017, the annual mean SR in the CF under the pH 4.0, 3.25 and 2.5 treatments decreased significantly by 6.1%, 19.2% and 28.9%, but in the BF, SR decreased significantly by 25.6% only under pH 2.5. The structural equation model showed that the relationship between the MCS and the variation in SR was closer and more direct than that with soil nutrients. The microbial community structure was an important factor driving the response of soil respiration to acid rain.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia Ácida , Bosques , Microbiología del Suelo , Bacterias , Biomasa , China , Hongos , Microbiota , Respiración , Suelo/química
19.
Biotechnol Adv ; 48: 107728, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705913

RESUMEN

In nature as well as in industrial microbiology, all microorganisms need to achieve redox balance. Their redox state and energy conservation highly depend on the availability of a terminal electron acceptor, for example oxygen in aerobic production processes. Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of an electron acceptor, redox balance is achieved via the production of reduced carbon-compounds (fermentation). An alternative strategy to artificially stabilize microbial redox and energy state is the use of anodic electro-fermentation (AEF). This emerging biotechnology empowers respiration under anaerobic conditions using the anode of a bioelectrochemical system as an undepletable terminal electron acceptor. Electrochemical control of redox metabolism and energy conservation via AEF can steer the carbon metabolism towards a product of interest and avoid the need for continuous and cost-inefficient supply of oxygen as well as the production of mixed reduced by-products, as is the case in aerobic production and fermentation processes, respectively. The great challenge for AEF is to establish efficient extracellular electron transfer (EET) from the microbe to the anode and link it to central carbon metabolism to enhance the synthesis of a target product. This article reviews the advantages and challenges of AEF, EET mechanisms, microbial energy gain, and discusses the rational choice of substrate-product couple as well as the choice of microbial catalyst. Besides, it discusses the potential of the industrial model-organism Bacillus subtilis as a promising candidate for AEF, which has not been yet considered for such an application. This prospective review contributes to a better understanding of how industrial microbiology can benefit from AEF and analyses key-factors required to successfully implement AEF processes. Overall, this work aims to advance the young research field especially by critically revisiting the fundamental aspects of AEF.


Asunto(s)
Poder Psicológico , Respiración , Anaerobiosis , Electrodos , Fermentación , Estudios Prospectivos
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