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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 236-251, 2020 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394822

RESUMEN

Down Syndrome: Perception of Mothers and Fathers About Parenting a Child with Intellectual Disability Parents of children with intellectual disabilities report increased stress levels as well as experiences of personal growth and a positive impact on family relationship. 30 mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome in school age complete questionnaires on the family impact of childhood disability, parental stress and child behavioral symptoms. Mothers as well as fathers report more positive than negative perceptions of the impact on the family. Negative impact is associated with the subjective level of stress. Mothers report more symptoms of stress than fathers. Behavioral problems of the child - as perceived by the parents - does not appear as a significant predictor of parenting stress in this sample. The results of a regression analysis suggest a significant contribution of paternal stress to the level of maternal stress. The results may help to understand family coping processes in the case of Down syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Down , Padre/psicología , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 23(1): 94-102, Jan.-Apr. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1059209

RESUMEN

RESUMO: Em Freud, a mulher é irremediavelmente ligada a uma reivindicação fálica jamais satisfeita e a assunção da feminilidade coincide com a maternidade. Que o feminino não se deixe recobrir inteiramente pela mãe é, por outro lado, destacado por Lacan. A prática da conversação com adolescentes mães e gestantes realizada no âmbito de uma pesquisa revela que, apesar das diversas conquistas das mulheres nas últimas décadas, a maternidade fornece ainda hoje significado e imagem com os quais se revestem o feminino pela via do ter fálico. Contudo, a tentativa de encerrar o feminino na mãe não cessa de fracassar.


Abstract: For Freud, the woman is inexorably linked to a phallic claim and the assumption of feminility does coincide with motherhood. For Lacan, on the other hand, the feminility does not overlap completely with motherhood. The conversation practice we conducted with teenagers, both mothers and pregnant, has shown that, in spite of all the progress made by women in the last decades, the meaning and the image of motherhood around the feminility are still defined by the phallic. However, all the efforts to close the feminility in motherhood does not stop failing.


Asunto(s)
Psicoanálisis , Mujeres , Responsabilidad Parental , Adolescente
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 283-288, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187933

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the effect of parental rearing patterns and their consistency on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children. Methods: From October to November 2017, 27 987 children aged 3 to 6 years old from 109 kindergartens in 11 cities of Hubei, Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces were selected by using the cluster sampling method. A total of 27 200 valid questionnaires which were completed by subjects' parents were collected. The emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children were collected by "strengths and difficulties questionnaire" and the parental rearing patterns were evaluated by the "Parental Behavior Scale". The differences in emotional and behavioral abnormality rates of preschool children with different characteristics were analyzed; with emotional and behavioral problems as dependent variables and parental support/participation and compulsion/hostility as independent variables, the multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of parental rearing patterns and their consistency on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children. Results: The age of children was (4.35±0.96) years old, and 51.4% of children were 13 975 males. There were 24 634 (90.6%) urban children and 17 916 (65.9%) only children. Both parents with strong support/participation accounted for 14.9%, and those with poor support/participation accounted for 11.9%; both parents with strong compulsion/hostility accounted for 15.2%, and those with low compulsion/hostility accounted for 11.3%. The rates of emotional symptoms, conduct behavior, hyperactive behavior, peer interaction, total difficulty score, and abnormal prosocial behavior of preschool children were 9.5%, 9.5%, 18.2%, 24.5%, 11.2%, and 10.2%, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after adjusting for gender, only child, living area, family economic status, mother's age and education level, father's education level, and other factors, compared with fathers/mothers with strong support/participation and low compulsion/hostility and parents with strong support/participation and low compulsion/hostility, preschool children who had fathers/mothers with poor support/participation and strong compulsion/hostility or parents with poor support/participation and strong compulsion/hostility were more likely to have emotional symptoms, conduct behavior, hyperactive behavior, peer interaction, total difficulty score, and abnormal prosocial behavior (P<0.05). Conclusions: Parental rearing patterns and their consistency are related to the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children.


Asunto(s)
Síntomas Afectivos , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres/psicología , Problema de Conducta , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 543-559, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002945

RESUMEN

Anxiety is prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Youth with maladaptive responses to common situations and stressors are at risk of having anxiety disorders. Persistent anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders can be debilitating with long-term adverse outcomes in adulthood. Hence, decreasing the burden of anxiety disorders is an important public health priority. Development of anxiety disorders has a multifactorial etiology. There is a considerable complex interaction of genetics, temperament, parenting behavior, environmental triggers, and physiologic factors. Identification of these risk factors is key to early detection, prevention, and development of applicable management approaches. Despite several evidence-based treatments published, there are limited prevention strategies available. Effective implementation of prevention strategies is essential and can be achieved by either elimination or reduction of the negative risk factors or strengthening the protective factors on anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. This chapter reviews the common risk and protective factors and provides current literature on prevention strategies for pediatric and adolescent anxiety disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/prevención & control , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos de Ansiedad/genética , Niño , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental , Prevalencia , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Temperamento
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228538, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084153

RESUMEN

Irony is one of the linguistic means in which intended and expressed meaning diverge. It serves social-communicative functions, requires the understanding of the speaker's mental state and its comprehension takes place at an advanced stage of language acquisition. In the present study, we investigated 8-year old's irony comprehension and social skills and asked their parents about their preferred use of irony towards their children. We then compared children with the highest scores in irony comprehension test with those with lower scores. The full sample included 46 families from Poland. Results show positive associations between children's levels of irony comprehension and levels of mothers irony use. No such relations were found for fathers. No differences were found in ToM scores between proficient and non-proficient irony comprehenders. Our findings provide a base for future studies to study the use of irony in child-parent talk in more diverse culturally and linguistically diverse populations.


Asunto(s)
Comprensión/fisiología , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Lingüística , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental , Ingenio y Humor como Asunto , Adulto , Niño , Comunicación , Femenino , Humanos , Lingüística/educación , Masculino , Relaciones Padres-Hijo/etnología , Responsabilidad Parental/etnología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Psicología Infantil , Psicometría , Habilidades Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ingenio y Humor como Asunto/psicología
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024491

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Accurately measuring parents' attitudes and beliefs regarding limiting their children's TV viewing is important to inform the design and evaluation of effective interventions. This manuscript assesses the internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior (MGDB) scales among parents of Latino preschoolers to characterize Latino parents' attitudes and beliefs toward limiting their preschoolers' TV viewing. METHOD: Participants included parents of Latino preschoolers in the United States, 3-5 years old (n = 186). Parents completed a socio-demographic survey and the 105-item MGDB questionnaire (Attitudes, Perceived Positive/Negative Behavioral Control, Subjective Norms, Positive and Negative Anticipated Emotions, Habits, Self-Efficacy, Desires, and Intentions surrounding their child's TV viewing) which was used to measure internal consistency reliability and construct validity. A subsample of participants completed the questionnaire twice to measure test-retest reliability. Further, parents completed a 7-day TV viewing diary for their preschooler, and a TV parenting practices questionnaire as measures of convergent validity. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability was generally acceptable for the MGDB scales (Cronbach's alphas> 0.7), except for the Desires scale, which was revealed to have two factors and the Attitudes and Perceived Behavioral Control scales. Test-retest reliability over 2 months had negligible to moderate correlations (r's = 0.28 to 0.61). Two structural equation models were conducted. One yielded acceptable model fit (x2 (97) = 113.65, p = .119) and the other had questionable model fit (x2 (97) = 125.39; p = .028). Testing convergent validity, only two MGDB scales (Habits and Self-Efficacy) were positively correlated with the TV parenting practices questionnaire (r's = 0.33 to 0.51), and none were meaningfully correlated with preschoolers' mean daily TV viewing. CONCLUSIONS: Initial reliability and validity for some of the MGDB scales appear acceptable among parents of Latino preschoolers. Refinement of the instrument and testing among larger samples is necessary to fully evaluate psychometric properties. This instrument may be useful for characterizing Latino parents' attitudes and beliefs toward limiting their preschoolers' TV viewing and informing future TV reduction interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT01216306 Registered October 6, 2010.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Modelos Psicológicos , Padres/psicología , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
11.
Lancet ; 395(10222): 408-409, 2020 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035543
12.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(2): 158-163, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051084

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of parental training based on the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) combined with intensive training on the treatment outcome of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its impact on parenting stress. METHODS: Seventy children aged 2-5 years who were diagnosed with ASD were enrolled in the study. They were divided into an ESDM group and a parental training group by the random number table method (n=35 each). The ESDM group received intensive training based on ESDM. In addition to intensive ESDM-based training, parents of the children in the parental training group received ESDM skills training. Both groups were assessed by Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) before and after the intervention of 3 months. RESULTS: After 3 months of intervention, the total scores of ABC, CARS and ATEC were both significantly decreased in the two groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the total scores of ABC, CARS and ATEC between the two groups before and after intervention (P>0.05). The change between ABC, CARS and ATEC total scores in the two groups had no significant difference (P>0.05). After 3 months of intervention, the total scores of PSI-SF were both significantly decreased in the two groups (P<0.05). The difficult child sub-scale scores in PSI-SF were significantly decreased in the ESDM group (P<0.05). While three sub-scale scores of parent distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction and difficult child in PSI-SF were significantly decreased in the parental training group (P<0.05). Before and after intervention of 3 months, no significant difference was found in PSI-SF total scores between the two groups. Compared with the ESDM group, the change between PSI-SF total scores and two sub-scales of PSI-SF (parent distress and difficult child) were significantly bigger in the parental training group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both the combination of intensive training and parent training based on ESDM and ESDM intensive training alone can improve the core symptoms of children with ASD aged 2-5 years and relieve the parenting stress, however, the former is more effective in relieving parenting stress.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Preescolar , Humanos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres , Estrés Psicológico
13.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(1): 28-39, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075707

RESUMEN

Purpose: Fisher-Owens et al. described the diverse family-level factors influencing children's oral health, but few studies have investigated these relationships using longitudinal data. This study investigated the association between family and child oral health using the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), a cross-sequential dual cohort study. Methods: A total of 10,090 children were recruited at baseline, and seven waves of data are available. Children's parents or guardians reported experiences of dental caries and injury. Data were used to model family-level predictors with generalized estimating equations. Results: In the final model, predictors of dental caries over time were younger mothers (odds ratio [OR] equals 1.37, 95 percent confidence interval [95% CI] equals 1.01 to 1.87) and lower parental education (OR equals 1.24, 95% CI equals 1.10 to 1.39). Other significant factors were poor parental health, parents smoking, English as the main language, and Indigenous parents. Parents with consistent parenting styles protected against caries. Predictors of dental injury included socioeconomic status and parental age. Conclusions: This study highlighted a number of significant family-level constructs that predict dental caries and injury. Understanding the influence of family provides evidence to warrant investigation into tailored interventions targeting young mothers, common health risk factors, and parenting styles.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Australia , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres
14.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(1): 8-14, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995424

RESUMEN

Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between parenting styles, child's behavior in dental setting and dental caries status. Study design: Children aged 3-7 years on their first dental visit were included in the study. Their parents were asked to complete Parenting Style Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess their parenting style. Oral prophylaxis was performed for the children and their behavior was assessed using Frankl behavior rating scale. Their caries status was recorded using DMFT/deft index. Results: Out of 315 parents, 240 parents exhibited authoritative parenting style, 45 exhibited permissive and 30 exhibited authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was associated with four-fold increase in the child's negative dental behavior and authoritarian parenting showed two-fold increase in the negative behavior of children compared to authoritative parenting. Children of both authoritative and authoritarian parents showed less caries status and the permissive parenting depicted threefold increase in the caries status compared to authoritative parenting. Conclusion: Children of both the permissive and authoritarian parents showed more negative dental behavior than children of authoritative parents. Children of permissive parents showed increased caries status compared to the children of authoritative parents.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Responsabilidad Parental , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres
15.
Am J Public Health ; 110(3): 339-344, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944845

RESUMEN

The detention of immigrants inside US borders is not a new phenomenon. However, a dramatic shift has occurred in both the number and treatment of immigrants in detention.We examine recent changes in immigration policies that have systematized the mistreatment of children and pregnant immigrants, including a ban on abortion for unaccompanied minors in immigration detention, the neglect and mistreatment of pregnant immigrants in detention, and the separation and prolonged detention of parents and children in unsafe facilities.We employ the reproductive justice framework to demonstrate how these policies violate all 3 primary values of reproductive justice: the right to have children, the right not to have children, and the right to parent children in safe and secure environments. We argue that, when analyzed through the lens of reproductive justice, these policies can be seen as manifestations of a single targeted strategy to control the reproductive autonomy of migrants as a tool of immigration enforcement. We conclude with a call to action to the public health community.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración/legislación & jurisprudencia , Embarazo , Justicia Social , Aborto Inducido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres , Política Pública , Refugiados/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228287, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995617

RESUMEN

This study aimed to develop a seven-item brief parenting scale (PS-7) based on the original parenting scale (PS) and various other shortened versions and with a better factor structure for the parents of adolescents. The scale was tested with a sample of 3,777 parents (2,205 mothers and 1,572 fathers). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the dimensionality of the different versions of the PS. Only the PS-7 with a two-factor structure, i.e., laxness (three items) and overreactivity (four items), showed a good model fit based on a representative sample of parents of junior secondary school students. Overall, the results suggest that PS-7 is comparable to the original PS and possesses good psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity, construct validity, criterion validity and discriminant validity. The abbreviated parenting scale also provides a reliable and cost-effective method for assessing parental practices for treatment and assessing treatment outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 92, 2020 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964356

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Latino fathers may play important roles in adolescents' physical activity and screen time. However, informant discrepancies regarding paternal activity parenting practices may challenge studies supporting evidence-based applications. This study examined Latino adolescent-father discrepancies in reporting paternal activity parenting practices, types of discrepancies by participant characteristics, and associations between discrepancy types and adolescents' physical activity and screen time. METHODS: The sample for this cross-sectional study included Latino early adolescents and their fathers (n = 138 dyads) from baseline data collected for a family-centered, healthy lifestyle intervention in a metropolitan area. In parallel measures, Latino adolescents and fathers reported paternal activity parenting practices related to expectation or allowance, behavioral modeling, and providing opportunities for physical activity or screen time. Level of agreement and discrepancies were examined using the percentage of agreement, weighted kappa statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and paired-sample t-tests. Undesirable discrepancy types included adolescents reporting lower scores for paternal physical activity parenting practices or higher scores for paternal screen time parenting practices than fathers. Participants' sociodemographic characteristics and weight status were compared by discrepancy type using between-group t-tests or Chi-square tests. Associations between discrepancy type and adolescents' physical activity and screen time were examined using multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: The study sample was low-income with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Adolescent and paternal reports of activity parenting practices had poor agreement (percentages of agreement: 22.2-34.3%, weighted kappa statistics: < 0.2, and correlation coefficients: 0.06-0.25). An undesirable discrepancy type for certain parenting practices was more likely to be observed among fathers without full-time employment, girls, older adolescents, and adolescents and fathers within overweight or obese BMI categories. Discrepancies in paternal expectation regarding physical activity and allowance of screen time had adverse associations with adolescents' physical activity (ß = - 0.18, p = 0.008) and screen time (ß = 0.51, p <  0.001). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Discrepancies in reporting activity parenting practices were evident between Latino adolescents and their fathers, especially among certain sociodemographic and weight status groups. Adolescents' perceptions on paternal parenting practices tended to be better indicators of their activity levels than fathers' reports.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Padre/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/etnología , Tiempo de Pantalla , Autoinforme/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Padre/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Emotion ; 20(1): 98-104, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961186

RESUMEN

Emotion regulation patterns are shaped, in part, by the quality of interpersonal interactions during early development. Given the important contribution of caregiver emotion socialization, parenting programs targeting these socialization practices represent an effective method of preventative intervention for childhood difficulties with emotion regulation. This review examines emotion socialization parenting programs that target the development of emotion regulation in young children aged 0-6. Through a systematic search of multiple databases, 1117 articles were retrieved for title, abstract, and full-text screening. After screening, 12 articles remained and were summarized using a narrative approach. Herein, we provide an overview of 3 main intervention frameworks: Tuning in to Kids (TIK), Parent-Child Interaction Therapy-Emotion Development (PCIT-ED), and Emotion Enhanced Triple P (EETP). Overall, these emotion socialization programs have demonstrated efficacy in their ability to improve parenting behaviors related to the coaching of young children's emotion regulation; however, there has been limited examination of their effectiveness in promoting children's emotion regulation. Future research is required to address this limitation, with rigorous parenting intervention studies incorporating valid assessments of children's emotion regulation in order to promote children's development of adaptive emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino
19.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 30(1): 75-84, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral disease is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions affecting children. Twice-daily toothbrushing is recommended to promote good oral health; however, a large proportion of Australian families are not meeting this recommendation. AIM: This study aimed to identify important barriers to regular toothbrushing for young children. DESIGN: In this study, 239 parents of 0- to 4-year-old children completed an online survey that investigated child, family, and parent factors associated with child toothbrushing. Hierarchical linear regression was used to identify predictors of toothbrushing frequency in children and perceived difficulty of the task by parents. RESULTS: We found that parent factors, specifically oral health knowledge, were the most significant predictors of toothbrushing frequency. Conversely, parent factors did not contribute significantly to the prediction of perceived difficulty of toothbrushing once family and child factors were taken into account. Oral health knowledge and use of routines were identified as the most important predictors of toothbrushing frequency, whereas resistant child behaviour and household organisation were found to be the most important predictors of perceived difficulty of regular toothbrushing. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study have implications for behavioural interventions to support parents, as well as directions for future research.


Asunto(s)
Responsabilidad Parental , Cepillado Dental , Australia , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Padres
20.
J Psychol ; 154(2): 159-175, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738658

RESUMEN

Drawing on the information processing model for the development of aggression, children's acquisition of aggressive responses could be associated with parenting that communicated norms favoring aggression. Extending this view, the present study examined the mediating role of children's normative beliefs about relational aggression (NBRA) on the association between psychologically controlling parenting and children's relational aggression (RA), and further explored whether this possible indirect effect would be contingent on the child's gender. 341 upper elementary school students (174 boys and 166 girls) reported perceived paternal psychological control (PPC) and maternal psychological control (MPC) during their fifth-grade fall semester, rated their NBRA during their sixth-grade fall semester, and assessed RA through a peer-nomination procedure during their sixth-grade spring semester. Results demonstrated that the indirect effects of perceived PPC and MPC on children's RA via their NBRA were both significant among the entire sample. However, by means of conditional process analysis, we found that whereas perceived PPC positively predicted boys' and girls' NBRA, perceived MPC positively predicted boys' but not girls' NBRA. In addition, children's NBRA was only positively predictive of RA for girls. As such, the indirect effect was exclusively significant for perceived PPC among girls.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Padre/psicología , Madres/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Actitud , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes
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