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1.
PLoS Biol ; 19(3): e3001100, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690708

RESUMEN

The issues facing academic mothers have been discussed for decades. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is further exposing these inequalities as womxn scientists who are parenting while also engaging in a combination of academic related duties are falling behind. These inequities can be solved by investing strategically in solutions. Here we describe strategies that would ensure a more equitable academy for working mothers now and in the future. While the data are clear that mothers are being disproportionately impacted by COVID-19, many groups could benefit from these strategies. Rather than rebuilding what we once knew, let us be the architects of a new world.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza/estadística & datos numéricos , /economía , Femenino , Humanos , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/tendencias , Sexismo/psicología , Sexismo/tendencias
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 171, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648450

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and coping experienced during pregnancy can have important effects on maternal and infant health, which can also vary by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we assessed stressors, coping behaviors, and resources needed in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of 162 perinatal (125 pregnant and 37 postpartum) women in the United States. METHODS: A mixed-methods study captured quantitative responses regarding stressors and coping, along with qualitative responses to open-ended questions regarding stress and resources needed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze differences between pregnant and postpartum participants, as well as differences across key demographic variables. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended questions. RESULTS: During the COVID-pandemic, food scarcity and shelter-in-place restrictions made it difficult for pregnant women to find healthy foods. Participants also reported missing prenatal appointments, though many reported using telemedicine to obtain these services. Financial issues were prevalent in our sample and participants had difficulty obtaining childcare. After controlling for demographic variables, pregnant women were less likely to engage in healthy stress-coping behaviors than postpartum women. Lastly, we were able to detect signals of increased stressors induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, and less social support, in perinatal women of racial and ethnic minority, and lower-income status. Qualitative results support our survey findings as participants expressed concerns about their baby contracting COVID-19 while in the hospital, significant others missing the delivery or key obstetric appointments, and wanting support from friends, family, and birthing classes. Financial resources, COVID-19 information and research as it relates to maternal-infant health outcomes, access to safe healthcare, and access to baby supplies (formula, diapers, etc.) emerged as the primary resources needed by participants. CONCLUSIONS: To better support perinatal women's mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers should engage in conversations regarding access to resources needed to care for newborns, refer patients to counseling services (which can be delivered online/via telephone) and virtual support groups, and consistently screen pregnant women for stressors.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Recursos en Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Atención Perinatal , Educación Prenatal/métodos , /epidemiología , /psicología , Femenino , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Salud Mental/normas , Evaluación de Necesidades , Atención Perinatal/métodos , Atención Perinatal/organización & administración , Atención Perinatal/tendencias , Embarazo , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organización & administración , Estados Unidos
3.
Health Psychol ; 40(3): 188-195, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630640

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the psychosocial processes related to the health outcomes of depression and obesity. Specifically, the mediating role of participant's trait conscientiousness on the relation between early experiences of paternal/maternal warmth and later depressive symptoms/obesity across 20 years and how this relationship is moderated by age across adulthood. METHOD: The current study utilized a national longitudinal data set, Midlife in the United States. Participants (N = 2,257) completed a survey rating the warmth they received from their fathers and mothers as children at Time 1 (T1; Ages 25-75). Participants reported their trait conscientiousness 10 years later (Time 2; T2). Depressive symptoms and body mass index were collected 10 years later (Time 3; T3). A moderated mediation model was used to examine whether the effect of parental warmth on health outcomes was mediated by trait conscientiousness and moderated by age. RESULTS: An indirect effect of maternal warmth on depressive symptoms and obesity, mediated by conscientiousness, was found. This effect is moderated by age such that the indirect effect is stronger in older adults. While paternal warmth did not have a significant indirect effect on either depressive symptoms or obesity, the effect was not significantly different from the maternal indirect effect. CONCLUSION: The study supported the role of trait conscientiousness in linking the effect of early parental warmth to later health outcomes. This study also found that the strength of the indirect effect of parental warmth through conscientiousness increases with age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Conciencia , Depresión/psicología , Obesidad/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 115-133, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565950

RESUMEN

Working with Fathers to Prevent Child Abuse. A Pilot Evaluation of the Caring Dads Program in Germany Selective and indicated prevention programs for fathers at high risk of (repeated) child maltreatment are lacking within early childhood intervention and child protection. The Canadian Caring Dads Program has been started in Germany in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine fathers who participated in a Caring Dads program in Düsseldorf, Hanover or Groß-Gerau until 2016. The study of n = 60 fathers and n = 34 mothers included the longitudinal examination of self-reported aggression, parenting behaviors and co-parenting in fathers as well as quality of life and co-parenting in mothers, the comparison of fathers participating in the program in Germany and Canada (n = 59/64) and a postal catamnesis (n = 20). Results have shown mean improvements in paternal aggression (d = .39) and parenting behaviors (d = .80, categorized: φ = .46) as well as maternal co-parenting (d = .46) and paternal behavior toward the partner (d = .47). In one-fourth to one-third of fathers at risk-levels, improvements controlled for measurement errors by the Reliable Change Index were clinically significant. German fathers reported higher motivation for change (t1/t2: d = 1.37/1.59) and verbal aggression (t1/t2: d = 1.29/1.36) compared to Canadian fathers. The catamnesis showed subjectively significant improvements in family relationships and parenting from the paternal point of view. The evaluation does not provide any evidence of culturally induced barriers of implementing Caring Dads in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Padre/psicología , Canadá , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida
5.
J Psychol ; 155(2): 186-209, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539270

RESUMEN

Living and acting in line with one's implicit motives fosters peoples' well-being across a wide array of cultural contexts. Yet, not all individuals commit to goals that reflect their implicit motives. Research points to resources that relate to congruence of implicit and explicit motives. We hypothesized that such resources also relate to motive-congruent identity development. In detail, we assumed that perceived parenting quality (Study 1) and sense of self-determination (Study 2) moderate the relationship between the implicit need for affiliation and dimensions of identity development in the interpersonal domain of friendship. Evidence supporting our assumptions was found in both studies: Among adolescents who reported low levels of parenting quality higher levels of the implicit affiliation motive were associated with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment (Study 1). Moreover, a positive association between the implicit affiliation motive and commitment was verified for adolescents who were high in self-determination (Study 2). Less straightforward findings on in-depth exploration point to the Janus-faced nature of exploration processes. To conclude, the implicit need for affiliation seems to play a crucial role in interpersonal identity development if particular social and personal resources are available. Implications for future research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Responsabilidad Parental , Autonomía Personal , Identificación Social , Adolescente , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología
6.
Res Dev Disabil ; 111: 103873, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has generated anxiety and mental health issues in the common population. In general, anxiety and poor health are higher in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) than parents of children without ASD. However, the symptoms of anxiety, depression and poor mental health are likely to be more escalated in parents of children with ASD during COVID-19, possibly due to the emergency measures involving suspension of essential services, closure of schools, work-from-home policy and lack of professional support, etc. AIM: This empirical research aimed to explore the attitude, anxiety and perceived mental health care of parents of children with ASD in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A total of 211 participants, including mothers and fathers of children with ASD from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in this online study. Along with demographic details, data on attitude, anxiety, mental health status and perceived mental health care were obtained using both self-reported questionnaire and reference standard questionnaire. The collected data were analysed using t-test, Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression analysis. The responses to open-ended questions were also collected and analysed qualitatively. RESULTS: The study revealed that attitudes towards taking care of children with ASD were affected by parents' age and child's age, and mothers were more affected. Further, the anxiety of parents during COVID-19 was significantly higher than before the COVID-19 situation. It was found that parents' mental status during COVID-19 mediated the interaction between anxiety and perceived mental health care. Finally, the open-ended questions indicated that parents sought support from teachers, family members and therapists to deal with children with ASD during the pandemic outbreak. In the context of perceived mental health care, besides psychological and financial support, other measures like training sessions, online classes, etc., were recommended. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study insisted on the importance of support from government and local health authorities to introduce interventions for parents and children with ASD to improve the overall mental health.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Salud Mental , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Apoyo Social , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , /prevención & control , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Educación no Profesional/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
7.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 35-45, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197951

RESUMEN

Parental promotion of an adequate environment during early childhood results in healthy child development. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of the positive parenting programme, 'Gaining health and wellbeing from birth to three' (GH&W), as a universal prevention strategy. Participants were 87 parents with children < 36 months old attending 20 primary care centres. Centres were randomly assigned to three GH&W intervention levels: online course (level 1), online course plus group workshops (level 2), and online course plus group workshops plus individual support at medical check-ups (level 3), delivered by healthcare professionals. As for feasibility, participants in levels 2 and 3 reported higher utility and satisfaction with the online course than participants in level 1. Pretest-posttest comparisons and cluster analysis showed that participants in level 3 achieved the best results and were associated with a consolidated cluster characterised by improvements in health promotion activities, parental self-regulation, and satisfaction with the service, whereas participants in levels 1 and 2 showed fewer improvements and were associated with initial and transitional clusters. The GH&W programme improves the universal reach of web-based courses and efficiently activates the contribution of the primary care system to the support network for healthy child development and wellbeing


La promoción de entornos saludables en el contexto familiar durante la primera infancia es clave para el desarrollo infantil. Este estudio evaluó la viabilidad y la eficacia del programa de parentalidad positiva "Ganar salud y bienestar de 0 a 3 años" (GSB) como estrategia de prevención universal. Participaron 87 figuras parentales con hijos o hijas de menos de 36 meses usuarios de 20 centros de salud. Los centros fueron asignados aleatoriamente a tres niveles de intervención del GSB: curso online (nivel 1), curso online más talleres grupales (nivel 2) y curso online, más talleres grupales, más apoyo individual en revisiones médicas (nivel 3) implementado por los equipos de pediatría. Respecto a la viabilidad, los participantes de los niveles 2 y 3 consideraron más útil y satisfactorio el curso online que los participantes del nivel 1. En las comparaciones pretest-postest y el análisis de clúster el nivel 3 logró los mejores resultados y se asoció al clúster consolidado caracterizado por mejoras en rutinas saludables, autorregulación parental y satisfacción con el servicio, mientras que los niveles 1 y 2 mostraron menos mejoras y se asociaron al clúster inicial y de transición. El programa GSB amplía el alcance universal del curso online e implica eficazmente al sistema sanitario en la red de apoyo al desarrollo saludable y del bienestar infantil


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Preescolar , Adulto , Estudios de Factibilidad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Desarrollo de Programa , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Bienestar del Niño/psicología , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Intervención Médica Temprana , Psicología Infantil , Relaciones Padre-Hijo
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477795

RESUMEN

The experiences of women regarding conception, the birth of the first child, and care of an infant in the perinatal period have long attracted the attention of researchers, but the knowledge about the experiences of men entering the role of fathers for the first time is still insufficient. The aim of the research was to identify the level of satisfaction with life, emotions and identity formation of first-time parents depending on the gender and age of the child. Seventy-five pairs of Polish first-time parents participated in the study. The research used the SUPIN scale (Polish adaptation of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Dimension of Identity Development Scale (DIDS), and a questionnaire prepared by the authors. On the basis of the conducted research, it can be concluded that there is a similarity of satisfaction with life, experienced emotions, and identity processes of first-time mothers and fathers, as well as the importance of the child's age for the specificity of developmental changes in women and men. Understanding development changes which include identity, emotional functioning, and life satisfaction of first-time parents can provide bases for creating supporting programs in the case that problems in undertaking the role of a parent emerge.


Asunto(s)
Padre/psicología , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Satisfacción Personal , Adulto , Niño , Emociones , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Polonia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Res Dev Disabil ; 109: 103851, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465589

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak, already limited services and resources for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in China became even more scarce. This qualitative case study highlights one online parent education and training (PET) program developed during the pandemic to offer home-intervention strategies to parents of children with ASD in mainland China. This exploratory study sought to examine the emic perspectives of the trainers and parents who participated in the 12-week intensive training program while considering the cultural context in China and the transnational, remote nature of the program. METHODS: The primary data focused on the experiences of the trainers and parents within PET program's structure and strategies, which were adapted from the Training of Trainers model, and were collected from semi-structured, in-depth individual and focus group interviews conducted virtually with trainers (n = 4). Supplemental data sources included training session materials and feedback forms collected from parents (n = 294) at the midpoint and end of the program. After the collected data were sorted and condensed, a thematic analysis was performed using the data analysis spiral to further organize and code the data, and the codes were finally collapsed into themes. FINDINGS: Three overarching themes were identified: (1) training as modeling with resources, (2) dilemmas in cultural contexts and expectations, and (3) cultivating parent support networks. CONCLUSION: The online PET program became a hub of support networks and learning spaces for parents of children with ASD in different regions in China during the pandemic. Through the interactive virtual training sessions, parents were supported by continuous feedback on their home intervention and coached to cultivate support networks among themselves despite tensions arising from cultural differences and to implement effective intervention strategies that were individualized and authenticated to their specific familial needs.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación no Profesional , Educación/métodos , Padres/psicología , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Adulto , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , /prevención & control , Niño , China/epidemiología , Educación no Profesional/métodos , Educación no Profesional/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Educacionales , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología
10.
Am J Nurs ; 121(2): 11, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497107

RESUMEN

A nurse who grew up in the shadow of her mother's schizophrenia calls for societal acceptance and support.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones , Estigma Social , Femenino , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología
11.
Appetite ; 161: 105119, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450298

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruptions to the lives of families. This study aimed to investigate the impact of pandemic-associated stress on food parenting practices including interactions surrounding snacks, and child diet. METHODS: Parents (N = 318) of 2-12-year old children completed a cross-sectional online survey assessing current COVID-19-specific stress, pre-COVID-19 stress, financial stress (e.g. food insecurity), food parenting practices, and child snack intake frequency. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model simultaneous paths of relationships and test direct and indirect effects. RESULTS: Stress, including financial hardship, was higher compared with before the crisis. The majority of children had regular mealtimes and irregular snack times. Higher COVID-19-specific stress was associated with more non-nutritive use of food and snacks (e.g. emotional and instrumental feeding), but also more structure and positive interactions (e.g. eating with or engaging with child around mealtimes). Higher COVID-19-specific stress was also associated with greater child intake frequency of sweet and savory snacks, with some evidence for mediation by snack parenting practices. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may be linked to child snack intake with potential impacts on child obesity risk, and suggest several modifiable points of intervention within the family context.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Pandemias , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Bocadillos , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Comidas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Health Care Women Int ; 41(11-12): 1349-1362, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315545

RESUMEN

In this study, the authors aimed to examine relations between mothers' stress (PSI-SF) and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic confinement in mainland China (N = 274; mean age = 32.95, SD = 5.59). Our analyses revealed mothers identified more stress problems during the confinement than before including Difficult Child, Parental Distress, and Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, which predicted requests for clinical or parents support services. Mothers living in rural areas reported less stress. Single mothers and those in small households displayed a higher level of stress. Our research results may assist policymakers, professionals, and researchers to design support needed to promote families' psychological well-being.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Madres/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto Joven
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 395-402, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370738

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pathological narcissism has previously been investigated with regard to negative parenting and interpersonal forgiveness, but inconsistent findings have been obtained in relation to its two phenotypic forms - grandiosity and vulnerability. Moreover, the role of negative parenting in the lack of forgiveness within narcissistic pathology has not been explored thus far. The aim of the current research was to investigate the complex relations among pathological narcissism, negative parenting, and interpersonal forgiveness in psychiatric outpatients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 250 adult psychiatric outpatients (61% female; mean age 39.15 years) were enrolled in this study. The participants filled out the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI), the Tendency to Forgive Scale (TTF), the Measure of Parental Styles (MOPS), and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS21). RESULTS: Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability were positively correlated with mothers' and fathers' negative parenting, but this association was significantly stronger in the case of narcissistic vulnerability. Only narcissistic vulnerability was related to interpersonal forgiveness. In the mediation analysis, negative parenting was not directly related to interpersonal forgiveness, however, this association became significant after introducing narcissistic vulnerability. Narcissistic vulnerability served as a full mediator of the mothers' and fathers' negative parenting - interpersonal forgiveness relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Narcissistic vulnerability seems to be more strongly related to negative parenting and interpersonal forgiveness than narcissistic grandiosity, while it also represents one of the underlying mechanisms of the negative parenting - interpersonal forgiveness relationship. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed in relation to pathological narcissism and lack of forgiveness.


Asunto(s)
Perdón , Relaciones Interpersonales , Narcisismo , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Atención Ambulatoria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pacientes Ambulatorios/psicología , Adulto Joven
14.
Global Health ; 16(1): 96, 2020 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease is causing considerable acute risk to public health and might also have an unanticipated impact on the mental health of children and adolescents in the long run. This study collected data during the national lockdown period in China and aims to understand whether there is a clinically significant difference in anxiety, depression, and parental rearing style when comparing adolescents from Wuhan and other cities in China. This study also intends to examine whether gender, grade in school, single child status, online learning participation, parents' involvement in COVID-19 related work, and parents being quarantined or infected due to the disease would lead to clinically significant differences in anxiety and depression. Beyond that, this study explored the pathways among the different variables in order to better understand how these factors play a part in impacting adolescents' mental health condition. RESULTS: Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in anxiety symptoms between participants who were from Wuhan compared to other urban areas, but not in depressive symptoms. In addition, participants' grade level, gender, relative being infected, and study online have direct positive predictive value for depressive and anxiety symptoms, whereas location and sibling status have indirect predictive value. Having relatives who participated in COVID-19 related work only had positive direct predictive value toward depression, but not anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study discovered several risk factors for adolescents' depression and anxiety during the pandemic. It also called for a greater awareness of Wuhan parents' mental wellbeing and recommended a systematic approach for mental health prevention and intervention.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240962, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064778

RESUMEN

Due to the COVID- 19 outbreak in the Netherlands (March 2020) and the associated social distancing measures, families were enforced to stay at home as much as possible. Adolescents and their families may be particularly affected by this enforced proximity, as adolescents strive to become more independent. Yet, whether these measures impact emotional well-being in families with adolescents has not been examined. In this ecological momentary assessment study, we investigated if the COVID-19 pandemic affected positive and negative affect of parents and adolescents and parenting behaviors (warmth and criticism). Additionally, we examined possible explanations for the hypothesized changes in affect and parenting. To do so, we compared daily reports on affect and parenting that were gathered during two periods of 14 consecutive days, once before the COVID-19 pandemic (2018-2019) and once during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multilevel analyses showed that only parents' negative affect increased as compared to the period before the pandemic, whereas this was not the case for adolescents' negative affect, positive affect and parenting behaviors (from both the adolescent and parent perspective). In general, intolerance of uncertainty was linked to adolescents' and parents' negative affect and adolescents' positive affect. However, Intolerance of uncertainty, nor any pandemic related characteristics (i.e. living surface, income, relatives with COVID-19, hours of working at home, helping children with school and contact with COVID-19 patients at work) were linked to the increase of parents' negative affect during COVID-19. It can be concluded that on average, our sample (consisting of relatively healthy parents and adolescents) seems to deal fairly well with the circumstances. The substantial heterogeneity in the data however, also suggest that whether or not parents and adolescents experience (emotional) problems can vary from household to household. Implications for researchers, mental health care professionals and policy makers are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Bienestar del Niño/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Conducta Materna/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Conducta Paterna/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afecto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Incertidumbre
16.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 45(10): 1114-1123, 2020 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068403

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated significant worry, uncertainty, anxiety, sadness, and loneliness. In Italy, these effects have been particularly pronounced. While research on the COVID-19 outbreak has mainly focused on the clinical features of infected patients and the psychological impact on the general population and health professionals, no investigation has yet assessed the psychological impact of the pandemic on parents. In the present research, we conducted a web-based survey of Italian parents to examine the prevalence of parenting-related exhaustion-and to identify its associated risk and protective factors-4 weeks into the lockdown. METHODS: A total of 1,226 parents provided their consent to participate in the study and completed a demographic questionnaire, information relating to particular COVID-19 experiences, and measures of emotional exhaustion, parental resilience, social connections, and psychological distress during the lockdown. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of our sample experienced significant parenting-related exhaustion, with mothers more severely affected. Multiple regression analyses showed that greater parenting-related exhaustion was predicted by psychological distress, lower parental resilience, motherhood, fewer perceived social connections, and being single, as well as having a child with special needs, having a large number of children, and having younger children. CONCLUSION: The findings add further support to the call for preventive programs to support parents throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health professionals and social workers should be warned of the effects of lockdown and social distancing on parenting and, consequently, the well-being of children.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Agotamiento Psicológico/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Agotamiento Psicológico/psicología , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239712, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112883

RESUMEN

Relationship dissolution can cause declines in emotional well-being, particularly if there are children involved. Individuals' capacity to cope with the pragmatics of the situation, such as agreeing childcare arrangements, can be impaired. Before now, there has been no psychometric test to evaluate individuals' emotional readiness to cope with these demands. This paper presents a model of emotional adaptation in the context of relationship dissolution and its key assumptions, and validates the Emotional Adaptation to Relationship Dissolution Assessment (EARDA). In Study 1 (Sample 1, n = 573 separated parents, Sample 2, n = 199 mix of parents and non-parents), factor analyses support the EARDA as a unidimensional scale with good reliability. In Study 2 (using Sample 1, and Sample 3, n = 156 separated parents) the convergent, discriminant, concurrent criterion-related, and incremental validity of the EARDA were supported by tests of association with stress, distress, attachment style, and co-parenting communication and conflict. In Study 3, the nomological network of emotional adaptation to relationship dissolution was explored in Sample 2 using cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS). Emotional adaptation clustered with positive traits and an outward focus, and was negatively associated with negative traits and an inward focus. Emotional adaptation was conceptually located in close proximity to active and adaptive coping, and furthest away from maladaptive coping. In Study 4 (n = 30 separated parents embarking on mediation), high, medium, and low emotional adaptation to relationship dissolution categories correlated highly with mediators' professional judgement, offering triangulated face validity. Finally, in Study 5, EARDA scores were found to mediate between separation characteristics (time since break up, whether it was a shock, and who initiated the break up) and co-parenting conflict in Sample 1, supporting the proposed model. The theoretical innovation of this work is the introduction of a new construct that bridges the gap between relationship dissolution and co-parenting. Practical implications include the use of the measure proposed to triage levels of support in a family law setting.


Asunto(s)
Ajuste Emocional/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 107, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076981

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Professional support to enhance the early parent-infant relationship in the first months after birth is recommended, but little is known about the effect of universal interventions. The objective was to investigate the effect of health visitors' use of the Newborn Behavioral Observations system in new families. METHODS: A cluster-randomised study was conducted in four Danish municipalities. Health visitors' geographical districts constituted the units for randomisation (n = 17). In the intervention group, 1332 families received NBO from 3 weeks after birth; in the comparison group, 1234 received usual care. Self-administered questionnaires were collected at baseline one to two weeks after birth, and at follow-up three and nine months postpartum. The outcomes were change over time measured by The Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS), The Major Depression Inventory (MDI), The Ages and Stages Questionnaire: social-emotional (ASQ:SE) and The Mother and Baby Interaction Scale (MABIC). Data were analysed with mixed-effects linear regression using the intention-to-treat approach. RESULTS: At baseline, no significant differences between the two groups were seen regarding maternal and infant factors. At follow-up three and nine months after birth, the change in maternal confidence and mood, infant's socio-emotional behaviour, and early parent-infant relationship moved in a slightly more positive direction in the intervention group than in the comparison group, though not statistically significant. The only significant effect was that the intervention mothers reported higher level of knowledge about infant's communication skills, response to cues, and how to sooth and establish a relation with the infant, compared to the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: We found no effect of the NBO system delivered in a universal context to all families in a community setting. The only significant difference between groups was a higher maternal degree of knowledge regarding early parenting in the intervention group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03070652 . Registrated February 22, 2017.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Psicología Infantil , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1356-1367, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047691

RESUMEN

Background: Neglectful feeding and physical activity (PA) practices by parents are associated with development of adulthood obesity. The Arab world has reported an alarming increase of adulthood obesity and childhood neglect by parents, yet have not studied the association between the two variables. Aims: The objectives of this study were to evaluate two parental negligence parameters (feeding style and social activity) associated with adulthood obesity and to identify the level of parental negligence on a customized parent neglect scale. Methods: In total 450 adult subjects 18-30 were screened for body mass index (BMI) values. 240 subjects fulfilling the criteria for the study were divided into two groups normal weight (N Gp) (n = 150) and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob Gp) (n = 90) groups. A questionnaire was formulated through a dual moderator focus group discussion, which was then tested in a prepilot and a pilot study (qualitative) to determine its validity (content and criterion) and reliability (repeated measurement) before distributing to the parents of both groups. Physical activity and screen time were also recorded for the subjects and their parents. Chi square test for association/difference between two categorical variables and Pearsons correlation coefficient for BMI correlation were employed. Results: Parenting parameters like maternal age, consanguineous marriage, breastfeeding duration, formula food introduction, and maternal smoking were significantly different between studied groups. Higher physical inactivity was observed among parents (father/mother 53%) and subjects (80%). The higher amount of screen time (73% ≥ 60-100 h/week) was found in the Ov/Ob Gp that significantly differed with the other group. Maternal BMI was positively related to the subjects BMI. Parents of obese subjects were found negligent in feeding style and very negligent for social activity on a parent neglect scale as compared to the parents of the normal weight subjects. Conclusion: Parents are responsible for developing healthy eating habits and competitive social behavior among their children. Parents need to practice the same to influence changes in their children during their early childhood, as well as when their children grow into adults. Negligent parenting in the studied parameters were found to increase the risk of developing adulthood obesity and should be considered as a potential marker for adult obesity.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Lactancia Materna , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/etnología , Preescolar , Dieta Saludable , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 483-491, oct. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195665

RESUMEN

El objetivo de la investigación es identificar las características del alumnado que no participa en episodios de bullying en función de estereotipos de género, crianza; actitudes y estrategias cognitivas sociales y sobre-ingesta alimentaria. En el estudio participaron 1190 alumnos de educación básica de once escuelas públicas del Estado de México, México. Investigación cuantitativa, con estudio descriptivo y diseño transversal. Se recogieron datos a partir de cinco instrumentos que miden las variables de estudio: bullying, estereotipos de género, crianza, estrategias cognitivas sociales, sobre-ingesta alimentaria. Los resultados permitieron identificar cinco tipos de alumnos (víctimas de violencia escolar; víctimas de bullying; bully; doble rol y no involucrados), los contrastes de medias a través del ANOVA de un factor, identificó diferencias significativas en los grupos con respecto a cada una de las variables estudiadas. Se concluye que el alumnado que no se involucran en episodios de bullying, tienen más hábitos de salud, más habilidades sociales que facilitan adaptación al contexto social, sin identificarse con estereotipos tradicionales como el femenino y el machismo. Con respecto a la crianza de sus padres, se identifica que no son educados a través de prácticas de crianza inefectivas como el maltrato. Los resultados describen características definitorios del alumnado que no se involucra en episodios de bullying, lo que será de gran utilidad para la elaboración de programas de prevención e intervención


The objective of the research is to identify the characteristics of students who do not participate in bullying episodes (called "not involved"), in function of gender stereotypes, parenting styles; attitudes and social cognitive strategies and food intake. The study involved 1190 elementary school students, from eleven public schools in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Quantitative research, with descriptive study and cross-sectional design. Data were collected from five instruments that measure the study variables: bullying, gender stereotypes, parenting styles, social cognitive strategies, food intake. The results identified five types of students (victims of school violence; victims of bullying; bully; double role and not involved), the contrasts for one-way ANOVA of a factor, identified significant differences in the groups with respect to each of the variables studied. It is concluded that students who do not engage in bullying episodes (not involved), have more health habits, more social skills that facilitate adaptation to the social context, without identifying with traditional stereotypes such as traditional feminine and machismo. With regard to parenting, it is identified that they are not educated through ineffective parenting practices such as abuse. The results of this study describe defining characteristics of students who do not engage in bullying episodes, which will be very useful for the development of prevention and intervention programs


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Estudiantes/psicología , Estereotipo de Género , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Percepción Social , Educación Primaria y Secundaria , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Varianza , Factores Sexuales , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Habilidades Sociales
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