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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546396

RESUMEN

This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the Taiwan stock market and investigates whether companies with a commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR) were less affected. This study uses a selection of companies provided by CommonWealth magazine to classify the listed companies in Taiwan as CSR and non-CSR companies. The event study approach is applied to examine the change in the stock prices of CSR companies after the first COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. The empirical results indicate that the stock prices of all companies generated significantly negative abnormal returns and negative cumulative abnormal returns after the outbreak. Compared with all companies and with non-CSR companies, CSR companies were less affected by the outbreak; their stock prices were relatively resistant to the fall and they recovered faster. In addition, the cumulative impact of the COVID-19 on the stock prices of CSR companies is smaller than that of non-CSR companies on both short- and long-term bases. However, the stock price performance of non-CSR companies was not weaker than that of CSR companies during times when the impact of the pandemic was lower or during the price recovery phase.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Comercio/economía , Cultura Organizacional , Pandemias/economía , Responsabilidad Social , Humanos , Taiwán
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113676, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385782

RESUMEN

To determine whether the past half-year of COVID-19-related lockdowns, stay-at-home orders, and social isolation were associated with changes in high-risk alcohol use, a total of 5,931 individuals completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at one of six time points from April through September 2020. Over the 6-month period, hazardous alcohol use and likely dependence increased month-by-month for those under lockdowns compared to those not under restrictions. This increase in harmful alcohol use and related behaviors is likely to have prolonged adverse psychosocial, interpersonal, occupational, and health impacts as the world attempts to recover from the pandemic crisis.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Responsabilidad Social
6.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 5, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407889

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Workplace stress carries considerable costs for the employees' wellbeing and for the organization's performance. Recent studies demonstrate that perceptions of psychological contract breach are a source of stress for employees. That is, when employees notice that their employer does not fulfil certain obligations, they will perceive that certain resources are threatened or lost, which in turn translates into increased stress. In this study, we zoom in on how stress unfolds in the aftermath of breach, dependent on the organization's reaction to the breach. More specifically, we examined the influence of different types of social accounts (i.e., denial, apology, blaming and exonerating justification) on individuals' stress resolution process using physiological (i.e., heart rate) and psychological (self-report) data. METHOD: We used an experimental design in which we manipulated psychological contract breach and social account type. To test our hypotheses, we performed two sets of functional Principal Component Analyses: first to examine the effects of breach and second to examine the effects of social accounts. RESULTS: Our results indicate that breach elicits a physiological stress reaction, reflected in a short-lived increase in heart rate. However, no increase in the self-reported stress measure was found. Further, we did not find a significant effect of social accounts on the psychological and physiological recovery process. CONCLUSIONS: The current research allows us to demonstrate that psychological contract breach will trigger a short-lived increase in heart rate. Further research is needed to better understand unfolding trajectories of physiological reactions to contract breach and the effect of social accounts as organizational recovery efforts.


Asunto(s)
Contratos , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Responsabilidad Social , Estrés Fisiológico , Estrés Psicológico , Confianza , Conducta Cooperativa , Empleo/psicología , Humanos , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
7.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111689, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342590

RESUMEN

With the surge in economic growth in the global-north vis-a-vis social and economic inequalities in the global-south (north-south dichotomy), there is an increasing requirement for critical research and an examination of the policy implications with respect to human rights in emerging economies. This paper draws on the concept of convergence and institutional theories to enhance our understanding of how multinational corporations (MNCs) fulfil their profit maximisation agendas using capitalist principles; and the extent to which these ideologies produce human rights violations in emerging economies. Using multiple data sources from the Human Rights Watch, our study provides a comprehensive list of various human rights violations perpetrated by MNCs from 2002 to 2017. We verified 273 violations by 160 MNCs mostly from developed countries. More than 90% of our sample firms have CSR/sustainability committees, are signatories to the UN Global Compact and have reported compliance with the International Labour Organisation (ILO). This raises questions about the effectiveness of these programmes for CSR compliance. We contribute to the CSR/sustainability literature by providing new insights into the nature and location of human rights violations committed by MNCs.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Organizaciones , Humanos , Responsabilidad Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1847243, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200975

RESUMEN

Social accountability (SA) is an obligation for medical schools in meeting the priority health concerns of the communities they serve. To measure the integration of SA principles into medical curricula, suitable tools are needed. This study developed and validated an inventory to assess SA values within the existing case scenarios used in problem-based learning (PBL) curricula. The Delphi technique was employed to develop and validate the new inventory. The validation used expert opinion and calculated the content validity using content validity indices (CVIs). The initial draft (Draft 0) was formulated with 25 open-ended questions. Following expert evaluation, Draft 1 had 22 closed-ended questions and the mean ratings, according to the experts, were as follows: relevance, 3.33-4.83; importance (3.5-4.8); clarity (3.33-4.83); and simplicity (3:00-4.67). Draft 2 had 19 questions. After a further round of rating and analysis, a final draft was prepared, consisting of 17 items, with CVI scores ≥ 0.8 and 100% overall satisfaction. Using this inventory tool will help health professions schools to translate SA indicators into curricular activities by identifying the gaps in their PBL curricula. Deficiencies can be either in the type of case scenarios used or the triggers embedded in the individual case scenarios, subsequently leading to the development of PBL case scenarios that address real health social needs. A revision and rewriting of the problem case scenarios to incorporate SA will be the next step.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Facultades de Medicina , Responsabilidad Social , Curriculum , Humanos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348556

RESUMEN

The teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model has been extensively used in a vast array of settings. However, few TPSR studies have focused on preschool settings. The purpose of this action research study was to analyze the experiences of a program leader, her preschool children, and their parents throughout a TPSR program focused on transference of responsibility model goals. The participants were 25 preschool children, six parents, and a program leader involved in a preschool setting located in the north of Portugal. Data were collected through reflexive journaling, participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and focus group interviews. Findings suggest the TPSR model could be a useful instructional model for preschool teachers focused on providing social and emotional learning opportunities to their students. In order to foster transference, parents played a pivotal role in this process and were included in the intervention, which appeared to enhance life skill transfer.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Maestros/psicología , Responsabilidad Social , Estudiantes/psicología , Enseñanza , Preescolar , Femenino , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Portugal
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317027

RESUMEN

High-polluting industries are regarded as the main sources of air pollutant emissions and the major factors that significantly destroy the ecological environment. Corporate innovation in high-polluting industries improves the energy consumption efficiency and reduces the emission of air pollutant, which mitigates the conflict between environment and economy. Using the sample of China's listed firms from 2010 to 2017, this study examines the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and financialization on corporate innovation in high-polluting industries. The results show that there is a positive association between CSR and corporate innovation, while there is a negative association between financialization and corporate innovation. Furthermore, the financialization of high-polluting firms can alleviate the promotion role of CSR in the innovation process. The financialization of state-owned enterprises in high-polluting industries may not have a crowding-out effect on research and development (R&D), but it can limit the R&D promotion effect of CSR engagements. In contrast, the financialization of non-state-owned enterprises will hinder corporate innovation, but it will not affect the association between CSR and technology innovation. We also find that the financialization of high-polluting firms with low financial constraints can alleviate the promotion role of CSR engagements in innovation. Meanwhile, the CSR engagements of high-polluting firms with high financial constraints play a stronger role in corporate innovation. During the implementation of environmental policies, the negative association between financialization and corporate innovation has been strengthened. Our findings can encourage high-polluting firms to make more efforts in environmental protection and social stability.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Ambiental , Corporaciones Profesionales , Responsabilidad Social , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Industrias/ética , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Invenciones , Corporaciones Profesionales/ética , Corporaciones Profesionales/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Healthc Pap ; 19(3): 61-66, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337306

RESUMEN

The impacts of climate change can already be seen among many of the patients in our clinics and emergency rooms, and as with all disasters, the most impoverished and marginalized members of society are the hardest hit. The health system has a social accountability role to anticipate and respond to the evolving health needs of our society. We are the stewards of this planet, steering the course through current and future challenges. What we do now will determine what the world will be like for our children and grandchildren. At times like this, more than ever before, health workers around the world must unite and engage in contributing to shaping future policy directions and monitoring progress to create a post-COVID world where social accountability and sustainable development go hand in hand.


Asunto(s)
Niño , Familia , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Responsabilidad Social
15.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 73-76, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152190

RESUMEN

Amid the global pandemic crisis, international concern has centered on the control and prevention measures aimed at reducing the speed of the virus transmission while a more radical sanitary measure, such as vaccines, is achieved. Governmental and social efforts have had great impact on various sectors of society and their consequences have exceeded the sphere of health. This essay discusses the scope of specific measures in the sense of the appropriation of risk control measures and proposes the epidemiological method as an alternative that goes beyond the quantification of risks and the attribution of responsibilities. To conclude, the emphasis is placed on the need to promote information about socialization processes to better understand the consequences of individual acts favoring alternatives other than pandemic control based on the use of coercive measures.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Autocuidado , Cambio Social , Responsabilidad Social , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública , Política Pública , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241473, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120402

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Until a vaccine is developed, a test, trace and isolate strategy is the most effective method of controlling the COVID-19 outbreak. Contact tracing and case isolation are common methods for controlling infectious disease outbreaks. However, the effectiveness of any contact tracing system rests on public engagement. Numerous factors may influence an individual's willingness to engage with a contact tracing system. Understanding these factors has become urgent during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify facilitators and barriers to uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks. METHOD: A rapid systematic review was conducted to identify papers based on primary research, written in English, and that assessed facilitators, barriers, and other factors associated with the uptake of, and engagement with, a contact tracing system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four themes were identified as facilitators to the uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing: collective responsibility; personal benefit; co-production of contact tracing systems; and the perception of the system as efficient, rigorous and reliable. Five themes were identified as barriers to the uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing: privacy concerns; mistrust and/or apprehension; unmet need for more information and support; fear of stigmatization; and mode-specific challenges. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on the factors that have been identified, contact tracing services are more likely to get people to engage with them, identify more potentially ill contacts, and reduce transmission.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias , Participación del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Privacidad , Responsabilidad Social , Estereotipo , Confianza
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