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1.
Perspect Biol Med ; 65(3): 426-441, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093775

RESUMEN

Over the last 80 years, a series of critical events has led to reconsideration of the basic premises of medical ethics. One of these events was the recognition of horrific medical experiments performed by German medical scientists in World War II concentration camps, resulting in intensified emphasis on a consent requirement, later understood as grounded in the bioethical principle of respect for autonomy, as well as on the moral accountability of the experimenter. Another important event that is forcing a reconsideration of respect for autonomy in medicine and health care is the COVID-19 pandemic. But this time the matter pulls in a different direction, from respect for autonomy to social responsibility, represented in problems as disparate as the wearing of masks, vaccination requirements, and equity in vaccine access and distribution. How can modern bioethics, in part a creature of the response to Nazi crimes, accommodate the intensified sensitivity about public health needs that has accompanied the shock of the pandemic? The responses of European medical ethics to the Nazi era provide tools for bioethics as it faces the challenge now at hand. This article uses historical context from postwar Europe to argue that, in light of the pandemic experience, respect for autonomy must systematically incorporate a commitment to social responsibility.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ética Médica , Humanos , Pandemias , Responsabilidad Social
2.
Br J Nurs ; 31(16): S3, 2022 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094036
4.
Healthc Policy ; 18(1): 26-31, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103234

RESUMEN

Leslie et al.'s (2022) article caused me to reflect on the complexities and contradictions that are Canada. Healthcare in Canada is a hodgepodge of different health systems all assembled under the umbrella of the Canada Health Act (1985). Canadians expect medicare to deliver high-quality healthcare close to home wherever they live. For this aspiration to become a reality, there needs to be a single pan-Canadian health system focussed on the health needs of the populations being served. This socially accountable healthcare system is likely to be achieved only if there is a chorus of support across Canada for meaningful pan-Canadian health reforms.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Anciano , Canadá , Humanos , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Responsabilidad Social
5.
Soc Sci Res ; 107: 102770, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058608

RESUMEN

Worries about a "credibility crisis" besieging science have ignited interest in research transparency and reproducibility as ways of restoring trust in published research. For quantitative social science, advances in transparency and reproducibility can be seen as a set of developments whose trajectory predates the recent alarm. We discuss several of these developments, including preregistration, data-sharing, formal infrastructure in the form of resources and policies, open access to research, and specificity regarding research contributions. We also discuss the spillovers of this predominantly quantitative effort towards transparency for qualitative research. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of mutual accountability for effective science, the essential role of openness for this accountability, and the importance of scholarly inclusiveness in figuring out the best ways for openness to be accomplished in practice.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Sociales , Confianza , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Responsabilidad Social
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 956521, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052006

RESUMEN

This paper studies the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance on corporate financial performance during the COVID-19 by examining a sample of Chinese listed firms. Based on the PSM-DID methodology, we find that the pandemic-induced decline in stock returns is stronger with more CSR engagement. The results remain robust even after the dynamic effect test and placebo test. It means CSR performance does not improve Chinese corporate immunity to the pandemic. This inadequate response of CSR could be due to the "relatively few good things effect". Furthermore, our study indicates that increasing awareness of responsible investment and improving the quality of CSR disclosure could facilitate CSR engagement in China.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Revelación , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud , Pandemias , Responsabilidad Social
7.
J Law Med ; 29(3): 847-865, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056669

RESUMEN

The regulation of health care safety is undertaken in the name of the public and is motivated and justified by their protection. This regulatory action generates debate concerning the proper limits of responsibility attribution and enforcement, while the actions and opinion - both imagined and real - of the public loom large in this field. However, there exists limited knowledge of public opinion on key aspects of health care safety enforcement and responsibility attribution following iatrogenic harm. This article reports on the results of a survey-administered experimental study to determine how the Australian general public attributes responsibility, moral censure and enforcement actions in the event of health care safety failures in hospital and outpatient settings. The study provide evidence that the general public are sensitive to corporate and individual sources of error; attribute responsibility in a pluralistic manner; differentiate between recklessness and negligence; and will attempt both formal and social enforcement actions in response to harm.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Instituciones de Salud , Australia , Humanos , Enfermedad Iatrogénica/prevención & control , Principios Morales , Responsabilidad Social
8.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1663120, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060872

RESUMEN

Teachers' management effectiveness can reflect the comprehensive ability and effective evaluation of the teaching management objectives of the school and can also reflect the effectiveness management of the school to a certain extent. In the environment of sustainable and innovative development, the rapid development of education has made improving the management efficiency and motivation of university teachers became the key direction of university management. In order to study the impact of teachers' management efficacy and motivation on college students' academic achievement and postemployment social responsibility cognition under sustainable innovation, this study compares the impact of teachers in different periods on students and analyzes the changes of teachers in different periods on students. Finally, it is concluded that teachers' management efficiency and motivation under sustainable innovation can promote students' employment achievement and social responsibility cognition, improve the teaching quality of colleges and universities, and provide high-quality talents for the country. The educational concept of sustainable innovation is conducive to improving teachers' independent innovation and realizing the educational function of cultivating students' personalized development in colleges and universities.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Motivación , Cognición , Empleo , Humanos , Responsabilidad Social , Estudiantes
9.
Appl Clin Inform ; 13(4): 820-827, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070799

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Requiring accountable justifications-visible, clinician-recorded explanations for not following a clinical decision support (CDS) alert-has been used to steer clinicians away from potentially guideline-discordant decisions. Understanding themes from justifications across clinical content areas may reveal how clinicians rationalize decisions and could help inform CDS alerts. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative evaluation of the free-text justifications entered by primary care physicians from three pilot interventions designed to reduce opioid prescribing and, in older adults, high-risk polypharmacy and overtesting. Clinicians encountered alerts when triggering conditions were met within the chart. Clinicians were asked to change their course of action or enter a justification for the action that would be displayed in the chart. We extracted all justifications and grouped justifications with common themes. Two authors independently coded each justification and resolved differences via discussion. Three physicians used a modified Delphi technique to rate the clinical appropriateness of the justifications. RESULTS: There were 560 justifications from 50 unique clinicians. We grouped these into three main themes used to justify an action: (1) report of a particular diagnosis or symptom (e.g., for "anxiety" or "acute pain"); (2) provision of further contextual details about the clinical case (e.g., tried and failed alternatives, short-term supply, or chronic medication); and (3) noting communication between clinician and patient (e.g., "risks and benefits discussed"). Most accountable justifications (65%) were of uncertain clinical appropriateness. CONCLUSION: Most justifications clinicians entered across three separate clinical content areas fit within a small number of themes, and these common rationales may aid in the design of effective accountable justification interventions. Justifications varied in terms of level of clinical detail. On their own, most justifications did not clearly represent appropriate clinical decision making.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas , Médicos , Anciano , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Responsabilidad Social
10.
Ann ICRP ; 51(3): 1-3, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063448
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15260, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088468

RESUMEN

Many developing countries are facing the difficulty of choosing between economic growth and energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER). China has strengthened the implementation of ECER by setting environmental accountability as the development goal of local governments, hoping to have better governance effects. To evaluate the actual intervention effect of this approach, this paper constructs panel data covering 46 countries from 1995 to 2014 and uses the difference-in-differences (DID) method and the composite control method to quantitatively analyse the policy effect. The results show that China can effectively curb energy consumption and carbon emission intensity per unit of GDP by adding ECER targets to the government's five-year plan, which has significant effects on ECER. Furthermore, we use an intermediary mechanism to test and identify low-carbon alternatives and an ECER promotion mechanism for technological advancement. The conclusion shows that economic development is compatible with low carbon and energy consumption. Combined with China's long-term goals for ECER, it can be considered that on the road to achieving carbon peaking and carbon neutrality in the future, the economy and tertiary industry should be rationally developed, the degree of urbanization should receive more attention, and the proportion of thermal power generation should be reduced.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Responsabilidad Social
12.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(3)2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130832

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Timely lab results are important to clinical decision-making and hospital flow. However, at our institution, unreliable blood sample collection for patients with central venous access jeopardised this outcome and created staff dissatisfaction. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team of nurses including a specialist clinical nurse leader (CNL), the hospital intravenous team and quality improvement (QI) consultants aimed to achieve >80% blood sample collection reliability among patients with central venous access by employing a simple signature/countersignature form coupled with audit-feedback and behavioural economics strategies. The form was piloted on one 25-bed unit. Data were collected for 60 weeks and interpreted per standard run chart rules. RESULTS: Blood sample collection reliability exceeded the 80% goal by week 22. The practice was sustained on the pilot unit and spread successfully to other wards despite significant operational threats including the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: At our institution, a simple signature/countersignature form supplemented by audit-feedback and behavioural economics strategies led to sustained practice change among staff. The pairing of CNL to QI consultant enhanced change potency and durability.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Humanos , Pandemias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Responsabilidad Social
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5270963, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017454

RESUMEN

Environmental information disclosure (EID) is an important embodiment of corporate social responsibility. With the awakening of public awareness of environmental protection and the increasing pressure of environmental preservation, enterprises tend to strategically manipulate environmental information for the pursuit of profit, which will consequently lead to environmental information disclosure falsification (EIDF) and disruption of both the market regulatory order and the development of green economy. In this article, support vector machine (SVM) technique is applied to construct the detection model of corporate EIDF. Based on the theory of "public pressure," the detection indicators will be improved from three aspects: public pressure, corporate governance, and financial indicators. The training set and test set are constructed by combining the manually collected cases of environmental administrative penalties from 2015 to 2019 with the indicator information of nonfinancial listed enterprises in China's A-share market, and the SVM detection performance is compared with the logistic regression of the benchmark model. To solve the problem of category imbalance, we have introduced the Borderline-SMOTE oversampling technique. Based on the detection results of SVM and Borderline-SMOTE, we find that the Borderline-SMOTE-SVM model has the best detection performance, surpassing the SVM and logistic regression models. These conclusions have constructive policy implications for regulatory agencies, investors, the third-party service sector, enterprises, and government policy-making to achieve high-quality corporate EID.


Asunto(s)
Revelación , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Organizaciones , Responsabilidad Social
15.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 29(2): 2104678, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017877

RESUMEN

Globally, LGBTQIA+ individuals experience several health disparities. This qualitative exploratory study aimed to understand the experiences of discrimination faced by LGBTQIA+ patients in Indian hospitals using a human rights perspective. Self-identified LGBTQIA+ patients, cis-gender heterosexual employees, and administrators attending/working at public, private, and non-profit trust hospitals were interviewed in Mumbai and Delhi. The "right to non-discrimination" emerged as the central theme, with systemic and organisational discrimination as core themes. LGBTQIA+ patients faced intersectional discrimination, which had implications for their dignity and wellbeing. Discrimination in public hospitals was explicit, whereas discrimination in trust and private hospitals was subtle. Employees of core departments like psychiatry, dermatology, and HIV services, which routinely catered to LGBTQIA+ patients, were more sensitised than other departments. Most administrators and doctors were not familiar with the varied needs of the LGBTQIA+ spectrum and treated them as a homogenous group. Public hospitals did not have separate human resource departments, and most of the gender-affirmative guidelines/policies were not inclusive of the entire LGBTQIA+ spectrum. Trust hospitals, especially those with religious affiliations, tended not to have LGBTQIA+ inclusive policies. Some administrators believed that serving the minuscule LGBTQIA+ population may adversely affect business in private hospitals. Policymakers, government, and executives need to be accountable at the systemic level for better enforcement of ratified treaties and laws, designing inclusive public health policies, and reforming medical curricula. Hospital and healthcare administrators must be accountable for implementing inclusive policies and practices and creating a non-discriminatory environment for LGBTQIA+ patients.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Hospitales , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Responsabilidad Social
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(Suppl 1): 121, 2022 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of evaluations of social accountability (SA) interventions have been published in the past decade, however, reporting gaps make it difficult to summarize findings. We developed the Social Accountability Reporting for Research (SAR4Research) checklist to support researchers to improve the documentation of SA processes, context, study designs, and outcomes in the peer reviewed literature and to enhance application of findings. METHODS: We used a multi-step process, starting with an umbrella review of reviews on SA to identify reporting gaps. Next, we reviewed existing guidelines for reporting on behavioral interventions to determine whether one could be used in its current or adapted form. We received feedback from practitioners and researchers and tested the checklist through three worked examples using outcome papers from three SA projects. RESULTS: Our umbrella review of SA studies identified reporting gaps in all areas, including gaps in reporting on the context, intervention components, and study methods. Because no existing guidelines called for details on context and the complex processes in SA interventions, we used CONSORT-SPI as the basis for the SAR4Research checklist, and adapted it using other existing checklists to fill gaps. Feedback from practitioners, researchers and the worked examples suggested the need to eliminate redundancies, add explanations for items, and clarify reporting for quantitative and qualitative study components. CONCLUSIONS: Results of SA evaluations in the peer-reviewed literature will be more useful, facilitating learning and application of findings, when study designs, interventions and their context are described fully in one or a set of papers. This checklist will help authors report better in peer-reviewed journal articles. With sufficient information, readers will better understand whether the results can inform accountability strategies in their own contexts. As a field, we will be better able to identify emerging findings and gaps in our understanding of SA.


Asunto(s)
Lista de Verificación , Proyectos de Investigación , Terapia Conductista , Humanos , Investigadores , Responsabilidad Social
17.
Med Health Care Philos ; 25(3): 333-349, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915369

RESUMEN

The article addresses issues at the nexus of physician industrial action, moral agency, and responsibility. There are situations in which we find ourselves best placed to offer aid to those who may be in vulnerable positions, a behavior that is consistent with our everyday moral intuitions. In both our interpersonal relationships and social life, we make frequent judgments about whether to praise or blame someone for their actions when we determine that they should have acted to help a vulnerable person. While the average person is unlikely to confront these kinds of situations often, those in the medical professions, physicians especially, may confront these and similar situations regularly. Therefore, when physicians withhold their services for whatever reason in support of industrial action, it raises issues of moral responsibility to patients who may be in a vulnerable position. Using theories of moral responsibility, vulnerability, and ethics, this paper explores the moral implications of physician industrial action. We explore issues of vulnerability of patients, as well as the moral responsibility and moral agency of doctors to patients. Determining when a person is vulnerable, and when an individual becomes a moral agent, worthy of praise or blame for an act or non-action, is at the core of the framework. Notwithstanding the right of physicians to act in their self-interest, we argue that vulnerability leads to moral obligations, that physicians are moral agents, and the imperatives of their obligations to patients clear, even if limited by certain conditions. We suggest that both doctors and governments have a collective responsibility to prevent harm to patients and present the theoretical and practical implications of the paper.


Asunto(s)
Obligaciones Morales , Médicos , Humanos , Principios Morales , Responsabilidad Social
18.
J Med Ethics ; 48(9): 577-578, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995451
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269203, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917329

RESUMEN

Corruption is a global wicked problem that threatens the achievement of health, social and economic development goals, including Sustainable Development Goal # 3: Ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all. The COVID-19 pandemic and its resulting strain on health systems has heightened risks of corruption both generally and specifically within health systems. Over the past years, international organizations, including those instrumental to the global COVID-19 response, have increased efforts to address corruption within their operations and related programs. However, as attention to anti-corruption efforts is relatively recent within international organizations, there is a lack of literature examining how these organizations address corruption and the impact of their anti-corruption efforts. This study addresses this gap by examining how accountability, transparency, and anti-corruption are taken up by international organizations within their own operations and the reported outcomes of such efforts. The following international organizations were selected as the focus of this document analysis: the World Health Organization, the Global Fund, the United Nations Development Programme, and the World Bank Group. Documents were identified through a targeted search of each organization's website. Documents were then analyzed combining elements of content analysis and thematic analysis. The findings demonstrate that accountability and transparency mechanisms have been employed by each of the four international organizations to address corruption. Further, these organizations commonly employed oversight mechanisms, including risk assessments, investigations, and audits to monitor their internal and external operations for fraud and corruption. All organizations used sanction strategies meant to reprimand identified transgressors and deter future corruption. Findings also demonstrate a marked increase in anti-corruption efforts by these international organizations in recent years. Though this is promising, there remains a distinct absence of evidence demonstrating the impact of such efforts on the prevalence and severity of corruption in international organizations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Fraude/prevención & control , Salud Global , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Responsabilidad Social , Naciones Unidas
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