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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 268, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605288

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although acetaminophen is widely used in women during pregnancy, its safety has not been clearly stated. The study aimed to investigate the association between acetaminophen use and adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women in China. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study by collecting data on pregnant women who delivered in the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from January 2018 to September 2023. An acetaminophen use group and a control group were formed based on prenatal exposure to acetaminophen. The pregnancy outcomes that we focused on were stillbirth, miscarriage, preterm birth, APGAR score, birth weight, and congenital disabilities. Pregnant women exposed to acetaminophen were matched to unexposed in a 1:1 ratio with propensity score matching, using the greedy matching macro. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Multivariable logistics regression was used to assess the association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 41,440 pregnant women were included, of whom 501 were exposed to acetaminophen during pregnancy, and 40,939 were not exposed. After the propensity score matching, the acetaminophen use and control groups consisted of 501 pregnant women each. The primary analysis showed that acetaminophen exposure during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.29, 95% CI, 1.19-4.43), APGAR score < 7 at 1 min (aOR = 3.28, 95% CI, 1.73-6.21), APGAR score < 7 at 5 min (aOR = 3.54, 95% CI, 1.74-7.20), APGAR score < 7 at 10 min (aOR = 3.18, 95% CI, 1.58-6.41), and high birth weight (HBW) (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI, 1.05-2.92). Drug exposure during the first and second trimesters increased the odds of stillbirth, miscarriage, APGAR < 7, and the occurrence of at least one adverse pregnancy outcome. In addition, the frequency of drug use more than two times was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth and APGAR score < 7. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to acetaminophen during pregnancy was significantly associated with the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly exposure in the first and second trimesters and frequency of use more than twice. It is suggested that acetaminophen should be prescribed with caution in pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Mujeres Embarazadas , Mortinato/epidemiología , Peso al Nacer , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/etiología , Acetaminofén/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Aborto Espontáneo/inducido químicamente , Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología , Puntaje de Propensión , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 258, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605294

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Embryo quality is usually regarded as a key predictor of successful implantation and clinical pregnancy potential. The identification of embryos that have the capacity to implant and result in a healthy pregnancy is a crucial part of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Usually, morphologically high-quality embryos are chosen for embryo transfer in IVF treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the available blastocyst formation rate and the clinical pregnancy outcome following the first fresh embryo transfer cycle and provide systematic individual treatment to adjust endometrial receptivity for the next transfer cycle. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study included 512 fresh embryo transfers conducted between 11/2019 and 08/2021, which consisted of 385 cleavage-stage (Day 3) and 127 blastocyst-stage (Day 5) embryo transfers. The two groups were divided into a clinical pregnancy group and a nonclinical pregnancy group for comparison. The association between the available blastocyst formation rate and the clinical pregnancy rate in the Day 3 and Day 5 transfer groups were considered. RESULTS: In the Day 3 group, there were 275 clinical pregnancies, and the clinical pregnancy rate was 71.43%. Although the two pronuclei (2PN) oocyte rate and available embryo rate at Day 3 were significantly higher in the clinical pregnancy group than the nonclinical pregnancy group (P < 0.05), the blastocyst formation rate and the available blastocyst formation rate were not significantly different between the clinical pregnancy group and the nonclinical pregnancy group (P > 0.05). In the Day 5 group, there were 81 clinical pregnancies, and the clinical pregnancy rate was 63.78%. No baseline characteristics showed any obvious differences between the clinical pregnancy group and nonclinical pregnancy group (P > 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate in the nonclinical pregnancy group was higher than that in the clinical pregnancy group, but the difference was not statistically significant (81.06% vs. 77.03%, P = 0.083). Interestingly, the available blastocyst formation rate and the Day 5 available blastocyst formation rate were significantly higher in the nonclinical pregnancy group than the clinical pregnancy group (66.19% vs. 60.79%, P = 0.014; 54.58% vs. 46.98%, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In fresh cycles, the available blastocyst formation rate was not associated with the clinical pregnancy outcome for Day 3 embryo transfers, and the available blastocyst formation rate was not positively correlated with the clinical pregnancy outcome for Day 5 embryo transfers.


Asunto(s)
Transferencia de Embrión , Fertilización In Vitro , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo , Blastocisto , Endometrio
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 261, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605328

RESUMEN

Pregnant individuals rarely achieve moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity recommendations.Purpose The sedentary behavior reduction in pregnancy intervention (SPRING) pilot and feasibility randomized trial aimed to demonstrate feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a lower intensity intervention targeting reduced sedentary behavior and increased standing and steps.Methods First trimester pregnant individuals at risk for high sedentary behavior and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) were randomized 2:1 to a multi-component sedentary behavior reduction intervention or no-contact control. Intervention components included biweekly remote health coaching, wearable activity monitor, height-adjustable workstation, and a private Facebook group. Evidence-based behavioral targets included sedentary time < 9 h/day, increasing standing by 2-3 h/day, and ≥ 7500 steps/day. Participants completed all-remote assessments (baseline, second trimester, third trimester) of sedentary behavior and activity (thigh-worn activPAL) along with exploratory pregnancy health outcomes abstracted from medical records. Intervention effects vs. control were evaluated using generalized mixed models and an intention-to-treat approach. Intervention participants also provided feedback on perceived benefits and acceptability.Results Participants (34 intervention; 17 control) had mean age 32 years, were 83% White, with mean pre-pregnancy BMI 28 kg/m2. Retention was high (90% and 83% at second and third trimester follow-up visits). Intervention participants decreased sedentary time (-0.84 h/day, p = 0.019) and increased standing (+0.77 h/day, p = 0.003), but did not increase steps/day (+710, p = 0.257) compared to controls. Intervention participants reported many perceived benefits and identified the wearable, height-adjustable workstation, and behavioral lessons as most useful.Conclusion For pregnant individuals at risk for high sedentary behavior and APOs, a sedentary behavior reduction intervention is feasible, acceptable, and may offer a viable alternative to more intense physical activity recommendations during pregnancy. Further testing in a fully powered clinical trial is warranted.Trial registration NCT05093842 on clinicaltrials.gov.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Sedentaria , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Adulto , Estudios de Factibilidad , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Resultado del Embarazo
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3234, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622110

RESUMEN

There are few population-based studies of sufficient size and follow-up duration to have reliably assessed perinatal outcomes for pregnant women hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS) covers all 194 consultant-led UK maternity units and included all pregnant women admitted to hospital with an ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we show that in this large national cohort comprising two years' active surveillance over four SARS-CoV-2 variant periods and with near complete follow-up of pregnancy outcomes for 16,627 included women, severe perinatal outcomes were more common in women with moderate to severe COVID-19, during the delta dominant period and among unvaccinated women. We provide strong evidence to recommend continuous surveillance of pregnancy outcomes in future pandemics and to continue to recommend SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pregnancy to protect both mothers and babies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Estudios de Cohortes , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 276, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622514

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of performing frozen-thawed high-quality single blastocyst transfer in women of different ages. METHODS: A total of 1,279 women were divided into four groups: a 38-40-year-old group (n = 147), 35-37-year-old group (n = 164), 30-34-year-old group (n = 483), and < 30-year-old group (n = 485). Intergroup comparisons of baseline characteristics and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were made. RESULTS: The clinical pregnancy rate (47.6%), and live birth rate (34.0%) in the 38-40-year-old group were significantly lower than those in the 30-34-year-old group (64.4%, 50.9%, respectively; all P < 0.001) and < 30-year-old group (62.9%, 50.7%, respectively; all P < 0.001). However, the 35-37-year-old group did not differ from the other three groups in these two dimensions (all P > 0.05). Moreover, there were no differences in the rates of biochemical pregnancy, miscarriage, or obstetric or neonatal complications among the four groups (all P > 0.05). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the 35-37-year-old group was not associated with non-live birth outcomes, adverse pregnancy outcomes, or obstetric or neonatal complications. However, being 38-40 years of age was a risk factor for non-live birth (OR = 2.121, 95% CI: 1.233-3.647) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (OR = 1.630, 95% CI: 1.010-2.633). Post hoc power analysis showed that the study was sufficiently powered to detect meaningful differences. CONCLUSION: Frozen-thawed high-quality single blastocyst transfer produces the same satisfactory pregnancy outcomes for women aged 35-37 years as younger patients. Future prospective randomized controlled studies with larger populations are needed to verify the feasibility and safety of this method.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Resultado del Embarazo , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Transferencia de Embrión/métodos , Índice de Embarazo , Tasa de Natalidad , Aborto Espontáneo/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Nacimiento Vivo/epidemiología
6.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 81, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622741

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound present in plants and red wine with many potential health benefits. This compound has various anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties and can improve cellular mitochondrial activity. This trial was designed to evaluate the effect on the outcome of IVF of Resveratrol supplementation in women > 35 years with good ovarian reserve (AMH > 1.2 ng/ml). Women were randomized to receive or placebo or Resveratrol (150 mg per day) for three months preceding the ovarian stimulation (OS). All patients were stimulated with a starting dose of recombinant FSH ranging between 150 and 300 IU according to age and ovarian reserve. GnRH antagonist flexible protocol was adopted for pituitary suppression. Triggering was performed with urinary hCG (10.000 IU). RESULTS: The study was conducted between January 2019 and December 2022 with aa total of 37 cases and 33 controls were recruited. No statistically significant differences in the number of oocytes retrieved, biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were observed between women treated with resveratrol and control group. A statistically significant increase in the follicle output rate (FORT) and follicle-to oocyte index (FOI) was observed in women treated with resveratrol-based nutraceutical (0.92 versus 0.77 [p = 0.02], and 0.77 versus 0.64 [p = 0.006], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results from this study indicate that pre-treatment with resveratrol may improve ovarian sensitivity to exogenous FSH, which in turn may decrease the risk of hypo-response to OS in advanced reproductive age women.


Asunto(s)
Fertilización In Vitro , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Resveratrol/farmacología , Índice de Embarazo , Fertilización In Vitro/métodos , Resultado del Embarazo , Inducción de la Ovulación/métodos , Hormona Folículo Estimulante
7.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 211, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566064

RESUMEN

Due to the thrombohemorrhagic potential of essential thrombocythemia, pregnancy complicated by essential thrombocythemia should be recognized as a risk factor for obstetric complications. Here, we report the case of a patient with essential thrombocythemia with two significantly different pregnancy outcomes. Her first pregnancy (at 30 years of age) ended with an uneventful term delivery. However, the patient progressed to cavernous transformation of the portal vein in the period between her two pregnancies and subsequently experienced deep venous thrombosis during the first trimester of her second pregnancy (at 36 years of age). The patient's platelet count during pregnancy was within the normal range, so she ignored previous instances of essential thrombocytosis (at 26 years of age). The patient's main symptom was unrelieved pain in her leg. After that, she was successfully treated with anticoagulant throughout her entire pregnancy, resulting in a term vaginal delivery. This case highlights the importance of assessing pregnant patients with essential thrombocythemia according to their risk stratification. Specifically, risk assessments for potential pregnancy complications should take into account advanced maternal age and a previous history of thrombosis. Patients with essential thrombocythemia should be encouraged to participate in preconception counseling for risk assessment and to initiate prophylactic anticoagulation as soon as possible.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones del Embarazo , Trombocitemia Esencial , Tromboembolia Venosa , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Vena Porta/diagnóstico por imagen , Resultado del Embarazo , Trombocitemia Esencial/complicaciones , Trombocitemia Esencial/tratamiento farmacológico , Trombocitemia Esencial/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicaciones , Adulto
8.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 44(1): 2338235, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619096

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Selection of high-quality blastocysts is the most important factor determining the success of assisted reproductive technology. The objective of this study is to assess the values of blastocyst morphological quality and development speed for predicting euploidy and clinical pregnancy outcome. METHODS: A total of 155 preimplantation genetic testing cycles including 959 blastocysts and 154 euploid blastocyst transfer cycles conducted between January 2018 and December 2019 were retrospectively analysed. The associations of blastocyst morphological quality and development speed (D) with chromosomal status, clinical pregnancy rate, early miscarriage rate, and ongoing pregnancy rate were evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression. RESULTS: The euploidy rate of development speed D5 blastocysts was significantly greater than that of D6 blastocysts (61.4% vs. 38.1%, P < 0.001), and the euploid rate of morphologically high-grade blastocysts was significantly greater than that of non-high-grade blastocysts. Development speed D5 (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2, P = 0.02) and high-grade morphology (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9, P = 0.01) were independent predictors of euploidy. The ongoing pregnancy rate of D5 blastocysts was significantly higher than that of D6 blastocysts (62.3% vs. 43.8%, P = 0.04). Transfer of euploid blastocysts with high-grade morphology resulted in a greater ongoing pregnancy rate than transfer of non-high-grade euploid blastocysts (60.7% vs. 43.2%, P = 0.049). Alternatively, D6 development speed was an independent risk factor for early pregnancy loss after euploid blastocyst transfer. Multivariate regression analysis adjusting for confounding factors identified maternal age, blastocyst development speed, and blastocyst morphological grade as independent predictors of euploidy but not of clinical pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The recommended sequence of embryo transfer based on the present study is D5 high-grade > D6 high-grade > D5 non-high-grade > D6 non-high-grade.


Assisted reproductive technology physicians are actively exploring methods to improve the accuracy of embryo selection for successful pregnancy. We evaluated the associations of embryo morphological grade and development speed with chromosomal status and clinical outcome for couples without a history of infertility, in vitro fertilisation failure, or recurrent miscarriage receiving euploid embryo transfer. Blastocysts from females younger than 35 years, of high morphological grade, and demonstrating faster development speed were most likely to be euploid (least likely to have chromosomal abnormalities). Alternatively, patients implanted with slower developing euploid blastocysts were at higher risk of early pregnancy loss. To maximise the probability of implanting euploid embryos and minimise the risk of pregnancy loss, the selection order of embryo transferred should be based on embryo development speed followed by morphological grades.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Resultado del Embarazo , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Transferencia de un Solo Embrión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Blastocisto , Embrión de Mamíferos , Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología , Aborto Espontáneo/etiología
9.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(2): 260-266, 2024 Apr 18.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595242

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in pre-pregnancy, pregancy and loctation. METHODS: The clinical data of pregnancy complicated with IBD in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University Third Hospital and deli-very from September 2011 to June 2022 were collected. The clinical characteristics of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. According to the state of diseases during pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation, the patients were divided into active and remission group, and the two groups were compared interms of pre-pregnancy counseling, nutritional status, pregnancy and delivery complications, gestational week, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcome. RESULTS: A total of 33 pregnant women with IBD were included in this study, of which 7 delivered a second child, for a total of 40 deliveries, with 36 natural pregnancies (90.0%) and 4 assisted reproductions (10.0%). Among the 40 cases, 21 cases (52.5%) were sustained in remission in pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation, and 19 cases (47.5%) in disease activity, of which 8 cases (42.1%) were due to self-withdrawal of drugs or failure to take medicine regularly. Compared with the activity group, the disease remission group had a higher rate of pre-pregnancy counseling (57.1% vs. 15.8%, P=0.010), and higher levels of hemoglobin [(112.67±8.53) g/L vs. (102.84±5.23) g/L, P < 0.001], serum total protein [(66.58±6.34) g/L vs. (60.83±6.25) g/L, P=0.006], serum albumin [36.4 (35.1, 38.3) g/L vs. 34.3 (31.1, 35.6) g/L, P=0.006], serum calcium [(2.25±0.10) µmol/L vs. (2.13±0.15) µmol/L, P=0.004], but a lower incidence of gestational hypertensive disorders (0 vs. 31.6%, P=0.007). In 40 deliveries, there were 27 cases of vaginal delivery (67.5%), 13 cases of cesarean section (32.5%). The analysis of neonatal outcomes showed 38 full-term deliveries and 2 preterm deliveries; 1 case of macrosomia, 1 case of small-for-gestational-age, 1 case of low birth weight and 3 cases of birth defects. There were 10 newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care unit, including 4 cases of neonatal infections and 2 cases of neonatal jaundice. CONCLUSION: Pre-pregnancy counseling and evaluation of IBD patients are very important, and good pregnancy outcomes can be obtained through careful management during pregnancy in the most of the patients.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Niño , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Cesárea , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo/epidemiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/complicaciones
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(13): e131, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599601

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution is linked to a higher risk of unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. However, the association between pregnancy complications and exposure to indoor air pollution remains unclear. The Air Pollution on Pregnancy Outcomes research is a hospital-based prospective cohort research created to look into the effects of aerodynamically exposed particulate matter (PM)10 and PM2.5 on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This prospective multicenter observational cohort study was conducted from January 2021 to June 2023. A total of 662 women with singleton pregnancies enrolled in this study. An AirguardK® air sensor was installed inside the homes of the participants to measure the individual PM10 and PM2.5 levels in the living environment. The time-activity patterns and PM10 and PM2.5, determined as concentrations from the time-weighted average model, were applied to determine the anticipated exposure levels to air pollution of each pregnant woman. The relationship between air pollution exposure and pregnancy outcomes was assessed using logistic and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Exposure to elevated levels of PM10 throughout the first, second, and third trimesters as well as throughout pregnancy was strongly correlated with the risk of pregnancy problems according to multiple logistic regression models adjusted for variables. Except for in the third trimester of pregnancy, women exposed to high levels of PM2.5 had a high risk of pregnancy complications. During the second trimester and entire pregnancy, the risk of preterm birth (PTB) increased by 24% and 27%, respectively, for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10. Exposure to high PM10 levels during the second trimester increased the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by 30%. The risk of GDM increased by 15% for each 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 during the second trimester and overall pregnancy, respectively. Exposure to high PM10 and PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy increased the risk of delivering small for gestational age (SGA) infants by 96% and 26%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Exposure to high concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 is strongly correlated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 during the second trimester and entire pregnancy, respectively, significantly increased the risk of PTB and GDM. Exposure to high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy considerably increased the risk of having SGA infants. Our findings highlight the need to measure individual particulate levels during pregnancy and the importance of managing air quality in residential environment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Diabetes Gestacional , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Resultado del Embarazo , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Estudios Prospectivos , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/etiología , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , República de Corea/epidemiología , China
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1359210, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596217

RESUMEN

Introduction: Infertility affects 8-12% of couples worldwide, with 15-30% classified as unexplained infertility (UI). Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), the most common autoimmune disorder in women of reproductive age, may impact fertility and pregnancy outcomes. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study focuses on intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its potential association with TAI in UI patients. It is the first meta-analysis following a comprehensive literature review to improve result accuracy and reliability. Methods: Retrospective cohort study analyzing 225 women with unexplained infertility, encompassing 542 cycles of IUI treatment. Participants were categorized into TAI+ group (N=47, N= 120 cycles) and TAI- group (N=178, N= 422 cycles). Additionally, a systematic review and meta-analyses following PRISMA guidelines were conducted, incorporating this study and two others up to June 2023, totaling 3428 IUI cycles. Results: Analysis revealed no significant difference in independent variables affecting reproductive outcomes. However, comparison based on TAI status showed significantly lower clinical pregnancy rates (OR: 0.43, P= 0.028, 95%CI: 0.20-0.93) and live birth rate (OR: 0.20, P= 0.014, 95%CI: 0.05 ~ 0.71) were significantly lower than TAI- group. There was no significant difference in pregnancy rate between the two groups (OR: 0.61, P= 0.135, 95%CI: 0.32-1.17). However, the meta-analysis combining these findings across studies did not show statistically significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates (OR:0.77, P=0.18, 95%CI: 0.53-1.13) or live birth rates (OR: 0.68, P=0.64, 95%CI: 0.13-3.47) between the TAI+ and TAI- groups. Discussion: Our retrospective cohort study found an association between TAI and reduced reproductive outcomes in women undergoing IUI for unexplained infertility. However, the meta-analysis incorporating other studies did not yield statistically significant associations. Caution is required in interpreting the relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and reproductive outcomes. Future studies should consider a broader population and a more rigorous study design to validate these findings. Clinicians dealing with women with unexplained infertility and TAI should be aware of the complexity of this field and the limitations of available evidence.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad , Resultado del Embarazo , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Glándula Tiroides , Autoinmunidad , Estudios de Cohortes , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Infertilidad/terapia , Inseminación
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 251, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589784

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) affects reproductive-aged women. Active disease can lead to decreased fertility. Although the vast majority of international guidelines recommend for the continuation of anti-TNF-α during pregnancy, recent studies have raised concerns about the safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) therapy during pregnancy, both for patients and for physicians. METHODS: Studies that evaluate the safety of anti-TNF-α therapy in pregnant women with IBD were identified using bibliographical searches. An updated meta-analysis was performed for pregnancy outcomes, such as live birth, abortion, still birth, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, and neonatal infection. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) are reported. Data on disease activity, timing of anti-TNF-α therapy were collected for further analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 11 studies were screened from on-line databases and international meeting abstracts. An increased risk of abortion (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74; P = 0.04) and preterm birth (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.28; P = 0.004), and a decreased risk of live birth (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.94; P = 0.002]) were found in the anti-TNF-α therapy group compared with the control group (no use of anti-TNF-α therapy). The subgroup analyses based on the disease activity showed there is no significant association between the use of anti-TNF-α therapy during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes of abortion, preterm birth, and live birth. The rates of still birth, low birth weight, and congenital abnormalities in the anti-TNF-α therapy group were not significantly different from those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TNF-α therapy does not increase the risks of still birth, low birth weight, and congenital abnormalities; however it may be assicated with increased risks of abortion and preterm birth, which are accompanied by a lower rate of live birth. Although these findings may be confounding by potential disease activity, they offer some opposite viewpoints with biologic agent use. Therefore, more studies are required to further confirm the safety of anti-TNF-α therapy in pregnancy with IBD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Adulto , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Inhibidores del Factor de Necrosis Tumoral , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/tratamiento farmacológico , Mortinato , Necrosis , Complicaciones del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 255, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589817

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Uterine rupture in pregnant women can lead to serious adverse outcomes. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of patients with complete uterine rupture. METHODS: Data from 33 cases of surgically confirmed complete uterine rupture at Chenzhou No.1 People's Hospital between January 2015 and December 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: In total, 31,555 pregnant women delivered in our hospital during the study period. Of these, approximately 1‰ (n = 33) had complete uterine rupture. The average gestational age at complete uterine rupture was 31+4 weeks (13+1-40+3 weeks), and the average bleeding volume was 1896.97 ml (200-6000 ml). Twenty-six patients (78.79%) had undergone more than two deliveries. Twenty-five women (75.76%) experienced uterine rupture after a cesarean section, two (6.06%) after fallopian tube surgery, one (3.03%) after laparoscopic cervical cerclage, and one (3.03%) after wedge resection of the uterine horn, and Fifteen women (45.45%) presented with uterine rupture at the original cesarean section incision scar. Thirteen patients (39.39%) were transferred to our hospital after their initial diagnosis. Seven patients (21.21%) had no obvious symptoms, and only four patients (12.12%) had typical persistent lower abdominal pain. There were 13 cases (39.39%, including eight cases ≥ 28 weeks old) of fetal death in utero and two cases (6.06%, both full term) of severe neonatal asphyxia. The rates of postpartum hemorrhage, blood transfusion, hysterectomy were 66.67%, 63.64%, and 21.21%. Maternal death occurred in one case (3.03%). CONCLUSIONS: The site of the uterine rupture was random, and was often located at the weakest point of the uterus. There is no effective means for detecting or predicting the weakest point of the uterus. Rapid recognition is key to the treatment of uterine rupture.


Asunto(s)
Rotura Uterina , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Rotura Uterina/epidemiología , Rotura Uterina/etiología , Rotura Uterina/cirugía , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Útero
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e075928, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604636

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Conflicting evidence for the association between COVID-19 and adverse perinatal outcomes exists. This study examined the associations between maternal COVID-19 during pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes including preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational age (SGA), large-for-gestational age (LGA) and fetal death; as well as whether the associations differ by trimester of infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study used a retrospective Mexican birth cohort from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Mexico, between January 2020 and November 2021. PARTICIPANTS: We used the social security administrative dataset from IMSS that had COVID-19 information and linked it with the IMSS routine hospitalisation dataset, to identify deliveries in the study period with a test for SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy. OUTCOME MEASURES: PTB, LBW, SGA, LGA and fetal death. We used targeted maximum likelihood estimators, to quantify associations (risk ratio, RR) and CIs. We fit models for the overall COVID-19 sample, and separately for those with mild or severe disease, and by trimester of infection. Additionally, we investigated potential bias induced by missing non-tested pregnancies. RESULTS: The overall sample comprised 17 340 singleton pregnancies, of which 30% tested positive. We found that those with mild COVID-19 had an RR of 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.99) for PTB and those with severe COVID-19 had an RR of 1.53 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.19) for LGA. COVID-19 in the first trimester was associated with fetal death, RR=2.36 (95% CI 1.04, 5.36). Results also demonstrate that missing non-tested pregnancies might induce bias in the associations. CONCLUSIONS: In the overall sample, there was no evidence of an association between COVID-19 and adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the findings suggest that severe COVID-19 may increase the risk of some perinatal outcomes, with the first trimester potentially being a high-risk period.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Nacimiento Prematuro , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , México/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/epidemiología , Muerte Fetal , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244438, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564220

RESUMEN

Importance: The safety of exogenous gonadotropin treatment, based on its effect on embryos and pregnancy outcomes, remains inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the associations of different doses and durations of gonadotropins with embryonic genetic status and pregnancy outcomes after euploid embryo transfer in couples with infertility. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was a post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted at 14 reproductive centers throughout China from July 2017 to June 2018 that evaluated the cumulative live birth rate with or without preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) among couples with infertility and good prognosis. The PGT-A group from the original RCT was selected for secondary analysis. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the total dosage of exogenous gonadotropins and treatment duration: group 1 (≤1500 IU and <10 days), group 2 (≤1500 IU and ≥10 days), group 3 (>1500 IU and <10 days), and group 4 (>1 500 IU and ≥10 days). Group 1 served as the control group. Data were analyzed from June through August 2023. Interventions: Blastocyst biopsy and PGT-A. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcomes were embryonic aneuploidy, embryonic mosaicism, and cumulative live birth rates after euploid embryo transfer. Results: A total of 603 couples (mean [SD] age of prospective mothers, 29.13 [3.61] years) who underwent PGT-A were included, and 1809 embryos were screened using next-generation sequencing. The embryo mosaicism rate was significantly higher in groups 2 (44 of 339 embryos [13.0%]; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.69 [95% CI, 1.09-2.64]), 3 (27 of 186 embryos [14.5%]; aOR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.15-3.40]), and 4 (82 of 651 embryos [12.6%]; aOR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.07-2.38]) than in group 1 (56 of 633 embryos [8.8%]). There were no associations between gonadotropin dosage or duration and the embryo aneuploidy rate. The cumulative live birth rate was significantly lower in groups 2 (83 of 113 couples [73.5%]; aOR, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.27-0.88]), 3 (42 of 62 couples [67.7%]; aOR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.21-0.82]), and 4 (161 of 217 couples [74.2%]; aOR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.31-0.89]) than in group 1 (180 of 211 couples [85.3%]). Conclusions and relevance: In this study, excessive exogenous gonadotropin administration was associated with increased embryonic mosaicism and decreased cumulative live birth rate after euploid embryo transfer in couples with a good prognosis. These findings suggest that consideration should be given to minimizing exogenous gonadotropin dosage and limiting treatment duration to improve embryo outcomes and increase the live birth rate. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03118141.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad , Resultado del Embarazo , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Preescolar , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Aneuploidia , Transferencia de Embrión , Gonadotropinas/uso terapéutico
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e075269, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569715

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) trajectories with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted in Shanghai Pudong New Area Health Care Hospital for Women and Children, Shanghai, China. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A cohort study involving a total of 2174 pregnant women was conducted. Each participant was followed to record weekly weight gain and pregnancy outcomes. The Institute of Medicine classification was used to categorise prepregnancy BMI, and four GWG trajectories were identified using a latent class growth model. RESULTS: The adjusted ORs for the risks of large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) were significantly greater for women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity (OR=1.77, 2.13, 1.95 and 4.24; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.42, 1.32 to 3.46, 1.43 to 2.66 and 2.01 to 8.93, respectively) and lower for those who were underweight than for those with normal weight (excluding HDP) (OR=0.35, 0.27 and 0.59; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.53, 0.11 to 0.66 and 0.36 to 0.89, respectively). The risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW) was significantly increased in the underweight group (OR=3.11, 2.20; 95% CI 1.63 to 5.92, 1.10 to 4.41; respectively) compared with the normal-weight group; however, the risk did not decrease in the overweight/obese group (p=0.942, 0.697, respectively). GWG was divided into four trajectories, accounting for 16.6%, 41.4%, 31.7% and 10.3% of the participants, respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risk of LGA was 1.54 times greater for women in the slow GWG trajectory group than for those in the extremely slow GWG trajectory group (95% CI 1.07 to 2.21); the risk of SGA and LBW was 0.37 times and 0.46 times lower for women in the moderate GWG trajectory group and 0.14 times and 0.15 times lower for women in the rapid GWG trajectory group, respectively; the risk of macrosomia and LGA was 2.65 times and 2.70 times greater for women in the moderate GWG trajectory group and 3.53 times and 4.36 times greater for women in the rapid GWG trajectory group, respectively; and the women in the other three trajectory groups had a lower risk of GDM than did those in the extremely slow GWG trajectory group, but there was not much variation in the ORs. Notably, different GWG trajectories did not affect the risk of HDP. CONCLUSIONS: As independent risk factors, excessively high and low prepregnancy BMI and GWG can increase the risk of APOs.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Ganancia de Peso Gestacional , Niño , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Macrosomía Fetal/epidemiología , Macrosomía Fetal/complicaciones , Estudios de Cohortes , Delgadez/complicaciones , Delgadez/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , China/epidemiología , Aumento de Peso , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Pérdida de Peso
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 233, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570745

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association of genital Mollicutes infection transition with adverse pregnancy outcomes was insignificant among general pregnant women, but there remains a paucity of evidence linking this relationship in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women. The aim was to investigate the association between genital Mollicutes infection and transition and adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM women, and to explore whether this association still exist when Mollicutes load varied. METHODS: We involved pregnant women who attended antenatal care in Chongqing, China. After inclusion and exclusion criteria, we conducted a single-center cohort study of 432 GDM women with pregnancy outcomes from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2021. The main outcome was adverse pregnancy outcomes, including premature rupture of membrane (PROM), fetal distress, macrosomia and others. The exposure was Mollicutes infection, including Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) and Mycoplasma hominis (Mh) collected in both the second and the third trimesters, and testing with polymerase chain reaction method. The logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between Mollicutes infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Among 432 GDM women, 241 (55.79%) were infected with genital Mollicutes in either the second or third trimester of pregnancy. At the end of the pregnancy follow-up, 158 (36.57%) participants had adverse pregnancy outcomes, in which PROM, fetal distress and macrosomia were the most commonly observed adverse outcomes. Compared with the uninfected group, the Mollicutes (+/-) group showed no statistical significant increase in PROM (OR = 1.05, 95% CI:0.51 ∼ 2.08) and fetal distress (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.31 ∼ 3.91). Among the 77 participants who were both Uu positive in the second and third trimesters, 38 participants presented a declined Uu load and 39 presented an increased Uu load. The Uu increased group had a 2.95 odds ratio (95% CI: 1.10~8.44) for adverse pregnancy outcomes. CONCLUSION: Mollicutes infection and transition during trimesters were not statistically associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM women. However, among those consistent infections, women with increasing Uu loads showed increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. For GDM women with certain Mollicutes infection and colonization status, quantitative screening for vaginal infection at different weeks of pregnancy was recommended to provide personalized fertility treatment.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Tenericutes , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Tercer Trimestre del Embarazo , Macrosomía Fetal/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos , Sufrimiento Fetal , Aumento de Peso , Genitales
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 245, 2024 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582906

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate the impact of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We selected 512 pregnant women, collected the data including maternal demographics, main adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal HBV infected markers HBeAg and HBV-DNA loads status, then have a comparative analysis. RESULTS: There were 319 solitary ICP patients without HBV infection (Group I) and 193 ICP patients with HBV infection. Of the latter, there were 118 cases with abnormal liver function(Group II) and 80 cases with normal liver function(Group III). All HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP were divided into hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-positive group (102 cases) and HBeAg-negative group (91 cases), according to the level of the serum HBeAg status; and into high viral load group (92 cases), moderate viral load group (46 cases) and low viral load group (55 cases) according to the maternal HBV-DNA level. Group II had a higher level of serum total bile acids, transaminase, bilirubin as well as a higher percentage of premature delivery, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) compared with the other two groups(P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in the above indicators between the Group I and Group III. Among the HBV-infected patients with ICP, HBeAg-positive group had a higher level of serum transaminase, bilirubin and bile acid as well as earlier gestational weeks of delivery, lower birth weight of new-borns and a higher rate of NICU admission than HBeAg-negative group (P < 0.05). Those with a high viral load (HBV-DNA > 106 IU/ml) had a higher level of transaminase, bilirubin, and bile acid as well as shorter gestational weeks of delivery, lower birth weight of new-borns and a higher rate of NICU admission compared with those with a low or moderate viral load (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP combined with abnormal liver function have more severe liver damage, a higher percentage of preterm birth and NICU admission. HBeAg-positive status and a high HBV-DNA load will increase the severity of conditions in HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP. HBV-infected patients with ICP who have abnormal liver function, HBeAg-positive or a high viral load should be treated more actively.


Asunto(s)
Colestasis Intrahepática , Hepatitis B , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Estudios Retrospectivos , Antígenos e de la Hepatitis B , Peso al Nacer , ADN Viral , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Transaminasas , Ácidos y Sales Biliares , Bilirrubina
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7998, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580689

RESUMEN

There are millions of patients experiencing infertility in China, but assisted reproductive technology (ART) is performed at the patient's expense and is difficult to afford. With the sharp decline in China's birth rate, there is a growing controversy over the inclusion of ART in medical insurance (MI). This study aims to explore the feasibility of ART coverage by MI for the first time. We obtained basic data such as the prevalence of infertility, the cost of ART, and the success rate in China with the method of meta-analysis and consulting the government bulletin. Then, we calculated the number of infertile couples in China and the total financial expenditure of MI covering ART. Finally, we discussed the feasibility of coverage, and analyzed the population growth and economic benefits after coverage. According to our research results, it was estimated that there were 4.102-11.792 million infertile couples in China, with an annual increase of 1.189-1.867 million. If MI covered ART, the fund would pay 72.313-207.878 billion yuan, accounting for 2-6% of the current fund balance, and the subsequent annual payment would be 20.961-32.913 billion yuan, accounting for 4-7% of the annual fund balance. This was assuming that all infertile couples would undergo ART, and the actual cost would be lower. The financial input‒output ratio would be 13.022. Benefiting from the inclusion of ART in MI coverage, there would be 3.348-9.624 million new live infants, and 8-13% newborns would be born every year thereafter, which means that by 2050, 37-65 million people would be born. Due to its affordable cost, high cost-effectiveness and favourable population growth, it may be feasible to include ART in MI.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad , Resultado del Embarazo , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Vigilancia de la Población , Técnicas Reproductivas Asistidas , China/epidemiología , Infertilidad/epidemiología , Infertilidad/terapia
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 237, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575880

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis frequently results in pain and infertility. While conservative surgery offers some relief, it often falls short of ensuring satisfactory pregnancy outcomes. Adjuvant GnRH-a is administered post-surgery to mitigate recurrence; however, its impact on pregnancy outcomes remains debated. This study endeavors to assess the efficacy of adjuvant GnRH-a in enhancing pregnancy outcomes post-conservative surgery in endometriosis patients. METHODS: Databases including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Medline (Ovid), Web of Science, and Scopus were rigorously searched up to 02 August 2023, without linguistic constraints. Identified articles were screened using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Evaluated outcomes encompassed pregnancy rate, live birth rate, miscarriage rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, mean postoperative pregnancy interval, recurrence rate, and adverse reaction rate. The Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Jadad score evaluated the included studies' quality. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis were implemented to analyze the pooled results. A meta-analysis model expressed results as standardized mean difference (SMD) and Risk ratio (RR). RESULTS: A total of 17 studies about 2485 patients were assimilated. Meta-analysis revealed that post-surgery, the GnRH-a cohort experienced a marginally elevated pregnancy rate (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02-1.41; P = 0.03) and a reduced mean time to conceive (RR = -1.17, 95% CI = -1.70- -0.64; P < 0.0001). Contrarily, other evaluated outcomes did not exhibit notable statistical differences. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating adjuvant GnRH-a following conservative surgery may be deemed beneficial for women with endometriosis, especially before Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Nonetheless, owing to pronounced heterogeneity, subsequent research is warranted to substantiate these potential advantages conclusively. REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023448280.


Asunto(s)
Endometriosis , Resultado del Embarazo , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Endometriosis/cirugía , Índice de Embarazo , Embarazo Múltiple , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina
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