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1.
Gene ; 766: 145132, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911029

RESUMEN

Dysfunctions in mechanisms of gene regulation based on RNA interference are recognized as a common feature of the molecular basis of cancer pathogenesis. Therefore, as one of the crucial components of the machinery involved in the biogenesis of both siRNAs and microRNA molecules, DICER was recognized as one of the candidates for the research in the field of carcinogenesis. Due to their potential functional properties, several genetic variants located within DICER1 gene were analyzed for their possible association with the susceptibility to cancer through case-control studies. In order to elucidate their effect on the overall cancer risk, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of all eligible association studies. The publications were selected based on PubMed database search, while OpenMeta-analyst and MetaGenyo software were used for quantitative data synthesis. Statistically significant results were found for the association of rs1057035 with the overall cancer risk under multiple genetic models (PCT vs. TT < 0.001, ORCT vs. TT = 0.870, 95% CI = 0.812-0.933; Pallelic = 0.009, ORallelic = 0.896, 95% CI = 0.825-0.973; Pdom < 0.001, ORdom = 0.874, 95% CI = 0.817-0.934; Poverdom = 0.004, ORoverdom = 0.858, 95% CI = 0.773-0.953). Other selected genetic variants within DICER1, rs13078, rs1209904 and rs3742330, did not show the association with the overall susceptibility to malignant diseases. We conclude that rs1057035 may represent a potential biomarker associated with the risk of developing cancer, which requires a confirmation in a larger set of studies.


Asunto(s)
ARN Helicasas DEAD-box/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Ribonucleasa III/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Genotipo , Humanos , MicroARNs/genética , Riesgo
2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 41-54, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1125730

RESUMEN

A teoria do estresse de minoria (EM) defende que minorias sociais vivenciam estressores específicos adicionais aos estressores cotidianos. Fatores individuais e do meio podem funcionar como fatores de risco e/ou de proteção no comprometimento da saúde mental de pessoas LGB. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e discutir a teoria do EM em indivíduos LGB por meio de uma revisão narrativa. Compreender a ocorrência do EM em pessoas LGB pode auxiliar na elaboração de planos interventivos, de ordem clínica ou social, com o objetivo de minimizar os efeitos do preconceito nestes indivíduos.


The minority stress (MS) theory argues that social minorities experience specific stressors added to everyday stressors. Individual and contextual factors can function as risk and/or protective factors without compromising the mental health of LGB people. This study aims to present and discuss the theory of MS in LGB individuals through a narrative review. Understanding the occurrence of MS in LGB people can assist in the elaboration of intervention plans, of a clinical or social nature to minimize the effects of prejudice in these situations.


La teoría del estrés de minoría (EM) argumenta que las minorías sociales experimentan factores estresantes que se agregan a los factores estresantes cotidianos. Los factores individuales y contextuales pueden funcionar como factores de riesgo o protectores sin comprometer la salud mental de las personas LGB. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar y discutir la teoría de EM en individuos LGB a través de una revisión narrativa. Comprender el EM en personas LGB puede ayudar en la elaboración de planes de intervención, de naturaleza clínica o social, con el objetivo de minimizar los efectos de los prejuicios en estas situaciones.


Asunto(s)
Prejuicio , Estrés Psicológico , Salud Mental , Riesgo , Vulnerabilidad Social , Narración , Comprensión , Factores Protectores , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Distrés Psicológico , Grupos Minoritarios
4.
JAMA ; 324(17): 1747-1754, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141207

RESUMEN

Importance: There is concern that African American men with low-risk prostate cancer may harbor more aggressive disease than non-Hispanic White men. Therefore, it is unclear whether active surveillance is a safe option for African American men. Objective: To compare clinical outcomes of African American and non-Hispanic White men with low-risk prostate cancer managed with active surveillance. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study in the US Veterans Health Administration Health Care System of African American and non-Hispanic White men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015, and managed with active surveillance. The date of final follow-up was March 31, 2020. Exposures: Active surveillance was defined as no definitive treatment within the first year of diagnosis and at least 1 additional surveillance biopsy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Progression to at least intermediate-risk, definitive treatment, metastasis, prostate cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality. Results: The cohort included 8726 men, including 2280 African American men (26.1%) (median age, 63.2 years) and 6446 non-Hispanic White men (73.9%) (median age, 65.5 years), and the median follow-up was 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.7-9.9; range, 0.2-19.2). Among African American men and non-Hispanic White men, respectively, the 10-year cumulative incidence of disease progression was 59.9% vs 48.3% (difference, 11.6% [95% CI, 9.2% to 13.9%); P < .001); of receipt of definitive treatment, 54.8% vs 41.4% (difference, 13.4% [95% CI, 11.0% to 15.7%]; P < .001); of metastasis, 1.5% vs 1.4% (difference, 0.1% [95% CI, -0.4% to 0.6%]; P = .49); of prostate cancer-specific mortality, 1.1% vs 1.0% (difference, 0.1% [95% CI, -0.4% to 0.6%]; P = .82); and of all-cause mortality, 22.4% vs 23.5% (difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -0.9% to 3.1%]; P = 0.09). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study of men with low-risk prostate cancer followed up for a median of 7.6 years, African American men, compared with non-Hispanic White men, had a statistically significant increased 10-year cumulative incidence of disease progression and definitive treatment, but not metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality. Longer-term follow-up is needed to better assess the mortality risk.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Neoplasias de la Próstata/etnología , Espera Vigilante , Anciano , Biopsia , Causas de Muerte , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Riesgo
5.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(4): 268-270, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154277

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a highly infectious coronavirus, has been rapidly spreading after its surge in China in December 2019. It is currently a global pandemic. A myriad of transmission routes have been documented, however established thus far, are respiratory droplet, contact and airborne transmissions. Susceptible persons at proximity, usually within 1-2 m, to infected persons are largely at risk of being infected. Unfortunately, health workers usually evaluate patients within this distance. Eye care professionals (ECPs) are faced with a higher risk scenario of being infected as they undertake routine clinical eye examination procedures at a close face-to-face proximity to patients, which place them at a high risk of respiratory droplets and aerosolised particles, particularly from asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic carriers. The slit lamp examination procedure is typically at a distance of between 0.25 m and 0.5 m. While undertaking certain procedures on the slit lamp, such as gonioscopy and slit lamp indirect ophthalmoscopy, the ECP holds the accessory lenses either directly on the patient's eye or at about 5-10 cm from the patient's face, respectively. The authors found it pertinent to articulate this narrative review article to guide slit lamp examination practice by ECPs during routine ophthalmic evaluation, with a view to reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 to ECPs. In conclusion, ECPs are at increased risk of infection due to high-risk scenarios for routine slit lamp examination procedures of the eye. Adherence to standard precautionary measures with slit lamp use is highly recommended.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Oftalmología/métodos , Optometría/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Microscopía con Lámpara de Hendidura , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Nigeria , Riesgo
7.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2995, 2020 10 29.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147394

RESUMEN

This essay intends to carry out an ethical and philosophical reflection on the effects of the emergency contingencies of the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on Brazil, it seeks to understand, critique, and attribute meaning to references to the pandemic, in particularly dramatic moments brought about by the synergy produced between the serious disease affecting the country and the world and a government that stands out for its remarkable unwillingness and inability to deal with this calamity. This text was written during the Brazilian "quarantine," which lasted from mid-March to late April, 2020. During this period, we were bombarded by facts that never ceased to haunt us, and lived each day under the terrible dominion of the pandemic. Therefore, this text was written in the midst of a social context marked by control efforts, with great attention directed at the health of those affected, despite the complex political framework and serious economic difficulties facing the country.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Política de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Cuarentena , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Gobierno Federal , Humanos , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/economía , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/psicología , Riesgo
8.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(713): 2092-2098, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146957

RESUMEN

Consistent with the principles of evidence-based medicine, communicating clinical risks to patients and their families is an essential part of informed consent and decision-making. Communication of clinical risks can take place during and after consultations, orally or in writing, based on the latest available scientific data, when available. Numerous studies show that there are different degrees of innumeracy in the general population, meaning more or less significant difficulties mastering numbers in everyday situations. It is therefore imperative to communicate risks in a way that is adapted to the patients' variable numeracy and health literacy levels. This article presents a synthesis of international research on risk communication, as well as recommendations for clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Alfabetización en Salud , Toma de Decisiones , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Consentimiento Informado , Riesgo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241327, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137155

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Poor housing conditions have been linked with worse health outcomes and infectious disease spread. Since the relationship of poor housing conditions with incidence and mortality of COVID-19 is unknown, we investigated the association between poor housing condition and COVID-19 incidence and mortality in US counties. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of county-level data from the US Centers for Disease Control, US Census Bureau and John Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center for 3135 US counties. The exposure of interest was percentage of households with poor housing conditions (one or greater of: overcrowding, high housing cost, incomplete kitchen facilities, or incomplete plumbing facilities). Outcomes were incidence rate ratios (IRR) and mortality rate ratios (MRR) of COVID-19 across US counties through 4/21/2020. Multilevel generalized linear modeling (with total population of each county as a denominator) was utilized to estimate relative risk of incidence and mortality related to poor housing conditions with adjustment for population density and county characteristics including demographics, income, education, prevalence of medical comorbidities, access to healthcare insurance and emergency rooms, and state-level COVID-19 test density. We report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and mortality ratios (MRRs) for a 5% increase in prevalence in households with poor housing conditions. RESULTS: Across 3135 US counties, the mean percentage of households with poor housing conditions was 14.2% (range 2.7% to 60.2%). On April 21st, the mean (SD) number of cases and deaths of COVID-19 were 255.68 (2877.03) cases and 13.90 (272.22) deaths per county, respectively. In the adjusted models standardized by county population, with each 5% increase in percent households with poor housing conditions, there was a 50% higher risk of COVID-19 incidence (IRR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.38-1.62) and a 42% higher risk of COVID-19 mortality (MRR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25-1.61). Results remained similar using earlier timepoints (3/31/2020 and 4/10/2020). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Counties with a higher percentage of households with poor housing had higher incidence of, and mortality associated with, COVID-19. These findings suggest targeted health policies to support individuals living in poor housing conditions should be considered in further efforts to mitigate adverse outcomes associated with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Clase Social , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241466, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147252

RESUMEN

As the number of global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases increases, the number of imported cases is gradually rising. Furthermore, there is no reduction in domestic outbreaks. To assess the risks from imported COVID-19 cases in South Korea, we suggest using the daily risk score. Confirmed COVID-19 cases reported by John Hopkins University Center, roaming data collected from Korea Telecom, and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker index were included in calculating the risk score. The risk score was highly correlated with imported COVID-19 cases after 12 days. To forecast daily imported COVID-19 cases after 12 days in South Korea, we developed prediction models using simple linear regression and autoregressive integrated moving average, including exogenous variables (ARIMAX). In the validation set, the root mean squared error of the linear regression model using the risk score was 6.2, which was lower than that of the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA; 22.3) without the risk score as a reference. Correlation coefficient of ARIMAX using the risk score (0.925) was higher than that of ARIMA (0.899). A possible reason for this time lag of 12 days between imported cases and the risk score could be the delay that occurs before the effect of government policies such as closure of airports or lockdown of cities. Roaming data could help warn roaming users regarding their COVID-19 risk status and inform the national health agency of possible high-risk areas for domestic outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Predicción/métodos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Análisis de Datos , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Estadísticos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Riesgo
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 505, 2020 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160303

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) refer to a range of neurodevelopmental conditions, which are genetically complex and heterogeneous with most of the genetic risk factors also found in the unaffected general population. Although all the currently known ASD risk genes code for proteins, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as essential regulators of gene expression have been implicated in ASD. Some lncRNAs show altered expression levels in autistic brains, but their roles in ASD pathogenesis are still unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we have developed a new machine learning approach to predict candidate lncRNAs associated with ASD. Particularly, the knowledge learnt from protein-coding ASD risk genes was transferred to the prediction and prioritization of ASD-associated lncRNAs. Both developmental brain gene expression data and transcript sequence were found to contain relevant information for ASD risk gene prediction. During the pre-training phase of model construction, an autoencoder network was implemented for a representation learning of the gene expression data, and a random-forest-based feature selection was applied to the transcript-sequence-derived k-mers. Our models, including logistic regression, support vector machine and random forest, showed robust performance based on tenfold cross-validations as well as candidate prioritization with hypothetical loci. We then utilized the models to predict and prioritize a list of candidate lncRNAs, including some reported to be cis-regulators of known ASD risk genes, for further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ASD risk genes can be accurately predicted using developmental brain gene expression data and transcript sequence features, and the models may provide useful information for functional characterization of the candidate lncRNAs associated with ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/genética , Aprendizaje Automático , ARN Largo no Codificante/metabolismo , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/patología , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , ARN Largo no Codificante/genética , Riesgo , Transcriptoma
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241947, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166346

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, has been caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We propose the protocol described below to perform an individual-patient data (IPD) network meta-analysis (NMA) in order to evaluate the efficacies of different antiviral drugs to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We will search the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, CNKI and VIP databases from their inceptions through July 2020. There will be no restrictions on language, publication year, or publication type. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies with antiviral treatments for COVID-19 will be considered. Two reviewers will independently select studies and collect data. Risk-of-bias assessments will be completed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias scale. Primary outcome will be the COVID-19 recovery rate. We will combine aggregated data from IPD with the NMA in a single model, compare the effects of different antiviral drugs on patient-relevant efficacy, and rank the results to decide which is the most effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020167038.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Metaanálisis en Red , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241895, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175894

RESUMEN

Despite the profound health and economic implications of Covid-19, there is only limited knowledge to date about the role of economic concerns, health worries and social distancing for mental health outcomes during the pandemic. We analyze online survey data from the nationally representative "Understanding America Study" (UAS) covering the period of March 10-31st 2020 (sample size: 6,585). Mental health is assessed by the validated PHQ-4 instrument for measuring symptoms of depression and anxiety. About 29% (CI:27.4-.30.4%) of the US adult population reported some depression/anxiety symptoms over the study period, with symptoms deteriorating over the month of March. Worsening mental health was most strongly associated with concerns about the economic consequences of the pandemic, while concerns about the potential implications of the virus for respondents' own health and social distancing also predicted increases in symptoms of depression and anxiety during the early stages of the pandemic in the US, albeit less strongly. Our findings point towards the possibility of a major mental health crisis unfolding simultaneously with the pandemic, with economic concerns being a key driving force of this crisis. These results highlight the likely importance of economic countermeasures and social policy for mitigating the impact of Covid-19 on adult mental health in the US over and above an effective public health response.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Estatus Económico , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/patología , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5411, 2020 10 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110070

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, where the initial wave of intense community transmissions was cut short by interventions. Using multiple data sources, here we estimate the disease burden and clinical severity by age of COVID-19 in Wuhan from December 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020. Our estimates account for the sensitivity of the laboratory assays, prospective community screenings, and healthcare seeking behaviors. Rates of symptomatic cases, medical consultations, hospitalizations and deaths were estimated at 796 (95% CI: 703-977), 489 (472-509), 370 (358-384), and 36.2 (35.0-37.3) per 100,000 persons, respectively. The COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan had a higher burden than the 2009 influenza pandemic or seasonal influenza in terms of hospitalization and mortality rates, and clinical severity was similar to that of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Our comparison puts the COVID-19 pandemic into context and could be helpful to guide intervention strategies and preparedness for the potential resurgence of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22996, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126378

RESUMEN

An increasing number of studies outline renal function as an important risk marker for mortality in acute heart failure (AHF). However, routine estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine is imprecise.This study aims to compare the prognostic impact of CKD-EPI creatinine based equation (eGFRcr), cystatin C based equation (eGFRcyst), and creatinine-cystatin C equation (eGFRcrcyst) for the mortality stratification in AHF.A total of 354 Patients with AHF were prospectively included between January 2012 and June 2016. Creatinine and cystatin C were measured using the same blood sample tube on admission. We quantified eGFR by the eGFRcr, eGFRcyst, and eGFRcrcyst equations. The continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were calculated to compare the discriminative prognostic value of different CKD-EPI formula.After a median follow-up of 35 months, 161 patients (45.5%) died. Reduced eGFRcyst and eGFRcrcyst remained significant association with death after adjustment. eGFRcyst showed the best area under the curve value (0.706) for the prediction of all-cause mortality. Considering mortality reclassification, both eGFRcyst (IDI = 7.3%, P < .001; cNRI = 19.6%, P = .012) and eGFRcrcyst (IDI = 4.3%, P < .001; cNRI = 8.7%, P = .138) showed its tendency in improving risk prediction compared to eGFRcr. Compared to eGFRcrcyst showed, eGFRcyst further improved mortality stratification (IDI = 3%, P = .049; cNRI = 11.1%, P = .036).In patients with AHF, our study demonstrates the eGFR calculated by CKD-EPI cystatin C-based equation improved the risk stratification of mortality over both creatinine-based and creatinine/cystatin C-based equations.


Asunto(s)
Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/mortalidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , China , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e23006, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126384

RESUMEN

Interleukin-10(IL-10) is an immunosuppressive cytokine and plays an important role in inflammation and cancers. Numerous studies have explored the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-10 and leukemia, but their results were conflicting, so we performed this meta-analysis to elucidate the association between 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-10 (rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872) and risk of leukemia.We conducted a comprehensive research in Pubmed, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database disc and Embase using related terms. After strict selection, 18 studies with 2264 cases and 3846 controls were included into this meta-analysis. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to evaluate the strength of the association.We found that polymorphism of IL-10 -1082A/G was associated with decreased risk of leukemia both in overall analysis and in stratified analysis according to ethnicity and cancer type. A strong relationship was also uncovered between polymorphism of IL-10 -592C/A and increased risk of leukemia in non-Chinese.GG genotype of IL-10 -1082A/G is associated with decreased risk of leukemia, especially chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CC genotype of -592C/A is associated with decreased risk of leukemia in non-Chinese.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Interleucina-10/genética , Leucemia/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Riesgo
18.
N Z Med J ; 133(1524): 20-27, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119567

RESUMEN

AIMS: Thyroid nodule malignancy risk is increasingly estimated using ultrasound characteristics. We assessed ultrasound reports of nodules and compared ultrasound-based malignancy risk assessments with cytology and histology findings. METHODS: We identified patients with thyroid ultrasound (55% by private provider, 45% by DHB) and cytology at CMDHB over 18 months. Malignancy risk for each nodule was categorised based on the ultrasound report, then using ultrasound images with the local CMDHB approach and American Thyroid Association guidelines, and then was compared with cytology/histology results. RESULTS: 36/91 nodules (84 patients) had abnormal (Bethesda 3-6) cytology. Forty-eight patients (54 nodules) underwent thyroid surgery and 13 nodules (12 patients) had thyroid cancers. Most ultrasound reports did not mention nodule malignancy risk characteristics (range 13-98%) or a malignancy risk estimate (66/91). 12/33 nodules with benign (Bethesda 2) cytology and 18/36 nodules with abnormal (Bethesda 3-6) cytology were considered intermediate/high risk of malignancy by ultrasound; none and seven, respectively, had cancer identified subsequently. In 18 nodules considered low risk by ultrasound, four cancers were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Most ultrasound reports contained insufficient information about nodule malignancy risk to allow an independent assessment. Agreement between cytological/histological findings and malignancy risk estimates using ultrasound was not high.


Asunto(s)
Glándula Tiroides/diagnóstico por imagen , Nódulo Tiroideo/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biopsia con Aguja Fina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Radiólogos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Glándula Tiroides/patología , Nódulo Tiroideo/patología , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114587

RESUMEN

Aim: In this article, we aim to present a tool for the early assessment of medical technologies. This evaluation system was designed and implemented by the National Centre for HTA and the National Centre for Innovative Technologies of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Italy, in order to respond to an institutional commitment within the "Health Technologies Assessment Team" that was established to face the huge demand for the evaluation of Health Technologies during the pandemic event caused by COVID-19, with a smart and easy-to-use framework. Methods: Horizon scanning was conducted through a brief assessment carried out according to the multicriteria decision analysis methodology. Each HTA domain was attributed a score according to a pros/cons and opportunities/threats system, derived from evidence in the literature. Scores were weighted according to different perspectives. Scores were presented in a Cartesian graph showing the positioning according to the potential value and the perceived risk associated with the technology. Results: Two case studies regarding the early assessment were reported, concerning two specific technologies: an individual protection device and a contact tracking system.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Italia , Riesgo
20.
Igaku Butsuri ; 40(3): 88-96, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999255

RESUMEN

The quality assurance (QA) of the output constancy of linear accelerators (linacs) is one of the most basic items for radiation therapy. The necessity and demand of the dosimetric audit is on the rise. We aimed at establishing an on-site dosimetric audit program with a plastic phantom in order to enrich the availability of dosimetric audit in Japan. By this, we developed and evaluated an on-site audit program in multiple institutions in 120 cases for photon and electron standard dosimetry and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) condition. For photon standard dosimetry, we evaluated the accuracies of institutional measured absorbed dose in 50 cases by this on-site audit program. For the electron standard dosimetry, we evaluated the accuracies of institutional measured absorbed dose in 25 cases. For IMRT condition, we evaluated the accuracies of the institutional calculated dose in radiation treatment planning systems in 45 cases. The agreements of the measured absorbed dose between our audit and the institutions were within±1.1% for photon standard dosimetry. The agreements of the measured absorbed dose between our audit and the institutions were within±2.1% for electron standard dosimetry. The agreements between the measured absorbed dose of our audit and the institutional calculated dose were within±2.1% for IMRT condition. We established an on-site dosimetric audit program with a plastic phantom and this program is suitable with tight criteria similar to criteria required for clinical QA.


Asunto(s)
Auditoría Médica/métodos , Garantía de la Calidad de Atención de Salud , Radiometría/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/normas , Humanos , Japón , Auditoría Médica/normas , Órganos en Riesgo , Fantasmas de Imagen , Plásticos , Radiometría/normas , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
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