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1.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 463-470, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863266

RESUMEN

The aim of this work was the genetic typing of RVA isolates originating from pigs and human patients in Slovakia. Seventy-eight rectal swabs from domestic pigs and 30 stool samples from humans were collected. The whole VP7 (G genotypes), VP6 (I genotypes) and partial VP4 (P genotypes) ORFs were amplified by RT-PCR. Genetic variability was higher amongst porcine sequences, where four G genotypes (G3, G4, G5, G11), two P genotypes (P[6], P[13]) and one I5 genotype were detected. Human RVA strains were represented by two G genotypes (G1, G3), two I genotypes (I1, I2), and one P genotype (P[8]). Genetic analysis did not show a relationship between Slovakian porcine and human RVA strains, but phylogenetic grouping of some Slovakian porcine sequences with Hungarian human sequences in both G and P genotypes was observed.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Rotavirus/clasificación , Rotavirus/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , Antígenos Virales/genética , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética , Heces/virología , Genotipo , Humanos , Recto/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Eslovaquia , Sus scrofa , Porcinos
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 978, 2019 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752744

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children particularly in developing countries of Asia and Africa. The present study was conducted to detect the two most important pathogens, rotavirus and Campylobacter Jejuni in children suffering with diarrhea in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. The clinical and epidemiological aspects of the disease were also investigated. METHODS: A total of 500 stool samples were collected from children presented with clinical signs and symptoms of acute diarrhea. The samples were initially screened for the presence of rotavirus A (RVA) via ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase PCR) and then were analysed for C. jejuni by using species specific PCR assay. RESULTS: The detection rate of RVA was 26.4% (132/500) while, Campylobacter was detected in 52% (260/500) of samples with C. jejuni accounted for 48.2% (241/500) of all study cases. Co-infection of C. jejuni with RVA was identified in 21.8% of all cases. Children with RVA and C. jejuni co-infection showed a higher probability (p = 0.01) to be dehydrated. A significant association (p = 0.02) was found between C. jejuni positive status and fever in children. The median age of children with both RVA and C. jejuni infection was 6-11 months. The RVA detection rate was high in winter months of the year while, C. jejuni infections were documented high in summer over 1 year study period. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results have demonstrated the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. The results of present study will not only help to calculate disease burden caused by C. jejuni and rotavirus but also will provide critical information to health authorities in planning public health care strategies against these pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Campylobacter/microbiología , Campylobacter jejuni/aislamiento & purificación , Diarrea/microbiología , Diarrea/virología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Campylobacter jejuni/clasificación , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Preescolar , Ciudades , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Diarrea/epidemiología , Heces/microbiología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Rotavirus/clasificación , Rotavirus/genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología
3.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530719

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccine has been funded for infants under the Australian National Immunisation Program since 2007, with Rotarix vaccine used in New South Wales, Australia, from that time. In 2017, New South Wales experienced a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis. We examined epidemiology, genotypic profiles, and vaccine effectiveness (VE) among cases. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed cases of rotavirus notified in New South Wales between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2017 were analyzed. VE was estimated in children via a case-control analysis. Specimens from a sample of hospitalized case patients were genotyped and analyzed. RESULTS: In 2017, 2319 rotavirus cases were reported, representing a 3.1-fold increase on the 2016 notification rate. The highest rate was among children aged <2 years. For notified cases in 2017, 2-dose VE estimates were 88.4%, 83.7%, and 78.7% in those aged 6 to 11 months, 1 to 3 years, and 4 to 9 years, respectively. VE was significantly reduced from 89.5% within 1 year of vaccination to 77.0% at 5 to 10 years postvaccination. Equinelike G3P[8] (48%) and G8P[8] (23%) were identified as the most common genotypes in case patients aged ≥6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Rotarix is highly effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed rotavirus in Australia, especially in infants aged 6 to 11 months. Reduced VE in older age groups and over time suggests waning protection, possibly related to the absence of subclinical immune boosting from continuously circulating virus. G8 genotypes have not been common in Australia, and their emergence, along with equinelike G3P[8], may be related to vaccine-induced selective pressure; however, further strain-specific VE studies are needed.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/uso terapéutico , Rotavirus/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/inmunología , Gastroenteritis/prevención & control , Genotipo , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Rotavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/prevención & control , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vacunas Atenuadas/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
5.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103257, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421763

RESUMEN

The viability of murine norovirus (MNV-1), bovine rotavirus (boRV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) was evaluated at 21 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C on stainless steel surfaces, in bottled water, and on blueberries for up to 21 days. After 14 days of incubation at 21 °C on stainless steel, a viability loss >4 log for MNV-1, >8 log for boRV, and >1 log for HAV was observed. Losses were observed for MNV-1 (>1 log) and HAV (>2 log) incubated in water at 21 °C for 21 days. No significant loss was detected for MNV-1 and HAV at 4 °C and -20 °C and for boRV at 21 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C. On blueberries incubated at 4 °C and -20 °C, they all maintained their infectivity. After 7 days at 21 °C, a loss >2 log, a loss of 3 log, and no loss were observed for boRV, MNV-1, and HAV, respectively. After RNase pretreatment, the detection of extracted RNA from infectious and noninfectious samples suggested the protection of RNA inside the capsid. Even though they all are enteric viruses, their persistence varied with temperature and the nature of the commodity. It is therefore important to use more than one viral surrogate, during inactivation treatments or implementation of control measures.


Asunto(s)
Arándanos Azules (Planta)/virología , Agua Potable/microbiología , Virus de la Hepatitis A/aislamiento & purificación , Norovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Acero Inoxidable/análisis , Inactivación de Virus , Animales , Bovinos , Línea Celular , Desinfección , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Virus de la Hepatitis A/genética , Ratones , Norovirus/genética , ARN Viral , Rotavirus/genética , Temperatura Ambiental
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 202, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312314

RESUMEN

Introduction: Rotavirus causes severe-diarrheal diseases in infants. An estimation of 138 million rotavirus-associated diarrheal cases and 215,000 deaths occur every year globally. In December 2016, West-Shewa zone in Ethiopia reported unidentified gastrointestinal diarrhea outbreak. We investigated to identify the causative agent of the outbreak to support response operations. Methods: Medical records were reviewed, and the daily line list was collected from health facilities. Descriptive data analysis was done by time, person and place. Stool specimens were first tested by antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique and further confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as a gold standard. The product of RT-PCR was genotyped for each gene using G1-G4, G8-G9 and G12 primers for VP7 gene and P(4), P(6), P(8) and P(14) primers for VP4 gene. Results: A total of 1,987 diarrheal cases (5.7 per 1000) and five deaths (case-fatality rate 0.25%) were identified and epidemiologically-linked to confirmed rotavirus from December 2016 to February 2017. Among the cases, 1,946 (98%) were < 5 children. Fourteen (74%) of the 19 tested stool specimens were positive for rotavirus by EIA and RT-PCR. Majority of strains detected were G12P(6) (25%) and G-negative P(8) (25%) followed by G9P(8) (19%), G1P(8) (13%) and G3/G2 P(8), G12P(8), and G-negative P(6) (6% each). Conclusion: Diarrheal outbreak which occurred in West-Shewa zone of Ethiopia was associated with rotavirus and relatively more affected districts with low vaccination coverage. Routine rotavirus vaccination quality and coverage should be evaluated and the surveillance system needs to be strengthened to detect, prevent and control a similar outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/administración & dosificación , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Técnicas para Inmunoenzimas/métodos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Rotavirus/genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315165

RESUMEN

This report, from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2017. During this period, 2,285 faecal specimens were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, including 1,103 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 1,014/1,103 were wildtype rotavirus strains and 89/1,103 were identified as rotavirus vaccine-like. Genotype analysis of the 1,014 wildtype rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G2P[4] was the dominant genotype nationally, identified in 39% of samples, followed by equine-like G3P[8] and G8P[8] (25% and 16% respectively). Multiple outbreaks were recorded across Australia, including G2P[4] (Northern Territory, Western Australia, and South Australia), equine-like G3P[8] (New South Wales), and G8P[8] (New South Wales and Victoria). This year also marks the change in the Australian National Immunisation Program to the use of Rotarix exclusively, on 1 July 2017.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Rotavirus/patogenicidad , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades , Heces/virología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/virología , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Nueva Gales del Sur , Northern Territory , Vigilancia de la Población , Rotavirus/clasificación , Rotavirus/genética , Australia del Sur , Victoria , Australia Occidental , Adulto Joven
8.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 77-85, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322520

RESUMEN

The etiological structure of the acute diarrhoeal infections among the population of the Odessa region during 2015-2017 was analyzed. Based on the registered cases, an assessment of the frequency of hospitalization of sick persons from different age groups was undertaken. The most frequent pathogens from 18 detected bacterial causative agents were St. aureus, Kl. pneumoniae, Ps. aeruginosa, E. coli, Pr. vulgaris, Ent.cloacae. During 2016-2017 the mixed infection was detected in 54 fecal samples. Bacterial-virus associations were detected in 20 samples and were presented in St. aureus, Kl. pneumoniae, Ps. Aeruginosa and Rotavirus. During the summer period of 2016, the detection rate of rota-, noro-, adenovirus antigens in the examined fecal samples of adult patients was 13.60%. According to the results of genotyping of the circulating rotaviruses strains in 2016, strains G1P[8] (46.70%) and G3P[8] (26.70%) are most commonly detected.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/microbiología , Diarrea/virología , Enterocolitis/microbiología , Enterocolitis/virología , Heces/microbiología , Heces/virología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/epidemiología , Enterocolitis/epidemiología , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Genes Microbianos , Genotipo , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rotavirus/genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Ucrania/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e34, 2019 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269110

RESUMEN

After the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, the number of rotavirus-associated deaths and the predicted annual rotavirus detection rate had slightly declined worldwide. Taking in account that in Colombia, Rotarix vaccine was introduced in 2009, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of rotavirus A in children under five years who were treated for acute diarrhoea in Bucaramanga, Colombia and, moreover, to determine the genotypes of rotavirus present in those children. We performed an analytical cross-sectional study of rotavirus A in faecal samples from children up to five years of age. Stool samples were screened for rotavirus A using a lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay and confirmed using a VP6 sandwich ELISA. Genotyping of rotavirus A-positive samples was performed by PCR and sequencing of VP7 and VP4 genes. The overall prevalence of rotavirus was 30.53% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2 - 39.7). Most of the children with rotavirus (86.2%) had received two doses of the rotavirus vaccine. G3 strains accounted for the vast majority of cases (82.8%), followed by G12 strains (13.8%) and G3/G9 coinfections (3.4%). Among the P genotypes, P[8] was the most prevalent (69%), followed by P[9] (31%). The most common G[P] genotype combination was G3P[8], followed by G3P[9]. The main finding in this study was that rotavirus, in a Colombian region, is still an important pathogen in children under five years old, previously vaccinated. The results showed that different factors, such as kindergarten attendance, could explain the epidemiology and transmission of rotavirus in Bucaramanga.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Rotavirus/genética , Enfermedad Aguda , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Diarrea/virología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces/virología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Tipificación Molecular , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , ARN Viral/genética , Rotavirus/clasificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174706

RESUMEN

The aim of this retrospective study was to use RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing analysis to determine the G (VP7 gene) and P (VP4 gene) genotypes of 155 Brazilian bovine rotavirus A (RVA) wild-type strains detected in diarrheic calves from all Brazilian geographical regions from 2006 to 2015. The RVA strains evaluated belonged to the G6, G10, P[5], and P[11] genotypes. The G6P[5] genotype was prevalent (65.5%; P < 0.05) in beef, and the G10P[11] (38.4%) and G6P[11] (30.8%) genotypes were more prevalent in dairy cattle herds. The Midwest was the region with the highest number of genotyped RVA strains, where the genotypes G6, P[5], and P[11] were identified. Genotype combination G6-IV/P[5]-IX, prevalent in beef herds, and G6-III/P[11]-III or G10-IV/P[11]-III, prevalent in dairy herds, were detected. In addition, for the first time in Brazil, we detected the P[5] and P[11] genotype RVA strains that belong to lineage II and VII, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Infecciones por Rotavirus/veterinaria , Rotavirus/genética , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Brasil/epidemiología , Bovinos/virología , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/virología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Perfil Genético , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(8): 1240-1243, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237533

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to report the molecular characterization of human group A rotaviruses (RVAs) circulating in Tunisia. Stool specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age who had been hospitalized or were consulting for gastroenteritis in Tunisian hospitals between 2015 and 2017. All samples were screened by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of the VP6 gene specific for RVA. RVA-positive samples were further analysed for G/P genotyping by semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR. Among 454 tested samples, 72 (15.8 %) were positive for RVA. G1P[8] was the most prevalent detected strain (41.7%), followed by G9P[8] (32.8%), G2P[4] (7.5%), G12P[8] (7.5%), G1P[6] (3.0%), G2P[8] (1.5%) and G3P[8] (1.5%), with mixed infections in 4.5 % of cases. In the absence of a national anti-rotavirus vaccination strategy, RVAs remain the primary aetiological agent for gastroenteritis in Tunisian children.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/virología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Rotavirus/genética , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Epidemiología Molecular , Prevalencia , ARN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Túnez/epidemiología
12.
Virus Genes ; 55(4): 465-478, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197545

RESUMEN

An unusual group A rotavirus (RVA) strain MAR/ma31/2011/G8P[14] was detected for the first time in Morocco in a stool sample from hospitalized child aged 18 months suffering from acute gastroenteritis and fever in 2011. Complete genome sequencing of the ma31 strain was done using the capillary sequencing technology. The analysis revealed the G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 constellation and the backbone genes: I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 are commonly found in RVA strains from artiodactyls such as cattle. The constellation was shared with another Italian zoonotic G8P[14] strains (BA01 and BA02), two Hungarian human strains (182-02 and BP1062) and a sheep RVA strain OVR762. Phylogenetic analysis of each genome segment of ma31 revealed a mixed gene configuration originated from animals and human. Comparison of the antigenic regions of VP7 and VP4 amino acid sequences between ma31 strain and selected animal and human strains bearing G8 and or P[14], showed a high level of conservation, while many substitutions was observed in comparison with RotaTeq™ and Rotarix™ vaccine strains. In contrast, alignment analysis of the four antigenic sites of VP6 revealed a high degree of conservation. These findings reveal a typical zoonotic origin of the strain and confirm a high potential for RVA zoonotic transmission between bovine and humans, allowing the generation of novel rotavirus genotypes.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Viral , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Rotavirus/genética , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Evolución Molecular , Gastroenteritis/virología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Marruecos , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/química , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/genética , Filogenia , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/transmisión , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zoonosis/transmisión
13.
Virology ; 534: 114-131, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228725

RESUMEN

Inter-genogroup reassortant group A rotavirus (RVA) strains possessing a G3 VP7 gene of putative equine origin (EQL-G3) have been detected in humans since 2013. Here we report detection of EQL-G3P[8] RVA strains from the Dominican Republic collected in 2014-16. Whole-gene analysis of RVA in stool specimens revealed 16 EQL-G3P[8] strains, 3 of which appear to have acquired an N1 NSP1 gene from locally-circulating G9P[8] strains and a novel G2P[8] reassortant possessing 7 EQL-G3-associated genes and 3 genes from a locally-circulating G2P[4] strain. Phylogenetic/genetic analyses of VP7 gene sequences revealed nine G3 lineages (I-IX) with newly-assigned lineage IX encompassing all reported human EQL-G3 strains along with the ancestral equine strain. VP1 and NSP2 gene phylogenies suggest that EQL-G3P[8] strains were introduced into the Dominican Republic from Thailand. The emergence of EQL-G3P[8] strains in the Dominican Republic and their reassortment with locally-circulating RVA could have implications for current vaccination strategies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/virología , Virus Reordenados/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , República Dominicana , Genoma Viral , Caballos , Humanos , Filogenia , Virus Reordenados/clasificación , Virus Reordenados/genética , Rotavirus/clasificación , Rotavirus/genética , Tailandia , Proteínas Virales/genética
14.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 100, 2019 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221096

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pattern and distribution of human rotavirus genotypes in young children in developing countries play an important role in epidemiological studies, as well as providing a strategy for the development of future rotavirus vaccine. METHODS: We evaluated stool samples from 349 children with acute gastroenteritis from Northern Iran (Gorgan city, Golestan province). Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) and Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) were utilized to determine the prevalence of human rotavirus in fecal samples. Moreover semi-multiplex RT-PCR technique was carried out in order to determine the P and G genotypes of human rotavirus in rotavirus-positive samples. RESULTS: A total of 46 rotavirus-positive samples were G and P genotyped. Whereas 28 (60.8%) fecal specimens contained only one rotavirus strain, 14 (30.4%) were mixed rotavirus infections and 4 (8.8%) was non-typeable. Overall, during the study, 57.82% of strains identified as genotype G1, G2 (18.70%), G3 (4.69%), G4 (3.13%), G8 (3.13%), G9 (6.26%) and non-typeable G (6.26%). From all these mentioned rotavirus strains, 46 were characterized as P [8] (97.80%) and P [4] (2.20%).Our analysis of the G and P genotyping of strains from all 46 rotavirus-infected children has revealed that 4/46(6.26%) of G type strains were non-typeable. The predominant single G/P combination was G1P [8] (57.82%), followed by, G2P [8] (16.98%), G2P [4] (1.72%), G3P [8] (4.69%), G4P [8] (3.13%) G8P [8] (3.13%), G9P [8] (6.26%) and four cases of non-typeable G (6.26%). Rotavirus was detected in 39 specimens (11.17%) by PAGE and in 38 specimens (10.88%) by LAT. Both tests were 100% specific; however, the LAT was 82.61% sensitive compared to the PAGE, which was 84.78% sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that to characterize rotavirus strains as well as design new effective vaccines for children with acute gastroenteritis, a large-scale study is needed in future.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/virología , Gastroenteritis/virología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Rotavirus/genética , Enfermedad Aguda , Preescolar , Diarrea/sangre , Diarrea/epidemiología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/sangre , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Infecciones por Rotavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 456, 2019 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117969

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major public health problem in Nepal. This study was conducted to obtain information associated with Rotavirus gastroenteritis and to perform genotyping of Rotavirus A. METHODS: Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from January to December 2017 among children less than 5 years of age attending Kanti Children's Hospital and Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Rotavirus A antigen detection was performed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using ProSpecT Rotavirus Microplate Assay. Rotavirus A positive strains were further confirmed by genotyping using Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: A total of 1074 stool samples were collected, of them 770 were hospitalized, and 304 were non-hospitalized cases. Rotavirus A infection was found in 28% of children with infection rate higher in hospitalized (34%) than in non-hospitalized (14%) children. Rotavirus A detection was higher in male (31%) than in female (24%), but this was statistically not significant (p > 0.05). Rotavirus A positivity was higher in children of age group 0-23 months, this result was statistically not significant (p > 0.05) with higher frequency found in the months of November, December, January, February and March (p < 0.05). On the basis of molecular analysis of Rotavirus A genotyping, G12P[6] (46.39%) was found to be the predominant followed by G1P[8] (35.05%), G3P[8] (7.21%) and G1P[6] (5.15%) while 4.12% was mixed infection and 1.03% was partially typed (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Rotavirus A infection occurred throughout the year, but the infection was significantly higher during the month of March. The higher frequency of rotavirus infection was observed among children of age group 0-23 months; however this was not found to be statistically significant. In this study, G12P[6] is predominant genotype observed. The results of genotyping are essential for the introduction of Rotavirus vaccine in Nepal.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/virología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Rotavirus/genética , Preescolar , Coinfección/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/virología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces/virología , Femenino , Genotipo , Hospitales Pediátricos/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Universitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiología , Rotavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología
16.
Virol J ; 16(1): 64, 2019 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092258

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) agent is one of the major causes of hospitalization in paediatric age. The G3P[8] RVA genotype has been usually considered as one of the major human genotypes, largely circulating in Asia, but showing low detection rates in the European countries. In recent years, the G3P[8] RVAs emerged also in Europe as a predominant genotype and the viral strains detected revealed high similarities with equine-like G3P[8] RVA strains, resulting in a new variant circulating in humans and able to cause AGE in the paediatric population. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old boy was admitted to the Emergency Room because he had suffered from severe diarrhoea, vomiting, and high fever over the previous two days. Severe dehydration was evident based on low serum concentrations of potassium and sodium, low glycaemia, and pre-renal failure (creatinine 2.48 mg/dL, urea 133 mg/dL). Immunological tests were within normal range. Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of RV was positive, and a sample of faeces was collected in order to perform the molecular characterization of the viral strain. The phylogenetic trees revealed relatedness between the VP7 and VP4 genes of the G3P[8] RVA Italian strain (namely PG2) and those belonging to recent G3P[8] RVAs detected worldwide. The G3 VP7 belonged to the G3-I lineage and shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity (99.8%) with the equine-like G3 previously identified in other countries. The P [8] VP4 revealed a similar clustering pattern to that observed for the VP7. In addition, the molecular characterization of the 11 gene segments of strain PG2 revealed a G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genomic constellation. CONCLUSIONS: This case shows the first detection in Italy of a reassortant G3P[8] RVA associated with a severe AGE, which is unusual in a school-age child without any known severe underlying problems. The findings reported in this paper highlight the importance of continuously monitoring the RVA strains circulating in paediatric age in order to detect novel viral variants able to spread in the general population.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/virología , Genotipo , Virus Reordenados/genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/genética , Niño , Diarrea/virología , Heces/virología , Gastroenteritis/diagnóstico , Gastroenteritis/terapia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Infusiones Intravenosas , Italia , Masculino , Virus Reordenados/aislamiento & purificación , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/terapia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(8): 2107-2117, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144039

RESUMEN

Species A rotavirus still remains a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Globally, six genotypes (G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8] and G12P[8]) account for >90% of circulating strains; however, genotype G12 in combination with P[6] or P[9] has been detected at increasing rates. We sought to broaden our knowledge about the rotavirus strains circulating during the early post-vaccine-introduction period. Stool samples were obtained from children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis in Belém, Northern Brazil, from May 2008 to May 2011 and examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. A total of 122 out of the original 1076 rotavirus strains were judged to be non-typeable in the first analysis and were therefore re-examined. G2P[4] was the most prevalent genotype (58.0%), followed by G1P[8] (16.9%), and G12P[6] (7.5%). G12P[6] strains were identified at similar rates during the first (2.5%) and second (3.9%) years, and the rate jumped to 15.6% in the third year. Analysis of VP7 sequences of the G12P[6] strains showed that they belonged to lineage III. In addition, co-circulating G12P[6] strains displaying long and short RNA patterns were found to belong to the Wa-like and DS-1-like constellation, respectively. Additional unusual circulating strains G12P[9] and G3P[9] were also identified. This hospital-based study showed a high prevalence of G12P[6] strains in the third year of surveillance. Our results highlight the need for continuous longitudinal monitoring of circulating rotavirus strains after introduction of rotavirus vaccines in Brazil and elsewhere.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/virología , Rotavirus/genética , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Brasil , Niño , Niño Hospitalizado , Gastroenteritis/inmunología , Genotipo , Humanos , Epidemiología Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Prevalencia , ARN Viral/genética , Rotavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/inmunología , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21619-21628, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129895

RESUMEN

Fresh produce irrigated with surface water that may contain pathogens such as enteric viruses can lead to outbreaks of foodborne viral illnesses. In the current study, we performed real-time PCR (qPCR) to monitor the presence of enteric viruses such as human adenoviruses (HAdVs), hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotavirus group A (RVA), and norovirus GI (NoV GI) in surface water and fresh produce that were grown using this surface water in Egypt. Samples were collected on four occasions from different sites located in the Delta and in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Of the 32 water samples and 128 fresh produce samples, 27/32 (84.3%) and 99/128 (77.3%), respectively, were positive for at least one virus. HAdV (30/32) with a mean viral load = 1.5 × 107 genome copies/L (GC/L) was the most commonly detected virus in water, followed by RVA (16/32, with a mean viral load = 2.7 × 105 GC/L), HAV (11/32, with a mean viral load = 1.2 × 104 GC /L), and NoV GI (10/32, with a mean viral load = 3.5 × 103 GC/L). Additionally, HAdV (71/128, with a mean viral load = 9.8 × 105 GC/g) was also the most commonly detected virus in the fresh produce, followed by NoV GI (43/128, with a mean viral load = 4.5 × 103 GC/g), HAV (33/128, with a mean viral load = 6.4 × 103 GC/g), and RVA (25/128, with a mean viral load = 1.5 × 104 GC/g). Our results indicate that fresh produce may be contaminated with a wide range of enteric viruses, and these viruses may originate from virus-contaminated irrigation water. Moreover, this fresh produce may serve as a potential vector for the transmission of viral foodborne illnesses. These findings are important for future risk assessment analysis related to water/foodborne viruses. Graphical abstract . Please provide caption for Graphical AbstractGraphical abstract showing sample collection and processing.


Asunto(s)
Adenovirus Humanos/genética , Riego Agrícola , Enterovirus/genética , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Dulce/virología , Contaminación del Agua , Brotes de Enfermedades , Egipto , Virus de la Hepatitis A , Humanos , Norovirus , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Rotavirus/genética , Carga Viral , Agua
19.
Arch Virol ; 164(7): 1781-1791, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079214

RESUMEN

Introduction of animal group A rotavirus (RVA) gene segments into the human RVA population is a major factor shaping the genetic landscape of human RVA strains. The VP6 and NSP4 genes of 74 G/P-genotyped RVA isolates collected in Rawalpindi during 2010 were analyzed, revealing the presence of VP6 genotypes I1 (60.8%) and I2 (39.2%) and NSP4 genotypes E1 (60.8%), E2 (28.3%) and E-untypable (10.8%) among the circulating human RVA strains. The typical human RVA combinations I1E1 and I2E2 were found in 59.4% and 24.3% of the cases, respectively, whereas 5.4% of the RVA strains were reassortants, i.e., either I1E2 or I2E1. The phylogeny of the NSP4 gene showed that one G2P[4] and two G1P[6] RVA strains clustered with porcine E1 RVA strains or RVA strains that were considered to be (partially) of porcine origin. In addition, the NSP4 gene segment of the unusual human G6P[1] RVA strains clustered closely with bovine E2 RVA strains, further strengthening the hypothesis of an interspecies transmission event. The study further demonstrates the role of genomic re-assortment and the involvement of interspecies transmission in the evolution of human RVA strains. The VP6 and NSP4 nucleotide sequences analyzed in the study received the GenBank accession numbers KC846908- KC846971 and KC846972-KC847037, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/genética , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/transmisión , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Toxinas Biológicas/genética , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Bovinos , Preescolar , Gastroenteritis/virología , Genoma Viral/genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Pakistán , Filogenia , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Alineación de Secuencia , Porcinos , Zoonosis/virología
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1718-1726, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002476

RESUMEN

Interspecies transmission is an important mechanism of evolution and contributes to rotavirus A (RVA) diversity. In order to evaluate the detection frequency, genetic diversity, epidemiological characteristics and zoonotic potential of RVA strains in faecal specimens from humans and animals cohabiting in the same environment in the department of Cusco, Peru, by molecular analysis, 265 faecal specimens were obtained from alpacas, llamas, sheep and shepherd children, and tested for RVA by RT-PCR. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR and sequence analysis. Rotavirus A was detected in 20.3% of alpaca, 47.5% of llama, 100% of sheep and 33.3% of human samples. The most common genetic constellations were G3-P[40]-I8-E3-H6 in alpacas, G1/G3-P[8]-I1-E1-H1 in llamas, G1/G3/G35-P[1]/P[8]-I1-E1-H1 in sheep and G3-P[40]-I1/I8-E3-H1 in humans. The newly described genotypes P[40] and P[50] were identified in all host species, including humans. Genotyping showed that the majority of samples presented coinfection with two or more RVA strains. These data demonstrate the great genetic diversity of RVA in animals and humans in Cusco, Peru. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the strains represent zoonotic transmission among the species studied. Due to the characteristics of the human and animal populations in this study (cohabitation of different host species in conditions of poor sanitation and hygiene), the occurrence of zoonoses is a real possibility.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Rotavirus/veterinaria , Rotavirus/genética , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , Perú , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Zoonosis/virología
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