Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.687
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110485, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421551

RESUMEN

Across the world, the flood magnitude is expected to increase as well as the damage caused by their occurrence. In this case, the prediction of areas which are highly susceptible to these phenomena becomes very important for the authorities. The present study is focused on the evaluation of flood potential within Trotuș river basin in Romania using six ensemble models created by the combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Certainty Factor (CF) and Weights of Evidence (WOE) on one hand, and Gradient Boosting Trees (GBT) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) on the other hand. A number of 12 flood predictors, 172 flood locations and 172 non-flood locations were used. A percentage of 70% of flood and non-flood locations were used as input in models. From the input data, 70% were used as training sample and 30% as validating sample. The highest accuracy was obtained by the MLP-CF model in terms of both training (0.899) and testing (0.889) samples. A percentage between 21.88% and 36.33% of study area is covered with high and very high flood potential. The results validation, performed through the ROC Curve method, highlights that the MLP-CF model provided the most accurate results.


Asunto(s)
Inundaciones , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Algoritmos , Curva ROC , Rumanía
2.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(1): 13-17, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228811

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated smoking habits among foster care home children and employees, who are at high risk for smoking. Additionally, there are no published studies on the intention to quit smoking among employees of the Romanian Child Protection system, a gap we address in this manuscript. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted among foster care employees in three Transylvanian counties (Mures, Sibiu, Covasna) in January 2014 to February 2015 (baseline) and September-December 2016 (follow-up). A foster home-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention targeting employees and children was conducted between the two waves. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine associations between socio-demographics, reasons for smoking, tobacco use patterns, reasons for quitting, and tobacco policy attitudes on intention to quit (dependent variable), controlling for participation in the smoking prevention intervention. RESULTS: 305 employees participated in the baseline (76.4% of females, 23.6% of males) and 304 employees in the follow-up surveys (68.8% of females, 31.2% of males) after the smoking prevention and cessation intervention. At baseline, 34.8% of respondents reported that no one was smoking within the foster care home, which increased to 59.1% at follow-up (p < 0.001). Being male and a high level of professional satisfaction were the only correlates of intention to quit in the bivariate models at baseline. Professional satisfaction and a belief that smoking is bad for one's health were the only correlates of intention to quit at follow-up. In multivariable models, professional satisfaction was the only consistent predictor of intention to quit at both time points (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.71-18.56; OR 4.98, 95% CI 1.43-17.30). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be made to promote cessation among foster care employees that includes evidence-based support, along with compliance to policies that prohibit smoking indoors to reinforce cessation efforts.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Protección Infantil/organización & administración , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Rumanía/epidemiología
3.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110324, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250805

RESUMEN

We present a case of environmental transformation, in the Romanian Danube Delta, driven by the interplay of state power, technological intervention, geomorphological processes, and local practices. Through the presentation of a cartographic archive (1856-2017), together with participant observation and historical research, we detail the various stages of transformation in the deltaic environment and show the relative interplay of driving forces. We show that each transformation of the Delta is at the same time an imposition from without and an adaptation from within, a move of consolidation of state power and a resistance to being fully incorporated. We show how in the history of this particular environment, the main drivers of change pass from being of a geomorphological nature to being related to the use of state power. We detail three stages in the transformation of the delta, through which the conceptualization of, and interventions in, the environment, go from a borderland to be secured, to a rich exploitation ground, to an ecological marvel to be protected. We argue that this kind of analysis can be particularly relevant for the governance of protected areas.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecología , Ambiente , Humanos , Política , Rumanía
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 206, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124087

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, hepatitis E virus (HEV), and bovine enterovirus (BEV) in fecal and water samples. The occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. was investigated in treated wastewater samples collected from slaughterhouse of Tunisia. Results showed that Staphylococcus spp. were detected in the totality of collected samples with an average mean of 5.44 Log10 (CFU/100 ml). Regarding fecal indicator bacteria, E. coli was detected in the totality of water samples and was more abundant in Tunisian samples than in samples collected from Romania (P < 0.05). Concerning somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages used as viral indicators, they were detected in all raw and treated wastewaters. Bovine enterovirus (BEV) was detected in 20.1% and 28% of bovine stool samples collected from Tunisia and Romania, respectively. BEV was also detected in 60% of porcine stool samples from Romania. BEV was absent in all treated sewage samples. HEV was detected in raw sewage and bovine fecal sample from Romania with low occurrence and none sample from Tunisia was positive. This study may give us an insight into the monitoring of water quality in Tunisia and Romania.


Asunto(s)
Ganado , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Staphylococcus , Microbiología del Agua , Animales , Bovinos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Escherichia coli , Heces , Ríos , Rumanía , Staphylococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Porcinos , Túnez
6.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(1): 69-79, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155401

RESUMEN

Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most frequent skin cancers with a continuous increasing incidence and a cause of economic impact. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is known as the gold-standard of treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer. Methods: The files of the patients treated with MMS were analysed during a 6 year period (2014-2019) and demographic information was extracted in addition to the information on tumor histology, localization of tumors, number of stages required for a complete removal of the tumors, and the evolution of the patients. We also analysed the information regarding the number and type of reconstructions performed. Results: Over the course of 6 years, 1,356 cutaneous tumors were treated in our clinic by means of MMS. BCC represented 80.5%, SCC 17.6%, and other tumors such as melanoma in situ, DFSP, Extramammary Paget's Disease - being 1.9% of the number of other treated tumors. During the period under review, only 4 cases of post-Mohs Micrographic Surgery recurrence have been recorded, with a cure rate of over 99.7%. Conclusions: Mohs micrographic surgery is an efficient treatment method in removing cutaneous carcinoma as well as tumors with special indications with a low recurrence rate therefore reducing the need of successive surgical interventions.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía de Mohs , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/cirugía , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Humanos , Cirugía de Mohs/métodos , Rumanía , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Br J Nurs ; 29(6): 376-377, 2020 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207649

RESUMEN

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, reflects on new research which illuminates the impact of sensory deprivation in early childhood.


Asunto(s)
Niño Abandonado/psicología , Orfanatos/normas , Privación Sensorial , Adolescente , Niño , Niño Abandonado/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Rumanía/epidemiología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Adulto Joven
9.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(1): 69-82, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098526

RESUMEN

In this study, three chemometric models for vegetables growing system (field versus greenhouse), geographical origin and species attribution using stable isotope (δ13C, δ18O, δ2H) and elemental fingerprints of 101 samples (54 squashes and 47 radishes) commercialized on Romanian market were developed. These models were constructed and validated through linear discriminant analysis. Initial validations of 94.4% and 83% were obtained for squash and radish growing systems, respectively, such that one squash and four radish samples declared to be grown in the field were attributed to the greenhouse group. For this purpose, the most powerful differentiation markers appeared to be Sn and δ13C for radishes, and Sn, Cu for squashes. Regarding the vegetable origin, four samples, initially considered to originate from Romania (95% for initial classification) were attributed to the foreign group in the cross-validation procedure (93.1%). Romanian radishes and squashes were characterized by a higher content of Na and Cu, respectively, compared with foreign samples, while the mean values for Zn, Sr, Zr and Co concentrations were found to be higher for the vegetables from abroad.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Isótopos/análisis , Minerales/análisis , Verduras/química , Análisis Discriminante , Geografía , Espectrometría de Masas , Rumanía , Verduras/crecimiento & desarrollo
10.
Community Dent Health ; 37(1): 45-50, 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031343

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the fit between of the Romanian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and Locker's conceptual model of oral health. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional interview study. CLINICAL SETTING: Convenience sample of hospitalized internal medicine patients, in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. PARTICIPANTS: 340 participants (40% male), divided in two samples, sample N1 = 165 to analyse the theoretical model, and a cross-validation sample, N2 = 175. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Path-analysis was used to assess the fit between the conceptual model proposed by Locker, and the data. RESULTS: Initial results showed an unsatisfactory fit to the data: χ² = 43.8 (df = 5, p = 0.001), χ² was found to be significant; GFI = 0.932, CFI = 0.948, TLI = 0.782, these indices presented values lower than 0.95, while SRMR = 0.053 and RMSEA = 0.22 (90% CI 0.16 - 0.28) were situated above the accepted threshold. Evaluation of the residual matrix and the modification indices lead to the respecification of the first model, obtaining an better fit of the second model: χ² = 17.63 (df = 9, p = 0.04), while GFI = 0.972, CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.973, were above the threshold and SRMR = 0.036 and RMSEA = 0.07 (90% CI 0.02 - 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicates that OHIP-49 represents an acceptable operationalization of the Oral Health related Quality of Life, as it was conceptualized by Locker's theoretical model.


Asunto(s)
Salud Bucal , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Rumanía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Bull Cancer ; 107(3): 322-327, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061377

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer screening is considered one of the most significant public health interventions that can reduce not only the incidence, but also the mortality of the disease. One of the most important factors for screening effectiveness is coverage defined as the number of women tested within a recommended interval. In the first years of the cervical screening, the participation rate in National Screening Program in Romania was 14.2% with slight difference in different region of the country. In the northeastern part of the country, in the first four years of the program, the rate was 16.9% with an alarmingly continuous decrease. Thus, increasing the rate of uptake of cervical screening is essential. The policy-makers should take new measures to increase women's participation in this screening program. The objective of this paper was to review situation of the screening program and to identify gaps and needs in the system and to bring or suggest solution.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Participación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/tendencias , Femenino , Educación en Salud/métodos , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo/tendencias , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Participación del Paciente/tendencias , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Rumanía/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología
12.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(1_suppl): 3-22, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928165

RESUMEN

This article focuses on quantitative prevention of municipal solid waste among the 28 member countries of the European Union. A strict definition of waste prevention is used, including waste avoidance, waste reduction at source or in process, and product reuse, while recycling is outside the scope of this article. In order to provide a solid overview of the European situation, the study selected six countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and Spain). Several selection requirements have been considered, such as geographic location or municipal solid waste per capita production trends from 1995 to 2017. A review of prevention programmes and other national strategic documents has been conducted. Extended producer responsibility, Pay-As-You-Throw schemes, Deposit-Refund Systems and Environmental Taxes implementation among the selected countries have been studied in order to understand how these market-based instruments can be used for the sake of waste prevention. Each market-based instrument has been further analysed using the Drivers Pressures State Impact Response model. Based on the results of this study, the effectiveness of market-based instruments implementation is strictly related to the context they are enforced in. It is particularly important to tailor the market-based instruments based on the implementation area. Nevertheless, market-based instruments, which are now mostly meant to boost the recycling sector of the considered Member States, should be designed to improve waste prevention performances, ensuring the achievement of the highest level of waste hierarchy promoted by the European Union.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Bélgica , Bulgaria , Unión Europea , Italia , Países Bajos , Reciclaje , Rumanía , Residuos Sólidos , España
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 641-649, 2020 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907309

RESUMEN

Early childhood deprivation is associated with higher rates of neurodevelopmental and mental disorders in adulthood. The impact of childhood deprivation on the adult brain and the extent to which structural changes underpin these effects are currently unknown. To investigate these questions, we utilized MRI data collected from young adults who were exposed to severe deprivation in early childhood in the Romanian orphanages of the Ceaușescu era and then, subsequently adopted by UK families; 67 Romanian adoptees (with between 3 and 41 mo of deprivation) were compared with 21 nondeprived UK adoptees. Romanian adoptees had substantially smaller total brain volumes (TBVs) than nondeprived adoptees (8.6% reduction), and TBV was strongly negatively associated with deprivation duration. This effect persisted after covarying for potential environmental and genetic confounds. In whole-brain analyses, deprived adoptees showed lower right inferior frontal surface area and volume but greater right inferior temporal lobe thickness, surface area, and volume than the nondeprived adoptees. Right medial prefrontal volume and surface area were positively associated with deprivation duration. No deprivation-related effects were observed in limbic regions. Global reductions in TBV statistically mediated the observed relationship between institutionalization and both lower intelligence quotient (IQ) and higher levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The deprivation-related increase in right inferior temporal volume seemed to be compensatory, as it was associated with lower levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. We provide compelling evidence that time-limited severe deprivation in the first years of life is related to alterations in adult brain structure, despite extended enrichment in adoptive homes in the intervening years.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/patología , Encéfalo/patología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Carencia Psicosocial , Adopción , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/etiología , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Inteligencia , Pruebas de Inteligencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Orfanatos , Estudios Prospectivos , Rumanía , Factores de Tiempo , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228079, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999747

RESUMEN

We report on the genomic characterization of 47 multi-drug resistant, carbapenem resistant and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from the influent (I) and effluent (E) of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and from Romanian hospital units which are discharging the wastewater in the sampled WWTPs. The K. pneumoniae whole genome sequences were analyzed for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), virulence genes and sequence types (STs) in order to compare their distribution in C, I and E samples. Both clinical and environmental samples harbored prevalent and widely distributed ESBL genes, i.e. blaSHV, blaOXA, blaTEM and blaCTX M. The most prevalent carbapenemase genes were blaNDM-1, blaOXA-48 and blaKPC-2. They were found in all types of isolates, while blaOXA-162, a rare blaOXA-48 variant, was found exclusively in water samples. A higher diversity of carbapenemases genes was seen in wastewater isolates. The aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME) genes found in all types of samples were aac(6'), ant(2'')Ia, aph(3'), aaD, aac(3) and aph(6). Quinolone resistance gene qnrS1 and the multi-drug resistance oqxA/B pump gene were found in all samples, while qnrD and qnrB were associated to aquatic isolates. The antiseptics resistance gene qacEdelta1 was found in all samples, while qacE was detected exclusively in the clinical ones. Trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole (dfrA, sul1 and sul2), tetracyclines (tetA and tetD) and fosfomycin (fosA6, known to be located on a transpozon) resistance genes were found in all samples, while for choramphenicol and macrolides some ARGs were detected in all samples (catA1 and catB3 / mphA), while other (catA2, cmIA5 and aac(6')Ib / mphE and msrE) only in wastewater samples. The rifampin resistance genes arr2 and 3 (both carried by class I integrons) were detected only in water samples. The highly prevalent ARGs preferentially associating with aquatic versus clinical samples could ascribe potential markers for the aquatic (blaSHV-145, qacEdelta1, sul1, aadA1, aadA2) and clinical (blaOXA-1, blaSHV-106,blaTEM-150, aac(3)Iia, dfrA14, oqxA10; oqxB17,catB3, tetD) reservoirs of AR. Moreover, some ARGs (oqxA10; blaSHV-145; blaSHV-100, aac(6')Il, aph(3')VI, armA, arr2, cmlA5, blaCMY-4, mphE, msrE, oqxB13, blaOXA-10) showing decreased prevalence in influent versus effluent wastewater samples could be used as markers for the efficiency of the WWTPs in eliminating AR bacteria and ARGs. The highest number of virulence genes (75) was recorded for the I samples, while for E and C samples it was reduced to half. The most prevalent belong to three functional groups: adherence (fim genes), iron acquisition (ent, fep, fyu, irp and ybt genes) and the secretion system (omp genes). However, none of the genes associated with hypervirulent K. pneumoniae have been found. A total of 14 STs were identified. The most prevalent clones were ST101, ST219 in clinical samples and ST258, ST395 in aquatic isolates. These STs were also the most frequently associated with integrons. ST45 and ST485 were exclusively associated with I samples, ST11, ST35, ST364 with E and ST1564 with C samples. The less frequent ST17 and ST307 aquatic isolates harbored blaOXA-162, which was co-expressed in our strains with blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-1.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Hospitales , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Aguas Residuales/microbiología , Purificación del Agua , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Integrones/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/clasificación , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidad , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Quinolonas/farmacología , Rumanía , Virulencia/genética , beta-Lactamas/metabolismo
15.
J Environ Manage ; 256: 109984, 2020 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989969

RESUMEN

Environmental action plans are important instruments intended to provide sustainable solutions for the most pressing environmental issues. As they should be updated regularly, efforts to evaluate their quality are essential for enabling incremental improvements in upcoming versions. The aim of our study was to systematically evaluate the quality of Romania's Local Environmental Action Plans (LEAPs) by following a theoretical framework that includes principles from both rational and communicative approaches to assessing plan quality. We selected 32 LEAPs and applied an evaluation protocol that enabled a comprehensive assessment of the plans. Our results showed an overall moderate quality of the LEAPs. Although most plans identify many environmental problems in need of solutions, in reality additional urgent environmental problems often exist. Furthermore, LEAPs perform only moderately in identifying tools for implementation provisions and ensuring the participation of the public in the planning process, and they are even weaker in establishing goals and achieving coordination across different governmental levels. Overall the assessment reveals that plans are rarely able to craft an appealing policy message. Our findings could be used as guidance for LEAP coordinating agencies to improve the plans in the upcoming updating processes, as they identify plan weaknesses and suggest ways to achieve high quality environmental plans. Furthermore, our novel plan assessment method based on rational comprehensive and communicative approaches to plan quality evaluation can be adapted easily to other studies.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Rumanía
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 346-351, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592761

RESUMEN

A new aerobic betaproteobacterium, strain SA-152T, was isolated from the water of a crater lake. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain SA-152T belonged to the family Oxalobacteraceae (order Burkholderiales) and was phylogenetically related to Solimicrobium silvestre S20-91T with 97.09 % and to Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans ULPAs1T with 96.00 % 16S rRNA gene pairwise sequence similarity. Cells of strain SA-152T were rod-shaped, non-motile, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Its fatty acid profile was dominated by two fatty acids, C16 : 1 ω7c and C16 : 0, the major respiratory quinones were Q-8 and Q-7, and the main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain SA-152T was 48.3 mol%. The new bacterium can be distinguished from closely related genera Solimicrobium, Herminiimonas, Rugamonas and Undibacterium based on its non-motile and oxidase-negative cells. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic data, strain SA-152T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Sapientia aquatica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Sapientia aquatica is SA-152T (=DSM 29805T=NCAIM B.02613T).


Asunto(s)
Lagos/microbiología , Oxalobacteraceae/clasificación , Filogenia , Microbiología del Agua , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Oxalobacteraceae/aislamiento & purificación , Fosfolípidos/química , Quinonas/química , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Rumanía , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
17.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 79-87, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574582

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The introduction of innovative nanotechnologies in medicine and dentistry may initiate a need for curriculum revision at the universities. The aim of this study was to assess dental students' knowledge and attitudes related to nanotechnology. Covariates of students' intention to use nanomaterials in their future dental practice were evaluated using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). METHODS: Dental students at Norwegian and Romanian Universities were invited to participate. A self-administered structured questionnaire including socio-demographics and Ajzen's TPB components was used. FINDINGS: A total of 212 out of 732 dental students participated in the survey: 52 Norwegian and 160 Romanian. Most students reported to have little knowledge about nanotechnology (Norwegians = 44.2% vs Romanians = 46.9%, P < .05). More than 90% of the students in both countries reported that they wanted to get more information about nanotechnology. Mean knowledge score was similar for Norwegian and Romanian students (4.4 ± 1.7 vs 4.2 ± 1.4, P > .05). Romanian students had more positive attitude, stronger subjective norms and stronger perceived behavioural control towards nanotechnology compared to their Norwegian counterparts. Intention to use nanomaterials in the total sample was most strongly influenced by attitude towards the use of dental nanomaterials (beta = 0.42, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Dental students in Norway and Romania demonstrated limited knowledge about nanotechnology. Intention to use nanomaterials was primarily influenced by attitudes. A clear desire for more information about the application of nanotechnology in dentistry was expressed by the respondents indicating a need for curriculum modification.


Asunto(s)
Intención , Estudiantes de Odontología , Estudios Transversales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Nanotecnología , Noruega , Rumanía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Food Chem ; 310: 125801, 2020 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711813

RESUMEN

The influence on aroma compounds chips or staves and toasting degree have been analyzed in red wines aged for two periods of time. Ethyl propanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, E-2-hexenol, octanal, nonanal, decanal, γ-nonalactone, furfural, 5-methylfurfural, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and cis-whiskey lactone were the compounds that contribute the most to the aroma series profile. By means of principal components analysis, esters were related to the aging time; cis-whiskey lactone with the type of wood pieces and octanal, 5-methyl furfural and cis-whiskey lactone with the toasting degree. Star plot show that woody aroma compounds are dominant in wines aged with low toasting degree oak pieces, whereas medium plus toasted pieces increased the concentration of aroma compounds with fruity aroma descriptors. Wines with prominent fruity or woody aromas can be obtained depending upon the degree of toasting of wood pieces used for aging.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Vino/análisis , Madera , Análisis de los Alimentos , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/instrumentación , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Furaldehído/análogos & derivados , Furaldehído/análisis , Guayacol/análogos & derivados , Guayacol/análisis , Lactonas/análisis , Odorantes/análisis , Rumanía , Factores de Tiempo , Compuestos de Vinilo/análisis , Madera/química
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 133761, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493576

RESUMEN

In Romania, natural Norway spruce forests are spread across upper mountain slopes (1300-1800 m). They perform multiple functions, being especially recognised for their economic value. However, where planted forests extend beyond the spruce's naturally occurring areas, they are frequently exposed to deleterious environmental factors. In Romania, forest planning is based on typological studies that were carried out between 1950 and 1970, and the regulations are applied in a somewhat flexible manner. In the context of the potential threats from climate change that could amplify induced destabilising phenomena, the risks to which these forests are becoming exposed can only be mediated through flexible management and the permanent adaptation of forest planning. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for adapting forest management plan guidelines, with a view to improving ecosystem stability. A Norway spruce forest was chosen from the south-eastern Carpathians, which is included in the Natura 2000 Fagaras Mountains site. The models on which we based our current stand compositions resulted from long-term monitoring and analysis of species and stand structures. Stand structure - and forest structure, in general - is key to the continuous existence of stand functions and ecosystem services. Through design decisions, we promote biodiversity and the natural, better adapted, regeneration of local provenances. We highlight the rationale behind forest management planning and its regulations, with respect to the sustainable management of Norway spruce forests, which are vulnerable to potential changes in their structure as a result of climate change. Based on our findings, we propose the adaptation of measures used in forest management planning for Norway spruce forests to include protective functions that can be applied to all man-made Norway spruce forests introduced in former beech forest regions, and mixed coniferous/beech forests, that are vulnerable to changing environmental factors.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Bosques , Picea , Noruega , Rumanía
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134129, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499344

RESUMEN

Forest health status is negatively influenced by climate change, air pollution and other disturbances. Extreme droughts reduce stand productivity, increase vulnerability to pests, and can even provoke mortality. Growth dynamics at tree and forest stand levels are considered the main indicators of stability and productivity in forest ecosystem structures. The main climate drivers for tree growth were identified using basal area increment (BAI) as a synthetic indicator. BAI chronologies were obtained from increment cores for 1960-2012 period. Six species were analysed in an attempt to identify their growth limiting factors. For the most important oak species in Romania, resilience components were computed in order to analyse their response to drought events. Moreover, growth dynamics were analysed for two species in mixed and monoculture forests. The results suggest that - in comparison to Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica, the sensitivity of Quercus spp. is much higher (0.3-0.47). Oakspecies situated in the most drought-affected areas are sensitive to rainfall values from the previous autumn, current spring, and early summer, with April monthly values having the most significant effect on BAI increment (r = 0.47*) The most sensitive species to drought is Q. cerris and Q. frainetto. Their BAI reduction during drought is >50% compared with the BAI values before the drought period. The recovery capacity of tree growth following drought events is lower for Q. robur and Q. petraea and higher for Q. cerris and Q. frainetto. The mixed forest stands have not showed a constant higher resistance to drought.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agricultura Forestal , Bosques , Árboles , Sequías , Ecosistema , Fagus , Quercus , Rumanía , Estaciones del Año
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA