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2.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 37(2): 319-359, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822549

RESUMEN

Hypochondriac or phobic reactions to venereal disease, specifically syphilis, have invited over three centuries of medical reification and nosological reframing. This bibliographic overview establishes that the early specification and psychiatricization of early modern concepts of melancholy and hypochondriasis, imaginary syphilis or syphilophobia, animated the early respective territorializations of venereology, infectiology more broadly, neurology, and mental medicine. Together with mercuriophobia and a wider emergent clinical sensitivity to sexual angst, the diagnosis, while evidently only sporadically made, functioned as a durable soundboard in the confrontation of emergent medical rationale with various confounders and contenders: medically literate and increasingly mobile but possibly deluded patients; charlatans and putative malpractitioners; self-referral laboratory serology (after 1906); and eventually, through psychoanalysis, the patient's unconscious. Requiring medical psychology early on, syphilology became and remained self-conscious and circumspect, attentive to the casualties of overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and iatrogenesis. Finally, patient apprehension led to makeshift forms of "moral treatment," including fear-instilling and placebos.


Asunto(s)
Hipocondriasis/historia , Trastornos Fóbicos/historia , Sífilis/historia , Historiografía , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Trastornos Fóbicos/terapia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/historia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/psicología , Sífilis/psicología
3.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 55(3): 361-377, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762856

RESUMEN

Despite the near-eradication of syphilis in the United States in the late 1990s, new infections have surged over the past 20 years. Dubbed, "the great imitator," syphilis infections often can be misdiagnosed and resultantly untreated. This leads to people inadvertently infecting others. This article reviews the history of syphilis, including the unethical studies undertaken in the past; current epidemiology; treatment guidelines; and strategies to reduce new infections.


Asunto(s)
Guías como Asunto/normas , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiología , Sífilis/historia , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermeras Practicantes , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(supl.1): 15-22, ago. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-195284

RESUMEN

This article presents a review of the history of dermatology through the visual teaching aids employed, including both two-dimensional illustrations in texts such as the dermatological atlases, and three-dimensional representations through moulages. We will examine the Olavide Museum and its contextualisation within 19th century dermatology, concluding with an analysis of a pathology within the institution’s systems of representation. The guiding thread throughout this study will be the emotion of disgust in relation to disease. We aim to show how disgust does not invariably respond to an atavistic mechanism but rather can be influenced by our knowledge, our methods of observation and our ability to "transform" reality


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Enfermedades de la Piel/historia , Dermatología/historia , Museos/historia , Sífilis/historia , España
5.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 163-177, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965866

RESUMEN

The history of modern psychiatry in China began at the end of the nineteenth century, as a result of the work of missionaries. Soochow was one of the first cities to establish a hospital for the treatment of mental patients, but historians knew little about it. It provided a valuable service from 1898 to 1937. In the 1930s, there were 200 beds in the psychiatry and neurology section, making it the most influential psychiatric hospital in East China. After Soochow was occupied by the Japanese army in 1937, the hospital was destroyed and shut down.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Misioneros/historia , Psiquiatría/historia , China , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Servicio de Psiquiatría en Hospital/historia , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/historia , Estados Unidos
6.
Med Hist ; 64(1): 116-141, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933505

RESUMEN

In early twentieth-century France, syphilis and its controversial status as a hereditary disease reigned as a chief concern for physicians and public health officials. As syphilis primarily presented visually on the surface of the skin, its study fell within the realms of both dermatologists and venereologists, who relied heavily on visual evidence in their detection, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Thus, in educational textbooks, atlases, and medical models, accurately reproducing the visible signposts of syphilis - the colour, texture, and patterns of primary chancres or secondary rashes - was of preeminent importance. Photography, with its potential claims to mechanical objectivity, would seem to provide the logical tool for such representations. Yet photography's relationship to syphilographie warrants further unpacking. Despite the rise of a desire for mechanical objectivity charted in the late nineteenth century, artist-produced, three-dimensional, wax-cast moulages coexisted with photographs as significant educational tools for dermatologists; at times, these models were further mediated through photographic reproduction in texts. Additionally, the rise of phototherapy complicated this relationship by fostering the clinical equation of the light-sensitive photographic plate with the patient's skin, which became the photographic record of disease and successful treatment. This paper explores these complexities to delineate a more nuanced understanding of objectivity vis-à-vis photography and syphilis. Rather than a desire to produce an unbiased image, fin-de-siècle dermatologists marshalled the photographic to exploit the verbal and visual rhetoric of objectivity, authority, and persuasion inextricably linked to culturally constructed understandings of the photograph. This rhetoric was often couched in the Peircean concept of indexicality, which physicians formulated through the language of witness, testimony, and direct connection.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía Artística/historia , Ilustración Médica/historia , Modelos Anatómicos , Fotograbar/historia , Sífilis/historia , Atlas como Asunto/historia , Distinciones y Premios , Dermatología/educación , Dermatología/historia , Francia , Historiografía , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Sífilis/patología , Sífilis Congénita/historia , Venereología/educación , Venereología/historia
7.
Urologe A ; 59(6): 713-717, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494684

RESUMEN

Syphilis is not a deadly disease anymore, thanks to antibiotics. But before their discovery, Paul Ehrlich presented the drug Salvarsan. Its efficacy was doubted and there were many disputes about it. The Berlin physician Heinrich Dreuw had been the most influential opponent-contemporaries and historians described him as being an antisemitic quack, but maybe they were wrong.


Asunto(s)
Antitreponémicos/historia , Arsfenamina/historia , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Antitreponémicos/uso terapéutico , Arsfenamina/uso terapéutico , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos , Sífilis/historia
9.
Gesundheitswesen ; 81(12): 1091-1100, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816646

RESUMEN

The essay "The issue of syphilis in Berlin. A contribution to public health in Berlin" highlights the importance of Salomon Neumann as an initiator of social medicine and a promoter of the communal medical statistics in the middle of the 19th century. Being a physician-member of the Berlin Health Care association and a doctor for the poor, he provides a sociomedical report on the interaction between syphilis as a disease and society with its regulatory measures (vice squad, public administration) and the deficient hospital and ambulatory care structures for the poor in Berlin in the middle of the 19th century, both with a prospective orientation.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Social , Sífilis , Berlin , Femenino , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Medicina Social/historia , Sífilis/historia
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(11): 2154-2156, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625857

RESUMEN

We estimated the availability of the injectable antimicrobial drugs recommended for point-of-care treatment of gonorrhea and syphilis among US physicians who evaluated patients with sexually transmitted infections in 2016. Most physicians did not have these drugs available on-site. Further research is needed to determine the reasons for the unavailability of these drugs.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/administración & dosificación , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiología , Gonorrea/historia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/historia , Sífilis/historia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
Med Hist ; 63(4): 494-511, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571698

RESUMEN

This article considers the social function of contagious disease as moderator of class relationships in England during the first half of the eighteenth century and takes into account the ways in which the 'communicability' of the plague, great pox (syphilis) and smallpox (variola) was used by authors to crystallise social interaction and tension along class lines. The essay begins by examining the representation of the plague, syphilis and smallpox in the medical tradition, before shifting its attention to the practice of maritime quarantine, as laid out by Richard Mead in his Short Discourse Concerning Pestilential Contagion (1720). By foregrounding medical writing on contagion through skin contact, I suggest that pornographic texts such as John Cleland's The Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure (Fanny Hill) (1748) had an interventionist function. Cleland is often charged with sanitising the true horrors of sex work in this period. This article proposes that if we take the time to appreciate the way infectious cutaneous diseases were believed to operate and spread we can recognise the moments in which he not only alludes to disease but invokes it for structural and thematic purposes. In proposing this, I am challenging the dominant interpretation that the problematic realities of eighteenth-century prostitution, especially disease, are subordinated to the narrative's greater interest in erotic pleasure.


Asunto(s)
Literatura Moderna/historia , Medicina en la Literatura/historia , Peste/historia , Cuarentena/historia , Trabajo Sexual/historia , Viruela/historia , Sífilis/historia , Distinciones y Premios , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/historia , Historiografía , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Londres , Peste/transmisión , Navíos/historia , Viruela/transmisión , Sífilis/transmisión , Libros de Texto como Asunto/historia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223377, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581277

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to assess the HIV/syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) aged <50 years and ≥50 years in Shenzhen, and explore the associated factors of HIV/syphilis co-infections among MSM in Shenzhen, in order to help prevention and intervention programs determine their target sub-group. A serial cross-sectional study was conducted on MSM in Shenzhen city, China from 2009 to 2017. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, history of HIV testing, history of blood donation and sexual behaviors. 5 ml of venous blood were collected for syphilis and HIV tests. The overall prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HIV/syphilis co-infection was 9.40%, 18.97%, and 4.91%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV (15.26%), syphilis (27.71%), HIV/syphilis co-infection (9.24%) in aged ≥50 years MSM was significantly higher than aged <50 years MSM (9.15%, 18.59% and 4.72%, respectively). The following factors were found to be significantly associated with HIV/syphilis co-infections (P<0.05): age≥50 years (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.10-2.87), high school or lower (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.10-2.01), monthly income ≤436.2 USD (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.25-2.42), monthly income 436.4-727.2 USD (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.03), ≥2 anal sex partners in the past 6 months (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.02-2.49), ≥2 oral sex partners in the past 6 months (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.08-2.36), inconsistent condom use during anal sex in the past 6 months (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03). We found that aged <50 years and ≥50 years MSM in Shenzhen had a high prevalence of HIV/syphilis infection in a period from 2009 to 2017. Age-specific sexually transmitted diseases education, prevention, and intervention programs for aged ≥50 years MSM should be implemented urgently and integrated interventions of both HIV and syphilis infections on MSM are needed in the future.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Sífilis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/historia , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Sífilis/historia , Sífilis/transmisión , Adulto Joven
14.
Infez Med ; 27(3): 350-352, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545783

RESUMEN

In recent decades, a rising rate of syphilis infection, often in association with HIV, has been recorded in Europe. In the first years following their appearance, syphilis and HIV shared the character of "new", challenging and serious diseases. The prime example of a "new disease", syphilis appeared between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance period, a time in which medicine was changing from a dogmatic to an experimental discipline. Luigi Luigini's collection of all the works on syphilis that had appeared to date (1566) offers a unique and significant insight into the discussion of the novelty of this disease, even after half a millennium.


Asunto(s)
Sífilis/historia , Europa (Continente) , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/historia , Historia del Siglo XVI , Humanos
15.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(2): 190-194, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344155

RESUMEN

Surely, Thomas Mann is today a forgotten writer, with only a little and precious group of readers between our young colleagues. However, perhaps could be useful for the others some knowledge about his vision of the infectious diseases in the first half of the twentieth century, when he wrote the novels here reviewed. Typhoid fever, meningitis, tuberculosis, syphilis and cholera are present in Mann's thematic from Buddenbrooks till Doktor Faustus, always with a personal focus, more on spirit -the will to live - rather than on flesh and bones… or bacteria. One of his later and minor works let us throw an ironical glance over transplant, no so named, indeed, by Mann, who speaks of "exchange". In this first part we present typhoid fever, meningitis and syphilis.


Asunto(s)
Medicina en la Literatura/historia , Meningitis/historia , Sífilis/historia , Fiebre Tifoidea/historia , Historia del Siglo XX
18.
Hautarzt ; 70(6): 462-467, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065735

RESUMEN

Johann Heinrich Rille, also characterized as a renowned nestor of German-speaking dermatovenereology, was named as extraordinary professor for syphilis and skin diseases in Leipzig in 1902, the second oldest university in Germany. Although the chair of dermatology was promised this was postponed for many years, not only because of World War I but also due to an ongoing struggle for dermatology to be accepted as an independent specialty in Germany. Finally, in 1919, the long overdue promotion to full professor was granted. Rille commented on this as "successful partial coping with the ordeal of German dermatology in Leipzig".


Asunto(s)
Dermatología/historia , Docentes Médicos/historia , Enfermedades de la Piel/historia , Sífilis/historia , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Int J Paleopathol ; 25: 46-55, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051405

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at investigating the possible existence of isotopic offsets in δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol values in relation to tertiary syphilis. MATERIAL: Based on materials from the 19th c. A.D. deriving from the pathological-anatomical reference collection (the Jedlicka collection) of the National Museum in Prague (Czech Republic), a comparative approach of ten individuals with syphilis and nine without the disease was undertaken. METHODS: Bone powder samples were defatted according to the protocol of Liden et al. (1995). Bone collagen was extracted following the protocol of Bocherens et al. (1991). RESULTS: Our results show that individuals with syphilis have lower δ13Ccol values than individuals without the disease; the observed difference between the two groups is about 0.3-0.4‰, which is relatively small but still meaningful. However, no difference between δ15Ncol values of the two groups has been noticed. CONCLUSIONS: Either diets prescribed by physicians to syphilitic patients or nutritional stress caused by cyclic appetite disturbance due to the disease itself or the administered medical treatment appeared to be possible explanations of the observed isotopic pattern. Overall, the response of the two isotopic proxies could argue for relatively limited nutritional restrictions. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study examining bone collagen isotopic response to syphilis based on clinically documented human skeletal materials. LIMITATIONS: The sample sizes are relatively small and cautiousness must be taken regarding the interpretations of the data. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Compound-specific stable isotope investigations and analysis of mercury content could be helpful to better understand the observed isotopic effects.


Asunto(s)
Colágeno/análisis , Sífilis/historia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Huesos/química , Huesos/patología , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , República Checa , Dieta , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Museos , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Sífilis/patología , Adulto Joven
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