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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 25(1): 111.e5-111.e8, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076975

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Recently a highly virulent Escherichia coli O80:H2 pathotype carrying Shiga toxin genes, the intimin subtype eaeξ, and genes associated with the extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) pS88 plasmid was described in France. In this study we examine the relatedness of Belgian E. coli O80:H2 isolated from humans and diarrhoeic calves as well their similarities with the French pathotype. METHODS: Eighteen Belgian E. coli O80:H2 strains (nine human Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (2008-2016), two bovine STEC (1987) and seven bovine atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) (2009-2015)) were characterized with conventional PCR, disc diffusion susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: Only nine sporadic human STEC O80:H2 cases have been detected in Belgium. All patients were female, just two of them suffered from haemolytic uremic syndrome. All studied strains had the eaeξ subtype, belonged to the multi-locus sequence type ST-301, and carried virulence genes associated with the type III secretion system and effectors not encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Multiple genes of the pS88 plasmid were detected in all but two strains (one human and one calf STEC). The Shiga toxin subtypes stx1a (n = 3; one human, two calf), stx2a (n = 2) and stx2d (n = 6) were detected. All strains were multidrug resistant, two were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase positive. Core genome MLST revealed that some human and calf E. coli differed by only 22 loci. CONCLUSIONS: The STEC/ExPEC O80:H2 pathotype was present in calves in Belgium as early as 1987, but human infections have been rare and mostly mild. The human STEC and bovine aEPEC cluster together and have the potential to be as virulent as the French isolates, as shown by their similar gene content.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Diarrea/microbiología , Escherichia coli Enteropatógena/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/aislamiento & purificación , Anciano , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Humanos , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Serogrupo , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto Joven
2.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 766, 2018 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352567

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The cattle gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the main enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) reservoir. In order to identify nutrients required for the survival or multiplication of EHEC in the bovine GIT, we compared the transcriptomes of the EHEC O157:H7 reference strain EDL933 cultured in vitro in bovine digestive contents (DCs) (rumen, small intestine and rectum) using RNA-sequencing. RESULTS: Gene expression profiles showed that EHEC EDL933 activated common but also specific metabolic pathways to survive in the different bovine DCs. Mucus-derived carbohydrates seem important in EHEC nutrition in posterior DCs (small intestine and rectum) but not in rumen content. Additional carbohydrates (xylose, ribose, mannitol, galactitol) as well as gluconeogenic substrates (aspartate, serine, glycerol) would also be used by EHEC as carbon and/or nitrogen sources all along the bovine GIT including the rumen. However, xylose, GalNac, ribose and fucose transport and/or assimilation encoding genes were over-expressed during incubation in rectum content compared with rumen and intestine contents, and genes coding for maltose transport were only induced in rectum. This suggests a role for these carbohydrates in the colonization of the cattle rectum, considered as the major site for EHEC multiplication. In contrast, the transcription of the genes associated with the assimilation of ethanolamine, an important nitrogen source for EHEC, was poorly induced in EHEC growing in rectum content, suggesting that ethanolamine is mainly assimilated in the cattle rumen and small intestine. Respiratory flexibility would also be required for EHEC survival because of the redundancy of dehydrogenases and reductases simultaneously induced in the bovine DCs, probably in response to the availability of electron donors and acceptors. CONCLUSION: EHEC EDL933 showed a high flexibility in the activation of genes involved in respiratory pathways and assimilation of carbon and nitrogen sources, most of them from animal origin. This may allow the bacterium to adapt and survive in the various bovine GIT compartments. Obtaining a better understanding of EHEC physiology in bovine GIT is a key step to ultimately propose strategies to limit EHEC carriage and shedding by cattle.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Escherichia coli O157/metabolismo , Tracto Gastrointestinal/microbiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Transcriptoma , Animales , Bovinos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación Bacteriana de la Expresión Génica , Viabilidad Microbiana
3.
Vaccine ; 36(13): 1728-1735, 2018 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483033

RESUMEN

E. coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen responsible for bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ability of colostral IgG obtained from Stx2-immunized cows to prevent against E. coli O157:H7 infection and Stx2 cytotoxicity. Hyperimmune colostrum (HC) was obtained from cows intramuscularly immunized with inactivated Stx2 or vehicle for controls. Colostral IgG was purified by affinity chromatography. Specific IgG antibodies against Stx2 and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) levels in HC and the corresponding IgG (HC-IgG/bLF) were determined by ELISA. The protective effects of HC-IgG/bLF against Stx2 cytotoxicity and adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 and its Stx2-negative mutant were analyzed in HCT-8 cells. HC-IgG/bLF prevention against E. coli O157:H7 was studied in human colon and rat colon loops. Protection against a lethal dose of E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated in a weaned mice model. HC-IgG/bLF showed high anti-Stx2 titers and high bLF levels that were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effects of Stx2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, HC-IgG/bLF avoided the inhibition of water absorption induced by E. coli O157:H7 in human colon and also the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O157:H7Δstx2 in rat colon loops. Finally, HC-IgG/bLF prevented in a 100% the lethality caused by E. coli O157:H7 in a weaned mice model. Our study suggests that HC-IgG/bLF have protective effects against E. coli O157:H7 infection. These beneficial effects may be due to specific anti-Stx2 neutralizing antibodies in combination with high bLF levels. These results allow us to consider HC-IgG/bLF as a nutraceutical tool which could be used in combination with balanced supportive diets to prevent HUS. However further studies are required before recommendations can be made for therapeutic and clinical applications.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli O157/inmunología , Lactoferrina/biosíntesis , Toxina Shiga II/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/biosíntesis , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/biosíntesis , Especificidad de Anticuerpos/inmunología , Bovinos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Colon/inmunología , Colon/metabolismo , Colon/microbiología , Colon/patología , Escherichia coli O157/patogenicidad , Femenino , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Humanos , Inmunización , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Masculino , Ratones , Pruebas de Neutralización , Embarazo , Ratas
4.
Microb Pathog ; 103: 186-195, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28062285

RESUMEN

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen that younger children are most prone to this microorganism. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) caused by EHEC, leads to the destruction of red blood cells and kidney failure. The virulence of E.coli O157:H7 is attributed to fimbriae, that facilitate colonization of bacteria within the colon and verotoxins (VT) or Shiga toxins (Stx) that are released into the blood. Although, in most cases, the infection is self-limitedin young children and aged population, it may cause HUS. Therefore, several investigations are performed in order to offer effective therapies and vaccines, which can prevent and treat the infection in appropriate time. As the pathogenesis of this infection is complicated, a multi-targeted strategy is required. Since cattle are the most important reservoir of EHEC and the root of contamination, reducing E. coli O157:H7 at the farm level should decrease the risk of human illness. Several vaccine approaches have been employed with different proper outcomes in animal models, including recombinant proteins (virulence factors such as; Stx1/2, intimin, EspA, fusion proteins of A and B Stx subunits), avirulent ghost cells of EHEC O157:H7, live attenuated bacteria expressing recombinant proteins, recombinant fimbrial proteins. In addition to protein-based vaccines, DNA vaccines have provided proper prevention in the laboratory animal model. This review paper summarizes the previous studies, current status and future perspective of different immunization strategies for eradicating Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Animales/prevención & control , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli O157 , Enfermedades de los Animales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Animales/epidemiología , Animales , Vacunas Bacterianas/clasificación , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Inmunización , Incidencia , Virulencia/genética , Factores de Virulencia
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(16): 5049-56, 2016 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342555

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Cattle are the primary reservoir for STEC, and food or water contaminated with cattle feces is the most common source of infections in humans. Consequently, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,096 cattle in six dairy herds (n = 718 animals) and five beef herds (n = 378 animals) in the summers of 2011 and 2012 to identify epidemiological factors associated with shedding. Fecal samples were obtained from each animal and cultured for STEC. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with STEC positivity. The prevalence of STEC was higher in beef cattle (21%) than dairy cattle (13%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 2.47), with considerable variation occurring across herds (range, 6% to 54%). Dairy cattle were significantly more likely to shed STEC when the average temperature was >28.9°C 1 to 5 days prior to sampling (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.25, 4.91), during their first lactation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.8), and when they were <30 days in milk (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.2). These data suggest that the stress or the negative energy balance associated with lactation may result in increased STEC shedding frequencies in Michigan during the warm summer months. Future prevention strategies aimed at reducing stress during lactation or isolating high-risk animals could be implemented to reduce herd-level shedding levels and avoid transmission of STEC to susceptible animals and people. IMPORTANCE: STEC shedding frequencies vary considerably across cattle herds in Michigan, and the shedding frequency of strains belonging to non-O157 serotypes far exceeds the shedding frequency of O157 strains, which is congruent with human infections in the state. Dairy cattle sampled at higher temperatures, in their first lactation, and early in the milk production stage were significantly more likely to shed STEC, which could be due to stress or a negative energy balance. Future studies should focus on the isolation of high-risk animals to decrease herd shedding levels and the potential for contamination of the food supply.


Asunto(s)
Derrame de Bacterias , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/fisiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Estudios Transversales , Industria Lechera , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Femenino , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Michigan/epidemiología , Prevalencia
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 144(13): 2812-23, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27338677

RESUMEN

Five cases of STEC O157 phage type (PT) 21/28 reported consumption of raw cows' drinking milk (RDM) produced at a dairy farm in the South West of England. STEC O157 PT21/28 was isolated from faecal specimens from milking cows on the implicated farm. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) showed that human and cattle isolates were the same strain. Further analysis of WGS data confirmed that sequences of isolates from an additional four cases (who did not report consumption of RDM when first questioned) fell within the same five single nucleotide polymorphism cluster as the initial five cases epidemiologically linked to the consumption of RDM. These four additional cases identified by WGS were investigated further and were, ultimately, associated with the implicated farm. The RDM outbreak strain encoded stx2a, which is associated with increased pathogenicity and severity of symptoms. Further epidemiological analysis showed that 70% of isolates within a wider cluster containing the outbreak strain were from cases residing in, or linked to, the same geographical region of England. During this RDM outbreak, use of WGS improved case ascertainment and provided insights into the evolution of a highly pathogenic clade of STEC O157 PT21/28 stx2a associated with the South West of England.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Escherichia coli O157/aislamiento & purificación , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Leche/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Niño , Preescolar , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli O157/clasificación , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Genoma Bacteriano , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Adulto Joven
7.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 27(6): 403-13, 2010 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20721440

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Quantify contamination by verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (VTEC-HUS) in cattle carcasses and generate estimates of exposure in three likely scenarios. METHODS: A model was constructed of the frequency and magnitude of VTEC-HUS contamination from primary production to the removal of the carcasses from cold storage, based on the published scientific information, epidemiological data, and information from local experts. The probability distributions that best described each step in the process and scenarios were input to the @Risk program with multiple simulations using Monte Carlo analysis. Pearson s correlation test was used for the sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The estimated frequency of carcasses with VTEC-HUS was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.26 to 0.58) and the final load of VTEC-HUS was 0.47 log CFU/carcass (95% CI: -2.46 to 3.62). The most closely related variables were the fattening system (r = -0.681) and the theoretical concentration of VTEC-HUS on the cattle's skin (r = 0.702). Vaccinating the animals reduced the frequency of VTEC-HUS in the carcasses by 54.1%, although there were no significant changes in the final VTEC-HUS load. Washing the carcasses reduced the final load by 0.42 log CFU/carcass compared with the baseline model, without any change in the frequency. A 50%-60% increase in the percentage of animals fattened in pens would increase the frequency of carcasses contaminated with VTEC-HUS by 15%-23%. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccinating the animals was the most effective scenario for reducing introduction of the bacteria in the beef production chain. Intensifying livestock production will increase the public health risk due to greater exposure to VTEC-HUS.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Bovinos/microbiología , Simulación por Computador , Contaminación de Alimentos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/prevención & control , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Carne/microbiología , Modelos Teóricos , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , Animales , Argentina/epidemiología , Cadáver , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Manipulación de Alimentos , Conservación de Alimentos , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Vivienda para Animales , Humanos , Refrigeración , Riesgo , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/metabolismo , Vacunación
8.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 27(6): 403-413, jun. 2010. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-555981

RESUMEN

OBJETIVOS: Cuantificar la contaminación por Escherichia coli verotoxigénica asociada con el síndrome urémico hemolítico (ECvt-SUH) en las canales de ganado bovino y generar estimaciones de exposición en tres escenarios probables. MÉTODOS: Se modeló la frecuencia y la magnitud de la contaminación por ECvt-SUH desde la producción primaria hasta la salida de las canales del frigorífico, a partir de la información científica publicada y datos epidemiológicos y de expertos locales. Las distribuciones de la probabilidad que mejor describieron cada paso del proceso y los escenarios se incorporaron en el programa @Risk®, con simulaciones múltiples mediante el análisis Monte Carlo. Para el análisis de sensibilidad se aplicó la prueba de correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia estimada de canales con ECvt-SUH fue 0,37 (IC95 por ciento: 0,26 a 0,58) y la carga final de ECvt-SUH fue 0,47 log ufc/canal (IC95 por ciento: -2,46 a 3,62). Las variables más fuertemente relacionadas fueron: el sistema de engorde (r = -0,681) y la concentración teórica de ECvt-SUH en la piel de los bovinos (r = 0,702). La vacunación de los animales redujo en 54,1 por ciento la frecuencia de ECvt-SUH en las canales, aunque la carga final de ECvt-SUH no sufrió cambios significativos. El duchado de las canales redujo la carga final en 0,42 log ufc/canal con respecto al modelo basal, sin modificar la frecuencia. Un incremento en la proporción de animales engordados en corrales hasta 50-60 por ciento aumentaría un 15-23 por ciento la frecuencia de canales contaminadas con ECvt-SUH. CONCLUSIONES: La vacunación de los animales resultó el escenario más eficaz para reducir el ingreso de la bacteria en la cadena agroindustrial de la carne bovina. La intensificación de la producción ganadera incrementará el riesgo a la salud pública por una mayor exposición a ECvt-SUH.


OBJECTIVES: Quantify contamination by verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (VTEC-HUS) in cattle carcasses and generate estimates of exposure in three likely scenarios. METHODS: A model was constructed of the frequency and magnitude of VTEC-HUS contamination from primary production to the removal of the carcasses from cold storage, based on the published scientific information, epidemiological data, and information from local experts. The probability distributions that best described each step in the process and scenarios were input to the @Risk® program with multiple simulations using Monte Carlo analysis. Pearson´s correlation test was used for the sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The estimated frequency of carcasses with VTEC-HUS was 0.37 (95 percent CI: 0.26 to 0.58) and the final load of VTEC-HUS was 0.47 log CFU/carcass (95 percent CI: -2.46 to 3.62). The most closely related variables were the fattening system (r = -0.681) and the theoretical concentration of VTEC-HUS on the cattle's skin (r = 0.702). Vaccinating the animals reduced the frequency of VTEC-HUS in the carcasses by 54.1 percent, although there were no significant changes in the final VTEC-HUS load. Washing the carcasses reduced the final load by 0.42 log CFU/carcass compared with the baseline model, without any change in the frequency. A 50 percent-60 percent increase in the percentage of animals fattened in pens would increase the frequency of carcasses contaminated with VTEC-HUS by 15 percent-23 percent. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccinating the animals was the most effective scenario for reducing introduction of the bacteria in the beef production chain. Intensifying livestock production will increase the public health risk due to greater exposure to VTEC-HUS.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Humanos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Bovinos/microbiología , Contaminación de Alimentos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/prevención & control , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Modelos Teóricos , Carne/microbiología , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , Argentina/epidemiología , Cadáver , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Manipulación de Alimentos , Conservación de Alimentos , Vivienda para Animales , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Refrigeración , Riesgo , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/metabolismo , Vacunación
9.
Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr ; 122(11-12): 417-24, 2009.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19999376

RESUMEN

Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cause diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). EHEC cause sporadic, epidemic, and occasionally fatal infections in Germany and worldwide. The most probable natural reservoirs of EHEC are domestic cattle (in which these organisms cause no disease), but wild animals also excrete EHEC asymptomatically. Humans (chiefly children) acquire EHEC from contact with animals (e. g. in petting zoos) or indirectly, by consuming food or water contaminated with these pathogens. Acid resistant EHEC survive the acidic human stomach, colonize the intestines, and produce Shiga toxins. Current models suggest that Shiga toxins preferentially bind to microvascular endothelial cells of the renal glomeruli and the brain and inhibit protein synthesis, or possibly injure eukaryotic cells via other mechanisms. Resulting microangiopathy, therefore, forms the pathological basis of HUS. Additionally, non-Shiga toxin effectors produced by EHEC, including the LEE-encoded proteins, EHEC-haemolysin, cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), the serine protease EspP, subtilase cytotoxin, and iron-acquisition molecules are also postulated to play roles in virulence. Our evolving understanding of EHEC pathogenesis now compels us to test the hypothesis that HUS is a multifactorial consequence of EHEC infection, that involves not only Shiga toxins, but a repertoire of EHEC virulence factors that synergistically cause profound vascular and organ injury.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Escherichia coli Enterohemorrágica , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Diarrea/microbiología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/transmisión , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Humanos
10.
J Vet Sci ; 9(3): 219-31, 2008 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18716441

RESUMEN

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is a pathotype of diarrheagenic E. coli that produces one or more Shiga toxins, forms a characteristic histopathology described as attaching and effacing lesions, and possesses the large virulence plasmid pO157. The bacterium is recognized worldwide, especially in developed countries, as an emerging food-borne bacterial pathogen, which causes disease in humans and in some animals. Healthy cattle are the principal and natural reservoir of E. coli O157:H7, and most disease outbreaks are, therefore, due to consumption of fecally contaminated bovine foods or dairy products. In this review, we provide a general overview of E. coli O157:H7 infection, especially focusing on the bacterial characteristics rather than on the host responses during infection.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli Enterohemorrágica , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Escherichia coli O157 , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/sangre , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/sangre , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Escherichia coli O157/patogenicidad , Heces/microbiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/sangre , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/epidemiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Operón , Toxinas Shiga/análisis , Shigella dysenteriae , Virulencia
11.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 20(2): 239-42, 2008 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18319442

RESUMEN

A postpartum mare and foal were presented for evaluation of fever and lethargy in the mare. The mare was diagnosed with endometritis and initially responded well to treatment. On the second day of hospitalization, the mare developed renal insufficiency characterized by oliguria, azotemia, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia. Concurrently, the foal developed rapidly progressive central nervous system signs culminating in refractory seizures. Both animals failed to respond to treatment and were euthanized. Thrombotic microangiopathy involving glomeruli was evident on microscopic examination of the mare's kidneys. Microscopic evidence of brain edema was the principal postmortem finding in the foal. No specific etiology was confirmed in either case. Notably, Escherichia coli 0103:H2 was isolated from the mare's uterus and the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which an organism implicated as a cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome was isolated from an animal with clinical signs and postmortem findings consistent with the disease.


Asunto(s)
Edema Encefálico/veterinaria , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/microbiología , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Edema Encefálico/microbiología , Edema Encefálico/patología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/patología , Resultado Fatal , Femenino , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/patología , Histocitoquímica/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/patología , Caballos , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión/veterinaria , Periodo Posparto
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 55(Pt 1): 23-9, 2006 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16388026

RESUMEN

Both O157 : H7 and non-O157 : H7 Escherichia coli strains are reported to cause haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS). This study was carried out to explore the pathogenicity of O157 : H7 and non-O157 : H7 E. coli strains in experimentally inoculated dogs. Twenty 40-day-old dogs were randomly divided into four groups, and the groups (n=5) were administrated orally with E. coli O157 : H7 strains HJ2001-1 (from a patient with serious haemorrhagic diarrhoea) and HZ2001-4 (from a domestic sheep kept in the house of a patient who died from diarrhoea and subsequent acute renal failure), HZ2001-9 (a non-O157 : H7 strain, from a 6-month-old child who died from diarrhoea and subsequent acute renal failure) or a control strain, EC8099. HJ2001-1 and HZ2001-4 caused slight diarrhoea, and the dogs recovered without any complications. However, HZ2001-9 resulted in watery diarrhoea accompanied with slightly bloody stools, followed by death on the fifth or sixth day. In the fatally infected experimental animals, necrotic lesions in the liver and bacterial embolism in the kidney were observed. The primary cause of death was microvascular thrombosis caused by the bacteria, leading to renal and multiple organ failure. Therefore, the non-O157 : H7 E. coli strain HZ2001-9 causes clinical signs and pathological lesions in dogs that are consistent with those in acute renal failure or HUS in humans.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli O157/patogenicidad , Escherichia coli/patogenicidad , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Adolescente , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/patología , Perros , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/patología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/fisiopatología , Femenino , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/patología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/fisiopatología , Humanos , Lactante , Riñón/patología , Hígado/patología , Masculino
13.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 34(3): 264-9, 2005 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16134076

RESUMEN

A 3-year-old, spayed, female Boxer was presented because of acute onset of anorexia, vomiting, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure were detected. The dog was treated with fluids, antiemetics, antibiotics, and diuretics. Despite supportive therapy, the dog's condition worsened, and the owners elected euthanasia. Necropsy revealed disseminated petechiae on the parietal peritoneum and serosal surfaces of the intestinal tract. The histologic lesions were consistent with severe arteritis and microvascular thrombosis involving only the renal and intestinal arterioles. The final diagnosis was hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a rarely described disorder in dogs. The clinical presentation of primarily gastrointestinal clinical signs was similar to that of typical or diarrhea-associated HUS (D+ HUS) in humans (mainly children), which is caused by gastrointestinal proliferation of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Bacterial toxins can be adsorbed and cause endothelial injury, activation of hemostasis, and thrombosis, with lesions confined primarily to the kidneys. Although rare, HUS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/sangre , Enfermedades de los Perros/patología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Animales , Antieméticos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Perros/terapia , Perros , Eutanasia , Femenino , Fluidoterapia , Hemólisis , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/sangre , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/patología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/terapia , Ovariectomía
14.
J Comp Pathol ; 132(2-3): 185-94, 2005.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15737345

RESUMEN

Four conventionally reared goats aged 6 days were inoculated orally with approximately 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of a non-verotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. All remained clinically normal. Tissues were sampled under terminal anaesthesia at 24 (two animals), 48 and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). E. coli O157:H7 was cultured from the ileum, caecum, colon and rectum of all animals, but the number of bacteria recovered at these sites varied between animals. Attaching-effacing (AE) lesions associated with O157 organisms, as confirmed by immunolabelling, were observed in the ileum of one of the two animals examined at 24 hpi, and in the ileum, caecum and proximal colon of an animal examined at 72 hpi. E. coli O157 organisms were detected at > or =10(5) cfu/g of tissue at these sites. In addition, AE lesions associated with unidentified bacteria were observed at various sites in the large bowel of the same animals. Lesions containing both E. coli O157 and unidentified bacteria (non-O157) were not observed. Non-O157 AE lesions were also observed in the large bowel of one of two uninoculated control animals. This indicated that three (one control and two inoculated) animals were colonized with an unidentified AE organism before the commencement of the experiment. The O157-associated AE lesions were observed only in animals colonized by non-O157 AE organisms and this raises questions about individual host susceptibility to AE lesions and whether non-O157 AE organisms influence colonization by E. coli O157.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli O157/patogenicidad , Enfermedades de las Cabras/patología , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Íleon/patología , Intestino Grueso/patología , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Adhesión Bacteriana/fisiología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Enterocitos/microbiología , Enterocitos/ultraestructura , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/patología , Escherichia coli O157/crecimiento & desarrollo , Escherichia coli O157/ultraestructura , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Cabras/microbiología , Cabras , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/patología , Íleon/microbiología , Intestino Grueso/microbiología , Masculino , Microvellosidades/ultraestructura
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 53(Pt 6): 573-9, 2004 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15150340

RESUMEN

Ruminants are a major reservoir of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), which cause acute gastroenteritis in humans with potentially life-threatening sequelae. The mechanisms underlying EHEC persistence in ruminant hosts are poorly understood. EHEC produce several cytotoxins that inhibit the proliferation of bovine lymphocytes in vitro and influence EHEC persistence in calves, suggesting that bacterial suppression of mucosal inflammation may be important in vivo. In order to address this hypothesis, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) obtained from ligated intestinal loops of five 9-14 day old calves were characterized 12 h after inoculation with E. coli strains. Loops were inoculated with an EHEC O103 : H2 strain, an isogenic Deltastx1 mutant incapable of producing Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and a porcine non-pathogenic E. coli strain. The IEL mainly comprised activated CD2(+) CD3(+) CD6(+) CD8alpha(+) T cells and resembled IEL obtained from the intestinal mucosa of orally challenged calves. Forty per cent of all IEL were potentially sensitive to Stx1 in that they expressed the receptor for Stx1. Nevertheless, analysis of IEL from inoculated loops failed to detect a significant effect of the different E. coli strains on proliferative capacity, natural killer cell activity or the cytokine mRNA profile. However, the EHEC wild-type strain reduced the percentage of CD8alpha(+) T cells in the ileal mucosa compared with loops inoculated with the Deltastx1 mutant. This shift in IEL composition was not associated with inhibition of IEL proliferation in situ, since the majority of the IEL from all loops were in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle. These studies indicate that the ligated ileal loop model will be a useful tool to dissect the mechanisms underlying suppression of mucosal inflammation by EHEC in the reservoir host.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli/inmunología , Escherichia coli O157 , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Animales , Antígenos CD/análisis , Antígenos de Diferenciación de Linfocitos T/análisis , Antígenos CD2/análisis , Complejo CD3/análisis , Antígenos CD8/análisis , Bovinos , Ciclo Celular , Citocinas/análisis , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Mutación , ARN Mensajero/análisis , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Toxina Shiga I/genética , Toxina Shiga I/inmunología
16.
J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med ; 49(9): 470-2, 2002 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12489870

RESUMEN

An 11-year-old female German Shepherd dog presented with lethargy and anorexia, which progressed to haemorrhagic vomiting, diarrhoea and seizures. Serum biochemistry and haematology results showed azotaemia and mild thrombocytopaenia. Euthanasia was elected and the dog was submitted for necropsy examination. There were widespread serosal and mucosal petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages within the abdomen, with ascites and multiple renal infarcts. The renal infarcts were associated with fibrinoid necrosis and thrombosis of inter-lobular arteries and arterioles. These arterial lesions and clinical signs are consistent with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, which has not previously been reported in dogs in Europe.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Animales , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Enfermedades de los Perros/patología , Perros , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/diagnóstico
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 21(3): 189-95, 2002 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11957020

RESUMEN

A total of 80 human infections by Escherichia coli O157:H7 were documented in Finland in 1997 and 1998. Most were sporadic and their sources undetermined. Five cases not associated with one another, one of which led to secondary transmission within a family, could be traced to five different dairy farms. These five case patients (age range 2-17 years, median age 3 years) were hospitalised with bloody diarrhoea; two of them developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. All nine human isolates obtained were sorbitol negative, carried the verocytotoxin 2 and eae genes, and produced verocytotoxin and enterohaemolysin. The phage and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types of the human and bovine isolates from the corresponding farms were indistinguishable. The cattle (20-70 animals per farm) were monitored for up to 2 years after the human cases. The proportion of cattle excreting the type that caused the human infections varied from 3.2 to 66.7% when sampled soon after the human cases, and from 0.0 to 5.3% about a year or so later. On most of the farms, the animals excreted the pathogen intermittently. On one farm, Escherichia coli O157 isolates with other characteristics were also occasionally isolated. Although the infections were traced back to the farms, it could not be established whether the source was unpasteurised milk or direct or indirect contact with cattle. The results of this study emphasise the need for special recommendations for children visiting or living on a farm to prevent these infections.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/transmisión , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Escherichia coli O157/aislamiento & purificación , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/microbiología , Adolescente , Animales , Bovinos , Niño , Preescolar , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Electroforesis en Gel de Campo Pulsado , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli O157/patogenicidad , Heces/microbiología , Finlandia/epidemiología , Genotipo , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Humanos , Fenotipo
18.
Vet Surg ; 28(3): 135-40, 1999.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10338157

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical history of 3 cats with possible hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) after renal transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: This case series documents historical findings, physical examination findings, clinical pathologic features, necropsy and histopathologic findings of 3 cats with possible HUS. RESULTS: Two cats had chronic renal failure; 1 cat had acute renal failure secondary to ethylene glycol toxicity. A renal transplant was performed in each of the 3 cats without obvious problems. Complications that would support a diagnosis of HUS, including anemia, thrombocytopenia, and azotemia occurred within 24 hours in 1 cat, within 8 days in a second cat, and 2 months after transplantation in the third cat. In 2 cats, HUS was likely secondary to cyclosporine immunosuppression. In the third cat, HUS may have been secondary to allograft rejection. Renal biopsies from all 3 cats were suggestive of HUS. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In human beings, HUS in transplant recipients may occur secondary to immunosuppressive drugs, vascular rejection, or recurrence of original disease. Graft loss occurred in all 3 cats in this study and the mortality rate was 100%. Clinicians caring for these patients need to be aware of this disorder because early recognition and treatment is critical in the management of post-transplant HUS.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos/cirugía , Ciclosporina/efectos adversos , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Inmunosupresores/efectos adversos , Fallo Renal Crónico/veterinaria , Trasplante de Riñón/veterinaria , Animales , Gatos , Femenino , Rechazo de Injerto/veterinaria , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/inducido químicamente , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/fisiopatología , Fallo Renal Crónico/cirugía , Masculino
19.
J Vet Intern Med ; 7(4): 220-7, 1993.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8246211

RESUMEN

A disease syndrome similar to the hemolytic uremic syndrome of people is described in three dogs with acute renal failure. In each dog, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis preceded the onset of anuric acute renal failure. Evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (schizocytes, thrombocytopenia, and increased concentrations of fibrin split products) was present in the three dogs. Serum chemistry results showed increased concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and phosphorus. Ultrasound examination performed in one dog revealed increased echogenicity of the renal cortices. Treatment for anuric acute renal failure using a continuous dopamine and furosemide infusion established urine production in one of three dogs. Microscopic examination of tissue from the two dogs that underwent necropsy showed occlusion of the renal vasculature by fibrin thrombi consistent with microangiopathic arteriolar thrombosis. The pathophysiology and current knowledge of human hemolytic uremic syndrome is compared with hemolytic uremic syndrome in these dogs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/veterinaria , Lesión Renal Aguda/etiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesión Renal Aguda/veterinaria , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Fosfatasa Alcalina/sangre , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Enfermedades de los Perros/sangre , Enfermedades de los Perros/etiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/terapia , Perros , Dopamina/administración & dosificación , Dopamina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Fluidoterapia/veterinaria , Furosemida/administración & dosificación , Furosemida/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/sangre , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico/complicaciones , Infusiones Intravenosas/veterinaria , Intestinos/patología , Riñón/patología , Hígado/enzimología , Masculino , Diálisis Peritoneal/veterinaria
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