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1.
Wiad Lek ; 73(1): 180-187, 2020.
Artículo en Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124831

RESUMEN

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the world and in Poland it is the second cause of death in men suffering from cancer. Recent evidence suggests that obesity is associated with prostate cancer. Increased BMI correlates with aggressive disease and with higher risk of recurrence and mortality in prostate cancer patients. Obesity can promote the progression of prostate cancer through endocrine disturbances, mainly in sex steroids, through chronic inflammation resulting in altered production of adipokines, peripheral insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia and oxidative stress. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome can be used in the global assessment of prognosis in patients with prostate cancer. The aim of the paper is to present current state of knowledge about connections between obesity, metabolic syndrome, sex steroids and adipokines in men with prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico , Obesidad/complicaciones , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Adipoquinas , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Polonia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/etiología
2.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(2): 165-172, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between vitiligo and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Study (n=155) and control groups (n=155) were evaluated for metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Study group was divided into three groups according to their vitiligo area severity index and vitiligo disease activity score values (Group 1: 6.89 for VASI score, Group A: -1-0, Group B: 1-2 and Group C: 3-4 for vitiligo disease activity score respectively). MetS rates according to both criteria were compared between the vitiligo disease activity score and vitiligo area severity index groups. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome rates were 37.4% and 40% in the study group and 19.4% and 26.5% in the control group according to National CholesterolEducation Program Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation criteria, respectively (p<001 and p=0.011). Metabolic syndrome was more frequent in vitiligo area severity index Groups 2 and 3 compared to vitiligo area severity index Group 1, and in vitiligo disease activity score Group C compared to vitiligo disease activity score Groups A and B. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Single center experience, absence of more specific oxidative-stress markers and lack of long-term follow-up of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of metabolic syndrome was higher in patients with non-segmental vitiligo and the rate was higher in active/severe form of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Vitíligo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distribución por Sexo , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Turquia/epidemiología , Deficiencia de Vitamina B 12/sangre , Vitíligo/sangre , Vitíligo/complicaciones , Adulto Joven
3.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(1): 54-57, 2020 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115440

RESUMEN

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk factors include hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine to treat metabolic syndrome has received increasing attention due to its wide availability. In this paper, we report the case of a 68-year-old patient with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, borderline diabetes, and obesity, who showed an improvement in metabolic syndrome on the administration of 7.5 g of Kangen-karyu extract per day. After 6 months, the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c were decreased. The abdominal circumference and body weight were decreased following administration. At that time, the somatic and subjective symptoms had partially disappeared. Herein, we present and discuss the evidence supporting the use of Kangen-karyu extract against metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Metabólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/administración & dosificación , Dislipidemias/complicaciones , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/complicaciones , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(687): 586-591, 2020 Mar 25.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216182

RESUMEN

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases with an epidemiology correlated to obesity and metabolic syndrome. The last decade was rich of significant advances in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease, linking environmental elements, genetic factors and microbiota modifications, as well as in staging, screening and therapeutic development. The purpose of this article is to summarize recent advances in the field of NAFLD, on her way to become the first cause of cirrhosis and liver transplantation worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/etiología , Trasplante de Hígado , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/complicaciones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/diagnóstico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/genética , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Obesidad/complicaciones
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(12): e19535, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195957

RESUMEN

Hyperuricemia has been associated with metabolic syndrome, and the association with various cardiometabolic risk factors may be affected by sex.We made a cross-sectional examination in a military cohort of 6738 men and 766 women, aged 18 to 50 years of Taiwan in 2013 to 2014. Hyperuricemia were defined as serum uric acid levels ≥7.0 mg/dL for men and ≥5.7 mg/dL for women, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the associations between hyperuricemia and various metabolic abnormalities.In the overall population, hyperuricemia was associated with high blood pressure (odds ratio [OR]: 1.59, and 95% confidence intervals: 1.42-1.77), low high-density lipoprotein (OR: 1.75, 1.56-1.97), high triglycerides (OR: 2.14, 1.90-2.42), high low-density lipoprotein (OR: 1.71, 1.51-1.93), high fasting plasma glucose (OR: 1.29, 1.13-1.48), and central obesity (OR: 2.85, 2.55-3.18) after adjusting for age and serum creatinine concentrations. However, the associations with atherogenic lipid profiles including high triglycerides and high low-density lipoprotein were merely significant in men but not in women. In addition, there was a tendency for a sex difference in the association of hyperuricemia and raised blood pressure ≥130/85 mm Hg, which was greater in women than that in men (OR: 2.92, 1.37-6.25 and 1.54, 1.37-1.72, respectively; P for interaction = .059).Our findings suggest that the association between hyperuricemia and various cardiometabolic abnormalities in young adults may differ by sex, possibly due to a regulation of sex hormones and uneven effects of uric acid at the same levels between sexes on lipid metabolisms and arterial stiffness.


Asunto(s)
Hiperuricemia/etiología , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicaciones , Hiperuricemia/epidemiología , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Caracteres Sexuales , Taiwán/epidemiología , Ácido Úrico/sangre , Adulto Joven
6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 318(4): H985-H993, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167781

RESUMEN

The roles of ACE-independent ANG II production via chymase and therapeutic potential of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adolescent population remain elusive. Thus we tested the hypothesis that a high-fructose diet (HFD) in young rats elicits chymase-dependent increases in ANG II production and oxidative stress, responses that are reversible by 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) that metabolizes EETs. Three groups of weanling rats (21-day-old) were fed a normal diet, 60% HFD, and HFD with TPPU, respectively, for 30 days. HFD rats developed MetS, characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension and associated with decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume and loss of nitric oxide (NO) modulation of myocardial oxygen consumption; all impairments were normalized by TPPU that significantly elevated circulating 11,12-EET, a major cardiac EET isoform. In the presence of comparable cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression/activity among the three groups, HFD rats exhibited significantly greater chymase-dependent ANG II formation in hearts, as indicated by an augmented cardiac chymase content as a function of enhanced mast cell degranulation. The enhanced chymase-dependent ANG II production was paralleled with increases in ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression and NADPH oxidase (Nox)-induced superoxide, alterations that were significantly reversed by TPPU. Conversely, HFD-induced downregulation of cardiac ACE2, followed by a lower Ang-(1-7) level displayed in an TPPU-irreversible manner. In conclusion, HFD-driven adverse chymase/ANG II/Nox/superoxide signaling in young rats was prevented by inhibition of sEH via, at least in part, an EET-mediated stabilization of mast cells, highlighting chymase and sEH as therapeutic targets during treatment of MetS.NEW & NOTEWORTHY As the highest fructose consumers, the adolescent population is highly susceptible to the metabolic syndrome, where increases in mast cell chymase-dependent formation of ANG II, ensued by cardiometabolic dysfunction, are reversible in response to inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). This study highlights chymase and sEH as therapeutic targets and unravels novel avenues for the development of optimal strategies for young patients with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/análogos & derivados , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Quimasas/metabolismo , Fructosa/efectos adversos , Cardiopatías/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/metabolismo , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Gasto Cardíaco , Células Cultivadas , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapéutico , Epóxido Hidrolasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Corazón/efectos de los fármacos , Corazón/fisiopatología , Cardiopatías/tratamiento farmacológico , Cardiopatías/etiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/etiología , Miocardio/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Compuestos de Fenilurea/farmacología , Compuestos de Fenilurea/uso terapéutico , Piperidinas/farmacología , Piperidinas/uso terapéutico , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
7.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(5): 531-538, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies have reminded that cardiovascular metabolic comorbidities made patients more susceptible to suffer 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19), and exacerbated the infection. The aim of this analysis is to determine the association of cardiovascular metabolic diseases with the development of COVID-19. METHODS: A meta-analysis of eligible studies that summarized the prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases in COVID-19 and compared the incidences of the comorbidities in ICU/severe and non-ICU/severe patients was performed. Embase and PubMed were searched for relevant studies. RESULTS: A total of six studies with 1527 patients were included in this analysis. The proportions of hypertension, cardia-cerebrovascular disease and diabetes in patients with COVID-19 were 17.1%, 16.4% and 9.7%, respectively. The incidences of hypertension, cardia-cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes were about twofolds, threefolds and twofolds, respectively, higher in ICU/severe cases than in their non-ICU/severe counterparts. At least 8.0% patients with COVID-19 suffered the acute cardiac injury. The incidence of acute cardiac injury was about 13 folds higher in ICU/severe patients compared with the non-ICU/severe patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with previous cardiovascular metabolic diseases may face a greater risk of developing into the severe condition and the comorbidities can also greatly affect the prognosis of the COVID-19. On the other hand, COVID-19 can, in turn, aggravate the damage to the heart.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia
8.
JAMA ; 323(12): 1175-1183, 2020 03 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207804

RESUMEN

Importance: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the inflammatory subtype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is associated with disease progression, development of cirrhosis, and need for liver transplant. Despite its importance, NASH is underrecognized in clinical practice. Observations: NASH affects an estimated 3% to 6% of the US population and the prevalence is increasing. NASH is strongly associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Although a number of noninvasive tests and scoring systems exist to characterize NAFLD and NASH, liver biopsy is the only accepted method for diagnosis of NASH. Currently, no NASH-specific therapies are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Lifestyle modification is the mainstay of treatment, including dietary changes and exercise, with the primary goal being weight loss. Substantial improvement in histologic outcomes, including fibrosis, is directly correlated with increasing weight loss. In some cases, bariatric surgery may be indicated to achieve and maintain the necessary degree of weight loss required for therapeutic effect. An estimated 20% of patients with NASH will develop cirrhosis, and NASH is predicted to become the leading indication for liver transplants in the US. The mortality rate among patients with NASH is substantially higher than the general population or patients without this inflammatory subtype of NAFLD, with annual all-cause mortality rate of 25.56 per 1000 person-years and a liver-specific mortality rate of 11.77 per 1000 person-years. Conclusions and Relevance: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis affects 3% to 6% of the US population, is more prevalent in patients with metabolic disease and obesity, progresses to cirrhosis in approximately 20% of cases, and is associated with increased rates of liver-specific and overall mortality. Early identification and targeted treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are needed to improve patient outcomes, including directing patients toward intensive lifestyle modification to promote weight loss and referral for bariatric surgery as indicated for management of obesity and metabolic disease.


Asunto(s)
Hígado/patología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Cirugía Bariátrica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Cirrosis Hepática/etiología , Cirrosis Hepática/mortalidad , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/complicaciones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/diagnóstico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/epidemiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Obesidad/complicaciones , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107889, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222527

RESUMEN

Human and experimental studies have shown that chronic schistosomiasis mansoni protects against metabolic disorders through direct and indirect pathways. This study aims to investigate the co-morbidity between the acute schistosomiasis and nonalcoholic fatty liver. To address this, male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat chow (60% fat) or standard chow (10% fat) for 13 weeks and later infected with 80 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Mice were assigned into four groups: uninfected fed standard (USC), uninfected fed high-fat chow (UHFC), infected fed standard (ISC), and infected fed high-fat chow (IHFC). Blood sample and tissues were obtained at nine weeks post-infection (acute schistosomiasis) by necropsy. UHFC mice showed higher body mass, visceral adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglyceride (TG), and liver steatosis compared to USC mice. IHFC mice showed lower blood lipid levels, blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance, body mass, and liver steatosis (macro and microvesicular) compared to UHFC mice. IHFC showed more massive histopathological changes (sinusoidal fibrosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and inflammatory infiltrates) compared to ISC. In conclusion, the co-morbidity results in both beneficial (friend) and detrimental (foe) for the host. While the acute schistosomiasis improves some metabolic features of metabolic syndrome, comorbidity worsens the liver injury.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Área Bajo la Curva , Biomphalaria/parasitología , Comorbilidad , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Hígado Graso/etiología , Hígado Graso/patología , Granuloma/etiología , Granuloma/patología , Intestinos/parasitología , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/complicaciones , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 864-876, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097450

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A whole-grain (WG)-rich diet has shown to have potential for both prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a cluster of risk factors that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Different WGs may have different health effects. WG rye, in particular, may improve glucose homeostasis and blood lipids, possibly mediated through fermentable dietary fiber and lignans. Recent studies have also suggested a crucial role of the gut microbiota in response to WG. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate WG rye, alone and with lignan supplements [secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG)], and WG wheat diets on glucose tolerance [oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT)], other cardiometabolic outcomes, enterolignans, and microbiota composition. Moreover, we exploratively evaluated the role of gut microbiota enterotypes in response to intervention diets. METHODS: Forty men with MetS risk profile were randomly assigned to WG diets in an 8-wk crossover study. The rye diet was supplemented with 280 mg SDG at weeks 4-8. Effects of treatment were evaluated by mixed-effects modeling, and effects on microbiota composition and the role of gut microbiota as a predictor of response to treatment were analyzed by random forest plots. RESULTS: The WG rye diet (± SDG supplements) did not affect the OGTT compared with WG wheat. Total and LDL cholesterol were lowered (-0.06 and -0.09 mmol/L, respectively; P < 0.05) after WG rye compared with WG wheat after 4 wk but not after 8 wk. WG rye resulted in higher abundance of Bifidobacterium [fold-change (FC) = 2.58, P < 0.001] compared with baseline and lower abundance of Clostridium genus compared with WG wheat (FC = 0.54, P = 0.02). The explorative analyses suggest that baseline enterotype is associated with total and LDL-cholesterol response to diet. CONCLUSIONS: WG rye, alone or with SDG supplementation, compared with WG wheat did not affect glucose metabolism but caused transient LDL-cholesterol reduction. The effect of WG diets appeared to differ according to enterotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02987595.


Asunto(s)
Lignanos/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólico/dietoterapia , Secale/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Anciano , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Glucemia/metabolismo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Colesterol/metabolismo , Estudios Cruzados , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólico/microbiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Granos Enteros/metabolismo
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18955, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000419

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome, a condition that increases one's risk for heart disease and other conditions. The prevalence of obesity and associated diseases have steadily increased among Korean adults. The effect of the herbal medicines Daesiho-tang (DSHT) and Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST) on obesity have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Daesiho-tang and Chowiseungcheng-tang on obese Korean women with high risk for metabolic syndrome. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-center, 3-arm, parallel group clinical trial. A total of 120 participants will be enrolled and randomly assigned to the Daesiho-tang group, the Chowiseungcheng-tang group, or the placebo group in a 1:1:1 ratio using an internet-based randomization system at visit 2. Each group will be administered DSHT, CST, or placebo 3 times per day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is to evaluate the changes in mean body weight of participants in the DSHT and CST groups and compare with those in the placebo group, and determine their statistical significance, if any, after 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes are the following: changes in body fat percentage and body fat mass, changes in waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, changes in serum lipids, fasting blood sugar, blood pressure, and C-reactive proteins (CRP) levels between visit 1 and visit 5 measurements. Changes in visceral fat volume determined through abdominal computed tomography, patient-reported health outcomes surveys-the Korean version of the Obesity-related Quality of Life and the Korean version of Eating Attitudes Test. DISCUSSION: This study will provide research methodologies for evaluating the efficacy and safety of Daesiho-tang and Chowiseungcheng-tang on obese Korean women with high risk for metabolic syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02651454. Registered on 11 January 2016.Protocol version: The final approved version of the trial protocol is V1.3.(2017.11.10).


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Síndrome Metabólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Fármacos Antiobesidad/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Selección de Paciente , Proyectos Piloto , República de Corea , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
12.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(2): 53-66, 16 ene., 2020. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-187248

RESUMEN

En la actualidad, la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico son enfermedades que representan un grave problema global de salud pública. A consecuencia de ello, en las últimas décadas ha aumentado el interés por estudiar los efectos de estas patologías sobre el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso central. Uno de los aspectos más ignorados en la bibliografía ha sido el impacto que tienen sobre los sistemas sensoriales, entre los que se encuentra el olfato. El sistema olfativo se relaciona con distintas funciones vitales, como activar mecanismos de defensa, contribuir a la inducción de reflejos apetitivos y digestivos, y reconocer individuos de su misma especie, e incluso tiene implicaciones sociosexuales. Se sabe que, además, desempeña un papel importante en la ingesta de alimentos, en la decisión de lo que se va a consumir, en los mecanismos de apetito y saciedad y, por ende, está involucrado en el desarrollo de obesidad. Estudios clínicos han demostrado que pacientes con obesidad presentan hiposmia con mayor frecuencia en comparación con sujetos delgados de la misma edad. También se han encontrado alteraciones en el olfato de roedores que presentan obesidad o rasgos similares a los del síndrome metabólico del humano. Las causas por las cuales existe esta asociación apenas están comenzando a investigarse; en este trabajo se revisan los estudios que han intentado entenderla desde un enfoque clínico y preclínico, así como los mecanismos biológicos que hasta el momento se han explorado en la bibliografía


Nowadays, it is well accepted that obesity and metabolic syndrome are diseases that constitute a global public health issue. In consequence, the interest in the study of the effects these pathologies produce in the central nervous system has greatly increased in the last decades. One of the most overlooked topics in the literature is the impact they exert in sensory systems, among which is olfaction. The olfactory system is related to a number of vital functions, like the activation of defense mechanisms, contribution to appetitive and digestive reflexes, recognition of conspecifics, and even has socio-sexual implications. It has been discovered that the olfactory system also plays a crucial role in food intake, the choice of foods, appetite and satiety mechanisms; therefore, it is involved in obesity development. Clinical studies have proven that obese patients exhibit hyposmia more frequently than aged-matched healthy controls. Olfactory alterations have also been found in obese rodents or in animals with similar features of human metabolic syndrome. The causes of this association are still being investigated. This work reviews the studies that have tried to understand this association from a preclinical and clinical approach as well as those biological mechanisms that could be involved. The evidences here presented suggest that obesity and metabolic syndrome affect the adequate function of olfactory sensory system


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Ratas , Obesidad/epidemiología , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Percepción Olfatoria , Trastornos del Olfato/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/etiología
13.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(1): 9-12, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910766

RESUMEN

PsyCoLaus: A Prospective Study of the Links between Mental Health and Cardiovascular Diseases Abstract. PsyCoLaus, which includes an investigation of mental disorders and cognitive functioning, aims to determine the prevalence and the course of mental disorders in the general population and to study the mechanisms underlying the association between these disorders and cardiovascular diseases. This investigation revealed a very high lifetime prevalence rate of 43.6 % for major depressive disorder in Lausanne. We have also observed that the association between major depression and cardio-metabolic risk factors is essentially attributable to the atypical subtype, characterized by an increased appetite, heaviness in limbs, hypersomnia and conserved affective reactivity. Patients who suffer from this type of depression have an increased risk to develop overweight, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and deserve particular clinical attention on the metabolic level.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Síndrome Metabólico , Comorbilidad , Depresión , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/complicaciones , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos
15.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 96(1): 93-99, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561233

RESUMEN

Purpose: Growing rates of metabolic syndrome and associated obesity warrant the development of appropriate animal models for better understanding of how those conditions may affect sensitivity to IR exposure.Materials and methods: We subjected male NZO/HlLtJ mice, a strain prone to spontaneous obesity and diabetes, to 0, 5.5, 6.37, 7.4 or 8.5 Gy (137Cs) of total body irradiation (TBI). Mice were monitored for 30 days, after which proximal jejunum and colon tissues were collected for further histological and molecular analysis.Results: Obese NZO/HlLtJ male mice are characterized by their lower sensitivity to IR at doses of 6.37 Gy and under, compared to other strains. Further escalation of the dose, however, results in a steep survival curve, reaching LD100/30 values at a dose of 8.5 Gy. Alterations in the expression of various tight junction-related proteins coupled with activation of inflammatory responses and cell death were the main contributors to the gastrointestinal syndrome.Conclusions: We demonstrate that metabolic syndrome with exhibited hyperglycemia but without alterations to the microvasculature is not a pre-requisite of the increased sensitivity to TBI at high doses. Our studies indicate the potential of NZO/HlLtJ mice for the studies on the role of metabolic syndrome in acute radiation toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/etiología , Traumatismos por Radiación/etiología , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/patología , Ratones , Obesidad/complicaciones , Traumatismos por Radiación/sangre , Traumatismos por Radiación/complicaciones , Traumatismos por Radiación/patología , Análisis de Supervivencia , Uniones Estrechas/efectos de la radiación
16.
World Neurosurg ; 135: e500-e504, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857269

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Investigate the differences in spine surgery cost for metabolic syndrome patients. METHODS: Included were patients ≥18 undergoing fusion. Patients were divided into cervical, thoracic, and lumbar groups based on their upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV). Metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) included those with body mass index >30, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Propensity score matching for invasiveness between non-MetS and MetS used to assess cost differences. Total surgery costs for MetS and non-MetS adult spinal deformity patients were compared. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost per QALY for UIV groups were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 312 invasiveness matched surgeries met inclusion criteria. Baseline demographics and surgical details included age 57.7 ± 14.5, 54% female, body mass index 31.1 ± 6.6, 17% anterior approach, 70% posterior approach, 13% combined approach, and 3.8 ± 4.1 levels fused. The average costs of surgery between MetS and non-Mets patients was $60,579.30 versus $52,053.23 (P < 0.05). When costs were compared between UIV groups, MetS patients had higher cervical and thoracic surgery costs ($23,203.43 vs. $19,153.43, $75,230.05 vs. $65,746.16, all P < 0.05) and lower lumbar costs ($31,775.64 vs. $42,643.37, P < 0.05). However, the average cost per QALY at 1 year was $639,069.32 for MetS patients and $425,840.30 for non-Mets patients (P < 0.05). At life expectancy, the cost per QALY was $45,456.83 versus $26,026.84 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: When matched by invasiveness, MetS patients had an average 16.4% higher surgery costs, 50% higher costs per QALY at 1 year, and 75% higher cost per QALY at life expectancy. Further research is needed on the possible utility of reducing comorbidities in preoperative patients.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Curvaturas de la Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/economía , Vértebras Cervicales/cirugía , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Humanos , Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/economía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Curvaturas de la Columna Vertebral/economía , Vértebras Torácicas/cirugía
17.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(1): 185-193, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292644

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with knee cartilage volume loss and bone marrow lesion (BML) change. METHODS: Longitudinal data on 435 participants from a population-based cohort study were analysed. Blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were collected. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. MRI of the right knee was performed to measure cartilage volume and BML. Radiographic knee OA was assessed by X-ray and graded using the Altman atlas for osteophytes and joint space narrowing. RESULTS: Thirty-two percent of participants had MetS and 60% had radiographic knee OA. In multivariable analysis, the following were independently associated with medial tibial cartilage volume loss: MetS, ß = -0.30%; central obesity, ß = -0.26%; and low HDL, ß = -0.25% per annum. MetS, hypertriglyceridaemia and low HDL were also associated with higher risk of BML size increase in the medial compartment (MetS: relative risk 1.72, 95% CI 1.22, 2.43; hypertriglyceridaemia: relative risk 1.43, 95% CI 1.01, 2.02; low HDL: relative risk 1.67, 95% CI 1.18, 2.36). After further adjustment for central obesity or BMI, MetS and low HDL remained statistically significant for medial tibial cartilage volume loss and BML size increase. The number of components of MetS correlated with greater cartilage volume loss and BML size increase (both P for trend <0.05). There were no statistically significant associations in the lateral compartment. CONCLUSION: MetS and low HDL are associated with medial compartment cartilage volume loss and BML size increase, suggesting that targeting these factors has the potential to prevent or slow knee structural change.


Asunto(s)
Cartílago Articular/patología , Predicción , Articulación de la Rodilla/patología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/etiología , Radiografía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
18.
J Surg Res ; 245: 544-551, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as the cluster: hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. Operative diverticulitis in the setting of MS can be challenging to manage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of MS on outcomes in operative acute diverticulitis patients. METHODS: We analyzed the (2012-2015) NSQIP database. We identified acute diverticulitis patients who underwent surgery. MS was defined as follows: body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2, hypertension, and diabetes. Our primary outcome measure was the occurrence of any adverse events (complications, 30-d readmission, and mortality). Secondary outcome measures were complications, hospital length of stay, 30-d readmission, and mortality. Regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 4572 patients were identified. Mean BMI was 29 ± 10 kg/m2. 14.6% (275) of obese patients had metabolic syndrome. Adverse events were higher in patients with MS (odds ratio [OR], 8.1; P < 0.001) versus the obese group and the obese and hypertensive group. Patients with MS had higher odds of reintubation (OR 1.9; P = 0.03), >48 h ventilator dependence (OR 3.5; P = 0.01), myocardial infarction (OR 2.3; P = 0.03), and superficial or deep surgical-site infections (OR 2.1; P = 0.01) compared with patients with no MS. MS patients had a longer length of stay (ß = 1.23; P = 0.02), higher 30-d readmissions (OR 1.7; P < 0.01), and mortality (OR 2.1; P < 0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of metabolic syndrome for predicting adverse outcomes was 0.797, which was higher than the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for BMI (0.58), hypertension (0.51), or diabetes (0.64) alone. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events in patients with MS after surgery for diverticulitis are higher than obesity, hypertension, or diabetes alone. Patients with MS have longer recovery, and higher rates of complications, readmissions, and mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III Prognostic.


Asunto(s)
Colectomía/efectos adversos , Colostomía/efectos adversos , Diverticulitis del Colon/cirugía , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Colectomía/métodos , Colostomía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148(1): 96-101, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560127

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To probe the influence of metabolic syndrome (MS) on the long-term survival of patients with non-endometrioid adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Between January 2003 and December 2012, 139 Chinese patients with non-endometrial adenocarcinoma were analyzed in a retrospective study. Patients who had received any treatment before surgery were excluded. Survival times were compared between patients with and without MS. RESULTS: Overall, 41 (29.5%) patients had MS; the highest incidence of MS was observed in those with uterine serous carcinoma (19/45, 42.2%). For uterine serous carcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma, MS was an independent predictive factor of morbidity (P=0.023 and 0.016, respectively). For the overall population, those with MS had a significantly lower survival rate than those without MS (P=0.008), and the median overall survival (mOS) was 15 months versus 55 months (P<0.001, hazard ratio [HR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.69). Similarly, a lower survival rate (P=0.020) and shorter mOS (19 months vs 55 months, P=0.007, HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.83) were also found in the uterine serous carcinoma population with MS. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that disease stage (P=0.023) and MS (P=0.008) were independent prognostic factors for uterine serous carcinoma. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that MS is a prognostic factor for non-endometrioid adenocarcinoma, especially uterine serous carcinoma.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/mortalidad , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidad , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Neoplasias Uterinas/mortalidad , Adulto , Anciano , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/complicaciones , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/patología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/complicaciones , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Neoplasias Uterinas/complicaciones , Neoplasias Uterinas/patología
20.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(5): 535-541, 2019 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719007

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as an association between diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with several cardiovascular disorders, including coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure, ischemic stroke and increased mortality. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is used to estimate thromboembolic risk in AF. However, the association among MAC, MetS and thromboembolic risk is unknown and was evaluated in the current study. METHODS: The study group consisted of 94 patients with MAC and 86 patients with MetS. Patients were divided into two groups: those with and those without MAC. RESULTS: Patients with MAC had a higher MetS rate (P<0.001). In patients with MAC, the CHA2DS2-VASc scores and the rate of cerebrovascular accident and AF were significantly higher compared to those without MAC (P<0.001, for both parameters). The results of the multivariate regression analysis showed that history of smoking, presence of MetS and high CHA2DS2-VASc scores were associated with the development of MAC. ROC curve analyses showed that CHA2DS2-VASc scores were significant predictors for MAC (C-statistic: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.706-0.855, P<0.001). Correlation analysis indicated that MAC was positively correlated with the presence of MetS and CHA2DS2-VASc score (P=0.001, r=0.264; P<0.001, r=0.490). CONCLUSION: We have shown that CHA2DS2-VASc score and presence of MetS rates were significantly higher in patients with MAC compared without MAC. Presence of MAC was correlated with CHA2DS2-VASc score, presence of MetS, AF and left atrial diameter and negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction.


Asunto(s)
Calcinosis/complicaciones , Enfermedades de las Válvulas Cardíacas/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Válvula Mitral , Tromboembolia/etiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fibrilación Atrial/fisiopatología , Calcinosis/fisiopatología , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Enfermedades de las Válvulas Cardíacas/fisiopatología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/fisiopatología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Válvula Mitral/fisiopatología , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Volumen Sistólico/fisiología , Tromboembolia/fisiopatología
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