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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 670, 2021 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to examine the prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes, both short-term and long-term, among SARS patients, healthcare workers and the general public of SARS-affected regions, and to examine the protective and risk factors associated with these mental health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using databases such as Medline, Pubmed, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science Core Collection, CNKI, the National Central Library Online Catalog and dissertation databases to identify studies in the English or Chinese language published between January 2003 to May 2020 which reported psychological distress and mental health morbidities among SARS patients, healthcare workers, and the general public in regions with major SARS outbreaks. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 6984 titles. Screening resulted in 80 papers for the review, 35 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of post-recovery probable or clinician-diagnosed anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among SARS survivors were 19, 20 and 28%, respectively. The prevalence of these outcomes among studies conducted within and beyond 6 months post-discharge was not significantly different. Certain aspects of mental health-related quality of life measures among SARS survivors remained impaired beyond 6 months post-discharge. The prevalence of probable depressive disorder and PTSD among healthcare workers post-SARS were 12 and 11%, respectively. The general public had increased anxiety levels during SARS, but whether there was a clinically significant population-wide mental health impact remained inconclusive. Narrative synthesis revealed occupational exposure to SARS patients and perceived stigmatisation to be risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes among healthcare workers, although causality could not be determined due to the limitations of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The chronicity of psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors should alert us to the potential long-term mental health complications of covid-19 patients. Healthcare workers working in high-risk venues should be given adequate mental health support. Stigmatisation against patients and healthcare workers should be explored and addressed. The significant risk of bias and high degree of heterogeneity among included studies limited the certainty of the body of evidence of the review.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Trastornos Mentales , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , /epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/historia , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/psicología
2.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 139(1): 65-71, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has instilled fear and stress among healthcare workers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess work stress and associated factors among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak and to evaluate whether prior experience of treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) had a positive or negative influence on healthcare workers' stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary hospital in Kaohsiung City, in southern Taiwan. METHODS: The survey was conducted using an online self-administered questionnaire to measure the stress levels among healthcare workers from March 20 to April 20, 2020. The stress scales were divided into four subscales: worry of social isolation; discomfort caused by the protective equipment; difficulties and anxiety regarding infection control; and workload of caring for patients. RESULTS: The total stress scores were significantly higher among healthcare workers who were aged 41 or above, female, married, parents and nurses. Those with experience of treating SARS reported having significantly higher stress scores on the subscale measuring the discomfort caused by protective equipment and the workload of caring for patients. During the COVID-19 outbreak, frontline healthcare workers with experience of treating SARS indicated having higher stress levels regarding the workload of caring for patients than did non-frontline healthcare workers with no experience of treating SARS. CONCLUSIONS: Work experience from dealing with the 2003 SARS virus may have had a negative psychological impact on healthcare workers amidst the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Pandemias , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Carga de Trabajo
4.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(2): 126-134, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733255

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the impact of public health measures on paediatric emergency department attendances during the COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks in Singapore. METHODS: Between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020, we retrospectively reviewed paediatric emergency department attendances and admissions in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore before and after a national lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19 in Singapore. Hospital attendances and admissions were compared with data from a corresponding period in 2019 (1 January 2019 to 31 July 2019), as well as during and after the SARS outbreak (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2004). RESULTS: Compared with a corresponding non-outbreak period, emergency department attendances decreased in line with nationwide public health measures during the COVID-19 and SARS outbreaks (2020 and 2003 respectively), before increasing gradually following lifting of restrictions, albeit not to recorded levels before these outbreaks. During the COVID-19 outbreak, mean daily attendances decreased by 40%, from 458 per day in January-July 2019, to 274 per day in January-July 2020. The absolute number of hospital inpatient admissions decreased by 37% from January-July 2019 (19,629) to January-July 2020 (12,304). The proportion of emergency department attendances requiring admission remained similar: 20% in January-July 2019 and 21% in January-July 2020. CONCLUSION: Nationwide public health measures in Singapore have had an impact on paediatric emergency department attendances and hospital inpatient admissions. Data from this study could inform planning and resource allocation for emergency departments in Singapore and internationally.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/tendencias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Adolescente , /prevención & control , Niño , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Admisión del Paciente/tendencias , Pediatría , Estudios Retrospectivos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Singapur/epidemiología
5.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668428

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense RNA enveloped viruses, members of the family Coronaviridae, that cause infections in a broad range of mammals including humans. Several CoV species lead to mild upper respiratory infections typically associated with common colds. However, three human CoV (HCoV) species: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-1, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, are responsible for severe respiratory diseases at the origin of two recent epidemics (SARS and MERS), and of the current COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19), respectively. The easily transmissible SARS-CoV-2, emerging at the end of 2019 in China, spread rapidly worldwide, leading the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare COVID-19 a pandemic. While the world waits for mass vaccination, there is an urgent need for effective drugs as short-term weapons to combat the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this context, the drug repurposing approach is a strategy able to guarantee positive results rapidly. In this regard, it is well known that several nucleoside-mimicking analogs and nucleoside precursors may inhibit the growth of viruses providing effective therapies for several viral diseases, including HCoV infections. Therefore, this review will focus on synthetic nucleosides and nucleoside precursors active against different HCoV species, paying great attention to SARS-CoV-2. This work covers progress made in anti-CoV therapy with nucleoside derivatives and provides insight into their main mechanisms of action.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Nucleósidos , Virus del SRAS/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /metabolismo , Humanos , Nucleósidos/química , Nucleósidos/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/metabolismo
6.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(3): 146-154, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660619

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronaviruses-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged as a new zoonotic pathogen of humans at the end of 2019 and rapidly developed into a global pandemic. Over 106 million COVID-19 cases including 2.3 million deaths have been reported to the WHO as of February 9, 2021. This review examines the epidemiology, transmission, clinical features, and phylogenetics of three lethal zoonotic coronavirus infections of humans: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-COV). RECENT FINDINGS: Bats appear to be the common natural source of SARS-like CoV including SARS-CoV-1 but their role in SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV remains unclear. Civet cats and dromedary camels are the intermediary animal sources for SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infection, respectively whereas that of SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear. SARS-CoV-2 viral loads peak early on days 2-4 of symptom onset and thus high transmission occurs in the community, and asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission occurs commonly. Nosocomial outbreaks are hallmarks of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infections whereas these are less common in COVID-19. Several COVID-19 vaccines are now available. SUMMARY: Of the three lethal zoonotic coronavirus infections of humans, SARS-CoV-2 has caused a devastating global pandemic with over a million deaths. The emergence of genetic variants, such as D614G, N501Y (variants 1 and 2), has led to an increase in transmissibility and raises concern about the possibility of re-infection and impaired vaccine response. Continued global surveillance is essential for both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, to monitor changing epidemiology due to viral variants.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Animales , /prevención & control , Quirópteros/virología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Filogenia , /patogenicidad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , /prevención & control , /transmisión
8.
Fertil Steril ; 115(4): 831-839, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750621

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in many changes in how we interact in society, requiring that we protect ourselves and others from an invisible, airborne enemy called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Until a vaccine is developed, and it reaches high levels of distribution, everyone must continue to be diligent to limit the viral spread. The practice of assisted reproduction during this pandemic presents unique challenges in addition to the risks identified in general clinical care. The established good tissue practices employed in laboratories are not designed to protect gametes and embryos from an airborne virus, particularly one that may be shed by an asymptomatic staff member. Armed with theoretical risks but lacking direct evidence, assisted-reproduction teams must examine every aspect of their practice, identify areas at a risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and develop a mitigation plan. Several professional fertility societies have created guidelines for the best practices in patient care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. As we learn more about SARS-CoV-2, updates have been issued to help adapt infection-control and -prevention protocols. This review discusses what is currently known about SARS-CoV-2 infection risks in assisted reproductive centers and recommends the implementation of specific mitigation strategies.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/normas , Control de Infecciones/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Técnicas Reproductivas Asistidas/normas , /epidemiología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/normas , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión
9.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 13, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593415

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Children with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia admitted to 20 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective multi-center cohort study. A total of 64 children with COVID-19 were defined as the COVID-19 cohort, of which 40 children who developed pneumonia were defined as the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort. Another 284 children with pneumonia caused by other viruses were defined as the viral pneumonia cohort. The epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings were compared by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Contingency table method. Drug usage, immunotherapy, blood transfusion, and need for oxygen support were collected as the treatment indexes. Mortality, intensive care needs and symptomatic duration were collected as the outcome indicators. RESULTS: Compared with the viral pneumonia cohort, children in the COVID-19 cohort were mostly exposed to family members confirmed to have COVID-19 (53/64 vs. 23/284), were of older median age (6.3 vs. 3.2 years), and had a higher proportion of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (18/40 vs. 0/38, P < 0.001). Children in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort had a lower proportion of severe cases (1/40 vs. 38/284, P = 0.048), and lower cases with high fever (3/40 vs. 167/284, P < 0.001), requiring intensive care (1/40 vs. 32/284, P < 0.047) and with shorter symptomatic duration (median 5 vs. 8 d, P < 0.001). The proportion of cases with evaluated inflammatory indicators, biochemical indicators related to organ or tissue damage, D-dimer and secondary bacterial infection were lower in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort than those in the viral pneumonia cohort (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared with duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 d, P = 0.885]. CONCLUSION: The symptoms and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in children were no more severe than those in children with other viral pneumonia. Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19. During the COVID-19 outbreak, attention also must be given to children with infection by other pathogens infection.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Adolescente , /terapia , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/fisiopatología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/terapia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
10.
Ageing Res Rev ; 67: 101299, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607290

RESUMEN

Like other infectious diseases, COVID-19 shows a clinical outcome enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal. In Italy, like in other countries, old male individuals, with one or more comorbidity, are the most susceptible group, and show, consequently, the highest mortality, and morbidity, including lethal respiratory distress syndrome, as the most common complication. In addition, another extraordinary peculiarity, that is a surprising resistance to COVID-19, characterizes some Italian nonagenarians/centenarians. Despite having the typical COVID-19 signs and/or symptoms, such exceptional individuals show a surprising tendency to recover from illness and complications. On the other hand, long-lived people have an optimal performance of immune system related to an overexpression of anti-inflammatory variants in immune/inflammatory genes, as demonstrated by our and other groups. Consequently, we suggest long-lived people as an optimal model for detecting genetic profiles associated with the susceptibility and/or protection to COVID-19, to utilize as potential pharmacological targets for preventing or reducing viral infection in more vulnerable individuals.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico , Longevidad , Masculino , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología
11.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(3): 0-0, nov.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195072

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia ocasionada por el SARS-CoV-2 ha supuesto una reestructuración sin precedentes de la asistencia sanitaria y también de los centros de salud. OBJETIVO: Conocer las percepciones del personal médico del Centro de Salud Albaycín sobre la respuesta del equipo de Atención Primaria ante la pandemia de la COVID-19 en los meses de marzo y abril de 2020. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo, observacional de orientación fenomenológica mediante entrevistas individuales. El ámbito de estudio es el Centro de Salud Albaycín. La saturación teórica determinó el tamaño de la muestra (la totalidad de la plantilla médica). Se llevó a cabo un análisis narrativo del contenido. RESULTADOS: Los discursos muestran seis categorías de análisis: organización de la toma de decisiones, características de la respuesta dada, mantenimiento de los pilares de la Atención Primaria, cualidades del equipo potenciadas, rol de la docencia y nuevas dinámicas generadas. Los resultados describen una respuesta adecuada, coordinada con la comunidad y anticipada a las directrices institucionales. La toma de decisiones ha sido consensuada y horizontal, potenciándose las cualidades del equipo. A pesar de las limitaciones, se ha mantenido la accesibilidad y la longitudinalidad. Durante la pandemia se ha visto afectada la calidad asistencial y la actividad docente. DISCUSIÓN: Un liderazgo transformacional, que refuerza el vínculo entre profesionales y fomenta la participación activa también de los residentes, permite una respuesta satisfactoria ante una situación emergente. Contar con la participación de la comunidad puede generar confianza en la organización y mejorar los resultados en salud


INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought about an unprecedented restructuring of healthcare and health centers. OBJECTIVES: Learn the perceptions of medical staff from Albayzín Health Centre regarding the Primary Care team's response to the COVID-19 pandemic in March and April 2020. METHODS: Qualitative, observational study with a phenomenological approach conducted by means of individual interviews. The scope of the study is Albaycín Health Centre. The theoretical saturation determined sample size (the entire medical staff). Content was analysed in narrative terms. RESULTS: Conversations revealed six categories of analysis: organization of the decision-making process, characteristics of the response provided, maintaining the cornerstones of Primary Care, enhanced team qualities, role of teaching and new dynamics generated. The results report an adequate response, which was coordinated with the community and anticipated institutional guidelines. Decision-making was consensual and horizontal, which enhanced the team's qualities. Despite the limitations, accessibility and longitudinal configuration have been maintained. Both the quality of care and teaching have been affected during the pandemic. DISCUSSION: Transformational leadership, which strengthens the bond between professionals and encourages residents to participate actively, facilitates a satisfactory response to an emerging situation. Having the community participate can build trust in the organization and improve health outcomes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Planificación de Instituciones de Salud/organización & administración , Personal de Salud/organización & administración , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24650, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578592

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of infectious diseases caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At the beginning of 2020, a sudden outbreak of novel pneumonia, originated from Wuhan, China, swiftly evolves to a worldwide pandemic, alike the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, Chinese-style innovation in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 helped China to reach a faster and more effective success in the containment of this epidemic. This review summarizes insights from the comparisons of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and COVID-19 outbreaks on the basis of preventive strategies in China for this coronavirus pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Política de Salud , Humanos
13.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 56: 102509, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418284

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was recently declared a pandemic by the WHO. This outbreak threatens not only physical health but also has significant repercussions on mental health. In recent world history, major infectious outbreaks were associated with severe mental health sequelae, including suicide. In this study, we systematically review the literature on suicidal outcomes during major international respiratory outbreaks, including COVID-19. We reviewed descriptive and analytic articles addressing suicide during major international respiratory outbreaks. We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, and PsycInfo databases and then utilized an independent method for study selection by a pair of reviewers. Two reviewers completed data abstraction and conducted a narrative summary of the findings. Our search generated 2,153 articles. Nine studies (three descriptive, five analytical, and one with mixed methodology) were eligible. The included studies were heterogeneous, divergent in methods, and with a low degree of evidence. Deducing an association between pandemics, suicide, and suicide-related outcomes remains thus poorly supported. Future research with better methodological characteristics, the use of longitudinal studies, and a focus on suicide as the primary outcome would allow for an in-depth understanding and formulation of the scope of this problem.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Suicidio Completo/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435337

RESUMEN

Little is understood of the social and cultural effects of coronaviruses such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). This systematic review aims to synthesize existing findings (both qualitative and quantitative) that focus on the social and cultural impacts of coronaviruses in order to gain a better understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing a predetermined search strategy, we searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science to identify existing (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods) studies pertaining to the coronavirus infections and their intersection with societies and cultures. A narrative synthesis approach was applied to summarize and interpret findings of the study. Stemming from SARS outbreak in 2003, qualitative and quantitative findings (twelve adopted quantitative methods and eight exclusively used qualitative methods) were organized under five topical domains: governance, crisis communication and public knowledge, stigma and discrimination, social compliance of preventive measures, and the social experience of health workers. The selected studies suggest that current societies are not equipped for effective coronavirus response and control. This mixed-methods systematic review demonstrates that the effects of coronaviruses on a society can be debilitating.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Cultura , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Gobierno , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Pandemias , Cooperación del Paciente , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Discriminación Social
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 105, 2021 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422049

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: When a new or re-emergent pathogen, such as SARS-CoV-2, causes a major outbreak, rapid access to pertinent research findings is crucial for planning strategies and decision making. We researched whether the speed of sharing research results in the COVID-19 epidemic was higher than the SARS and Ebola epidemics. We also researched whether there is any difference in the most frequent topics investigated before and after the COVID-19, SARS, and Ebola epidemics started. METHODS: We used PubMed database search tools to determine the time-period it took for the number of articles to rise after the epidemics started and the most frequent topics assigned to the articles. RESULTS: The main results were, first, the rise in the number of articles occurred 6 weeks after the COVID-19 epidemic started whereas, this rise occurred 4 months after the SARS and 7 months after the Ebola epidemics started. Second, etiology, statistics & numerical data, and epidemiology were the three most frequent topics investigated in the COVID-19 epidemic. However, etiology, microbiology, and genetics in the SARS epidemic, and statistics & numerical data, epidemiology, and prevention & control in the Ebola epidemic were more frequently studied compared with other topics. Third, some topics were studied more frequently after the epidemics started. CONCLUSIONS: The speed of sharing results in the COVID-19 epidemic was much higher than the SARS and Ebola epidemics, and that there is a difference in the most frequent articles' topics investigated in these three epidemics. Due to the value of time in controlling epidemics spread, the study highlights the necessity of defining more solutions for rapidly providing pertinent research findings in fighting against the next public health emergency.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Epidemias , Difusión de la Información , Investigación , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Humanos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología
16.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 763-767, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437211

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an emerging disease. There has been a rapid increase in cases and deaths since it was identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, with over 4,000,000 cases of COVID-19 including at least 250,000 deaths worldwide as of May 2020. However, limited data about the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 have been reported. Given the maternal physiologic and immune function changes during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and developing more complicated clinical events. Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may provide insights into the effects of COVID-19's during pregnancy. Even though SARS and MERS have been associated with miscarriage, intrauterine death, fetal growth restriction and high case fatality rates, the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women has been reported to be similar to that in non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women do not appear to be at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 or suffering from more severe disease than other adults of similar age. Moreover, there is currently no evidence that the virus can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or during childbirth. Babies and young children are also known to only experience mild forms of COVID-19. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo , /inmunología , Adulto , /terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Exposición Materna , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/inmunología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Virus del SRAS/inmunología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/inmunología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 88: 104708, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421654

RESUMEN

The pandemic due to novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 is a serious global concern now. More than thousand new COVID-19 infections are getting reported daily for this virus across the globe. Thus, the medical research communities are trying to find the remedy to restrict the spreading of this virus, while the vaccine development work is still under research in parallel. In such critical situation, not only the medical research community, but also the scientists in different fields like microbiology, pharmacy, bioinformatics and data science are also sharing effort to accelerate the process of vaccine development, virus prediction, forecasting the transmissible probability and reproduction cases of virus for social awareness. With the similar context, in this article, we have studied sequence variability of the virus primarily focusing on three aspects: (a) sequence variability among SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in human host, which are in the same coronavirus family, (b) sequence variability of SARS-CoV-2 in human host for 54 different countries and (c) sequence variability between coronavirus family and country specific SARS-CoV-2 sequences in human host. For this purpose, as a case study, we have performed topological analysis of 2391 global genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 in association with SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV using an integrated semi-alignment based computational technique. The results of the semi-alignment based technique are experimentally and statistically found similar to alignment based technique and computationally faster. Moreover, the outcome of this analysis can help to identify the nations with homogeneous SARS-CoV-2 sequences, so that same vaccine can be applied to their heterogeneous human population.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Pandemias , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , África/epidemiología , Américas/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Secuencia de Bases , /virología , Biología Computacional/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Virus del SRAS/genética , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Alineación de Secuencia , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología
18.
Science ; 371(6530): 741-745, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436525

RESUMEN

We are currently faced with the question of how the severity of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may change in the years ahead. Our analysis of immunological and epidemiological data on endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) shows that infection-blocking immunity wanes rapidly but that disease-reducing immunity is long-lived. Our model, incorporating these components of immunity, recapitulates both the current severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the benign nature of HCoVs, suggesting that once the endemic phase is reached and primary exposure is in childhood, SARS-CoV-2 may be no more virulent than the common cold. We predict a different outcome for an emergent coronavirus that causes severe disease in children. These results reinforce the importance of behavioral containment during pandemic vaccine rollout, while prompting us to evaluate scenarios for continuing vaccination in the endemic phase.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Inmunidad Adaptativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , /transmisión , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Epidemias , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Lactante , /patogenicidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144530, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453532

RESUMEN

Pandemic outbreaks can cause diverse impacts on society by altering human-nature relations. This study analyzed these relational changes during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Swine flu, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola outbreaks by applying machine learning and big data analyses of global news articles. The results showed that social-ecological systems play vital roles in analyzing indirect pandemic impacts. Herein, major pandemic impacts, including reduced use of cultural ecosystem services, can be analyzed by big data analyses at the global scale. All the identified pandemic impacts herein were linked to provisioning and cultural ecosystem services, implying that these ecosystem services might be more recognized or valued more by the public than regulating and supporting ecosystem services. Further, the pandemic impacts were presented with human-centric views, indicating a challenge to adapting nature-based solutions to mitigate the risk of future pandemic emergences. These findings will advance the current knowledge of diverse pandemic impacts and human-nature relations.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Análisis de Datos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Ecosistema , Humanos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología
20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(4): 321-337, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310180

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review the virology, immunology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of the following 3 major zoonotic coronavirus epidemics: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DATA SOURCES: Published literature obtained through PubMed database searches and reports from national and international public health agencies. STUDY SELECTIONS: Studies relevant to the basic science, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, with a focus on patients with asthma, allergy, and primary immunodeficiency. RESULTS: Although SARS and MERS each caused less than a thousand deaths, COVID-19 has caused a worldwide pandemic with nearly 1 million deaths. Diagnosing COVID-19 relies on nucleic acid amplification tests, and infection has broad clinical manifestations that can affect almost every organ system. Asthma and atopy do not seem to predispose patients to COVID-19 infection, but their effects on COVID-19 clinical outcomes remain mixed and inconclusive. It is recommended that effective therapies, including inhaled corticosteroids and biologic therapy, be continued to maintain disease control. There are no reports of COVID-19 among patients with primary innate and T-cell deficiencies. The presentation of COVID-19 among patients with primary antibody deficiencies is variable, with some experiencing mild clinical courses, whereas others experiencing a fatal disease. The landscape of treatment for COVID-19 is rapidly evolving, with both antivirals and immunomodulators demonstrating efficacy. CONCLUSION: Further data are needed to better understand the role of asthma, allergy, and primary immunodeficiency on COVID-19 infection and outcomes.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /transmisión , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/terapia , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Adulto Joven
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