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1.
Braz Dent J ; 30(6): 617-625, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800757

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to determine if the distribution of Langerhans cells (LC) and interstitial dendritic cells (IDC) is altered in AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma when compared to HIV-negative highly vascular oral lesions. Fifty-one cases of AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma and 20 of highly vascular oral lesions were retrospectively retrieved. All cases of Kaposi's sarcoma were confirmed with immunoreactions against CD34 and HHV-8. Clinical data regarding sex, age and lesions location were obtained from pathology reports. Immunohistochemistry against CD207 (immature dendritic cells) and CD83 (mature dendritic cells) were done. LC were in the epithelium and IDC in the stroma. CD207+ cells predominated in the epithelium of the lesions, whereas CD83+ cells predominated in their stromal compartment. Kaposi's sarcoma had a lower CD207+ immature LC count (p=0.02) and an increased CD207+ IDC than highly vascular oral lesions (p<0.001). Moreover, Kaposi's sarcoma also showed an increased number of mature CD83+ IDC than highly vascular oral lesions (p<0.001). There were significant alterations in the distribution of LC and IDC in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma when compared to HIV-negative vascular oral lesions, suggesting that changes in their concentrations may play a role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Herpesvirus Humano 8 , Sarcoma de Kaposi , Células Dendríticas , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1398-1402, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838811

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the survival time and influencing factors of HIV/AIDS cases in Gansu province from 1997 to 2018. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the AIDS epidemic data of Gansu from 1997 to 2018 collected from the National HIV/AIDS information system. Life-span table were used to calculate survival rate, Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw the survival curves and calculate the average survival time, the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to analyze the risk factors for death for HIV/AIDS cases. Results: Among 6 813 HIV/AIDS cases, 715 (10.5%) died, and the average survival time was 195.9 months (95%CI: 189.7-202.2). The survival rates of 12 months, 60 months, 120 months and 180 months were 91.5%, 86.1%, 79.9% and 73.8%, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that the risk factors for death in the HIV/AIDS cases were age (≥51 years old vs. ≤25 years old, HR=1.906, 95%CI: 1.353-2.685), transmission route (blood borne and others transmission vs. heterosexual transmission, HR=1.593, 95%CI: 1.226-2.069), detection way (hospital admission detection, blood transfusion and preoperative examination vs. entry-exit health examination, pre-marital examination and physical examination of recruits, HR=5.113, 95%CI: 2.083-12.547), disease phase (AIDS phase vs. HIV infection phase: HR=4.012, 95%CI: 3.401-4.732), baseline CD(4) count (no CD(4) detected vs. CD(4) count ≥350/µl, HR=5.446, 95%CI: 3.835-7.732), antiretroviral therapy (receiving no antiretroviral therapy vs. receiving antiretroviral therapy, HR=12.019, 95%CI: 9.861-14.648). Conclusions: The average survival time of HIV/AIDS cases was above 16 years in Gansu during 1997 to 2018. Death risk of HIV/AIDS cases might be increased by age ≥51 years, hospital admission detection, blood transfusion and preoperative examination, AIDS phase of disease phase, no baseline CD(4) detected and no receiving antiretroviral therapy. It is necessary to conduct early HIV test, diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and increase antiretroviral treatment rates and CD(4) testing rate to improve the survival of HIV/AIDS cases.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/mortalidad , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Supervivencia , Tasa de Supervivencia
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1476-1480, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838824

RESUMEN

Through the effort in nearly 40 years of Tanzania, the total number of reported cases, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the number of death have declined, while the number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy has increased significantly in Tanzania. At the same time, however, there are new challenges that require more attention, such as the HIV spread to rural areas, middle and lower social classes, and female teenagers. Although the overall performance of the HIV/AIDS prevention and control response is great, there is still a need to survey the new trends of this disease at the micro-level in Tanzania. In addition, there is a necessity of interdisciplinary concern due to the prevalence of heterosexual anal sex in Tanzania.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Epidemias , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Población Rural , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Sexual , Factores Socioeconómicos , Población Suburbana , Tanzanía/epidemiología
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1487-1491, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838826

RESUMEN

HIV molecular network is a recently reported method for studying the transmission characteristics of HIV-infected people. Countries have used this method to conduct a large number of researches on transmission relations, transmission hotspots and epidemic surveillance for the purpose of providing evidence for precise AIDS intervention and control. At present, there are three major methods for constructing molecular networks in the world, i.e. genetic distance method based on pairwise alignment, phylogenetic node support method, and joint parameter method based on the two methods. This paper reviews the progress of the three methods for constructing HIV molecular network to study the transmission characteristics of HIV-infected patients, in order to provide data support for the prevention and control of HIV. Since the emergence of the molecular network method, Beijing, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Sichuan and other provinces in China have reported relevant research results using molecular network analysis, which provided scientific data for further precise AIDS prevention and control. Recent international studies have also predicted that molecular network based transmission cluster detection is expected to become a new method to stop AIDS epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , VIH-1/clasificación , VIH-1/genética , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Beijing , China , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/genética , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1278-1283, 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795586

RESUMEN

Objective: Using field epidemiological investigation and molecular analysis to construct the molecular transmission network of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases (HIV/AIDS) newly diagnosed in Huzhou in 2017, Zhejiang Province. Methods: A total of 160 participants were obtained through a web-based system from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) with the features of diagnosed in Huzhou in 2017 who also had been collected samples for the first follow-up. The basic information of demographic characteristics and risk factors was extracted from the website. RNA was extracted from plasma samples of untreated cases, followed by RT-PCR and nest-PCR for pol gene amplification, sequencing. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by MEGA software for HIV gene subtyping. TN93 model was used for calculating the distance between two sequences. Cytoscape software was used for drawing molecular transmission network. And then an epidemiological survey was conducted to cases in the primary cluster. Results: A total of 138 sequenced individuals (86.3%) were acquired from 160 individuals. Among which, 123 (89.1%) were male. The highest proportion of subtype was CRF07_BC (60, 43.5%), followed by CRF01_AE (46, 33.3%), and with four cases of Unique Recombinant Form (URF, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC) and one case of URF (subtype B and C). A total of 18 molecular clusters included 56 individuals (40.6%) were found in the transmission network under the optimal genetic distance threshold (1.0%). The clustering proportion of CRF07_BC (66.1%, 37 cases) was higher than that of CRF01_AE. There were 9 clusters formed among CRF07_BC, including 37 cases (accounting for 61.7%, 37/60). The primary transmission cluster contained 11 cases, among which 9 cases were transmitted by homosexual sex. The first time of the cases to have homosexual behavior is range from 2010 to 2016, whose media number (P(25), P(75)) of partners was 6 (3.5, 8.5). Most of the cases come from Anhui Province and engaged in garment industry (5 cases), between which there were 8 cases used Blued software to seek for casual partners, 1 case seeking for casual partners in garden. Conclusion: With CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE predominantly circulating, HIV genetic diversity had been noticed in this area. The primary cluster was consisted of high proportion of locally new infections, and a specific population aggregation in limited place existed.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , VIH-1/genética , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , China , Amplificación de Genes , Genotipo , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 873, 2019 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851655

RESUMEN

National Latinx AIDS Awareness Day, October 15, is observed each year to focus on the continuing and disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. In 2017, 26% of newly diagnosed HIV infections occurred in Hispanics/Latinos (1). Seventy-five percent of these newly diagnosed HIV infections in Hispanics/ Latinos were in men who have sex with men (MSM), and an additional 3% were in MSM who inject drugs (1).


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/etnología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190086, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859940

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a major public health issue in Brazil. This ecological study aimed to evaluate the spatiotemporal distribution of notified new AIDS cases in Brazil between 2012 and 2016. METHODS: A Bayesian spatiotemporal model based on the Poisson distribution was used to obtain smoothed incidence estimates of AIDS in each of the 133 Brazilian intermediate regions. RESULTS: Spatial distribution of new AIDS cases is highly heterogeneous. Regions with higher gross domestic product per capita tend to have higher incidence rates of AIDS. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to prevent and control AIDS should consider regional differences.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190193, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859945

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among adolescents is increasing. This study aimed to analyze this current situation in Rio de Janeiro City. METHODS: This was a retrospective longitudinal study using secondary data from the National System of Notifiable Diseases database of cases in adolescents aged 13-19 years. RESULTS: There were 885 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases from 1978 to 2017 and 445 human immunodeficiency virus new cases from 2014 to 2017. Over time, sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases increase. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic in adolescents requires novel prevention policies.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Epidemias , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(47): 1089, 2019 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851652

RESUMEN

World AIDS Day, observed annually on December 1, draws attention to the status of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. Approximately 37.9 million persons worldwide are living with HIV infection, including 1.7 million persons newly infected in 2018 (1).


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Epidemias , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Humanos
11.
ABCS health sci ; 44(3): 180-186, 20 dez 2019. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047750

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Motor changes are observed in people living with HIV/AIDS. These changes may be associated with the chronicity of infection, continued use of antiretroviral medication, and/or the presence of comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate postural sway in people living with asymptomatic HIV/AIDS under treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Twenty-seven subjects, recruited at an HIV referral center, aged between 30 and 40 years, participated in the study, divided into two groups: HIV group (n=12) and non-HIV group (n=15). The participants performed an experimental task, remaining on a force platform in a static position, in bipedal support and semi-tandem positions, in conditions with and without vision. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that visual occlusion, when the bipedal base was adopted, generated significant differences in the area of oscillation and mean velocity in both groups. Differences were also observed in the area and mean velocity of both groups when the semi-tandem position was adopted without vision. When comparing the groups, it was possible to identify significant differences in the semi-tandem base with vision. CONCLUSION: Considering these results, it was found that postural oscillation was higher in the visual occlusion condition for both groups. Concomitant to this, we conclude that in the challenging condition, where the base of support is reduced, the HIV group presents greater oscillation (medial-lateral) than the non-HIV group.


INTRODUÇÃO: Alterações motoras são observadas em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS. Essas alterações podem estar associadas à cronicidade da infecção, uso contínuo da medicação antiretroviral e ou pela presença de comorbidades. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a oscilação postural de pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS assintomáticos em tratamento com terapia antirretroviral altamente ativa. MÉTODOS: Vinte e sete indivíduos, recrutados em um centro de referência em HIV, com idade entre 30 e 40 anos, participaram do estudo, divididos em dois grupos: grupo HIV (n=12) e grupo não HIV (n=15). Os participantes realizaram uma tarefa experimental, permanecendo em uma plataforma de força em posição estática, em posições de apoio bipodal e semi-tandem, em condições com e sem visão. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que a oclusão visual, quando adotada a base bipodal, gerou diferenças significativas na área de oscilação e velocidade média em ambos os grupos. Diferenças também foram observadas na área e velocidade média de ambos os grupos quando a posição semi-tandem foi adotada sem visão. Ao comparar os grupos, foi possível identificar diferenças significativas na base semi-tandem com visão. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando esses resultados, constatou-se que a oscilação postural foi maior na condição de oclusão visual para ambos os grupos. Concomitante a isso, concluímos que na condição desafiadora, onde a base de suporte é reduzida, o grupo HIV apresenta maior oscilação (médiolateral) que o grupo não HIV.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , VIH , Balance Postural , Actividad Motora
12.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(3): 171-180, set-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046155

RESUMEN

O processo de envelhecimento populacional e o aumento do número de casos de Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST) em idosos evidenciam a necessidade de ações voltadas para a terceira idade. Trata-se um estudo analítico observacional transversal, exploratório, com o objetivo de investigar situações de vulnerabilidade relacionadas à IST em idosos usuários de um Centro de Testagem e Aconselhamento para DTS/Aids de um município de médio porte do estado da Bahia, Brasil, no período de 2006 a 2012. Foram utilizados dados secundários de 233 usuários, com 60 anos ou mais, coletados dos Formulários de Entrada do Sistema de Informação do Centro de Testagem e Aconselhamento, prontuários clínicos e folha de descrição do atendimento. Houve predomínio de usuários do sexo masculino (60,94%), faixa etária de 60 a 70 anos (75,97%), cor parda (26,61%), casados (61,80%), aposentados (57,08%) e com escolaridade de 4 a 7 anos de estudo (35,19%). A maioria relatou a relação sexual como tipo de exposição (76,39%), preferência heterossexual (92,27%) e parceria fixa (72,96%). A frequência de uso do preservativo foi baixa com o parceiro não fixo (32,73%) e com o parceiro fixo (5,58%). A prevalência de IST foi 25,32%, com maior percentual entre os homens. A IST mais prevalente foi a hepatite C (10,73%), seguida da hepatite B (8,58%), sífilis (7,73%) e HIV (3,43). A faixa etária menor que 70 anos mostrou associação estatisticamente significativa com a presença de IST. Os resultados evidenciaram práticas sexuais inseguras e elevada vulnerabilidade dos idosos às IST, havendo necessidade de ações preventivas direcionadas a esse grupo populacional, considerando suas necessidades e especificidades.


The population aging process and the increase in the number of cases of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) in the elderly shows the need of actions aimed at that population. This is an exploratory, observational, cross-sectional study to investigate vulnerability situations related to Sexually Transmitted Infections in elderly users of an STD/AIDS Counseling Center of a medium-sized city in the state of Bahia, Brazil, from 2006 to 2012. The study used secondary data from 233 users aged 60 or older, collected from the Counseling Center Information System Admission Forms, clinical records and service description sheet. There was a predominance of male users (60.94%), 60 to 70 years old (75.97%), brown (26.61%), married (61.80%), retired (57,8%) and with 4 to 7 years of schooling (35,19%). Most reported sexual intercourse as the exposure type (76.39%), heterosexual preference (92.27%) and stable partnership (72.96%). The frequency of condom use was low with non-stable partners (32.73%) and with stable partners (5.58%). The prevalence of STI was 25.32%, with greater percentage among men. The most prevalent STI was hepatitis C (10.73%), followed by hepatitis B (8.58%), syphilis (7.73%) and HIV (3.43). The age group younger than 70 years showed a statistically significant association with the presence of STI. The results evidenced unsafe sexual practices and high vulnerability of the elderly to STIs, requiring preventive actions aimed at that population group, considering their needs and specificities.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anciano , Sífilis/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/clasificación , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Hepatitis/prevención & control , Envejecimiento
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 925, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ruili is a border city in southwest China along the heroin trafficking route. In recent decades, the city has witnessed increased in HIV transmission. The current study aims to explore the spatiotemporal trends in HIV prevalence identify and map the spatial variation and clustering of factors associated with HIV transmission through drug use and heterosexual contact transmissions at the village level from 1989 through 2016. METHODS: Geographic information system-based spatiotemporal analyses, including global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses and space-time scanning statistics, were applied to detect the location and extent of HIV/AIDS high-risk areas. RESULTS: Drug use and heterosexual contact were identified as the major transmission routes causing infection in Ruili. Results of global spatial analysis showed significant clustering throughout the city caused by transmission via drug use in the early phase of the epidemic and transmission via heterosexual contact in the late phase of the epidemic during the study period. Hotspots of transmission from drug use were randomly distributed throughout the city. However, the hotspots of transmission by heterosexual contact were located in the central area only around the Jiegao China-Myanmar land port. Space-time scanning showed that transmission from drug use clustered in the southwest area between 1989 and 1990, while transmission by heterosexual contact clustered in the central area between 2004 and 2014. CONCLUSIONS: Heterosexual contact has become the dominant mode of transmission. Interventions should focus on highly clustered area where is around the Jiegao land port.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/transmisión , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Análisis por Conglomerados , Epidemias , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Heterosexualidad , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Prevalencia , Conducta Sexual , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/virología
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1516, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718615

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In populations that lack vital registration systems, under-5 mortality (U5M) is commonly estimated using survey-based approaches, including indirect methods. One assumption of indirect methods is that a mother's survival and her children's survival are not correlated, but in populations affected by HIV/AIDS this assumption is violated, and thus indirect estimates are biased. Our goal was to estimate the magnitude of the bias, and to create a predictive model to correct it. METHODS: We used an individual-level, discrete time-step simulation model to measure how the bias in indirect estimates of U5M changes under various fertility rates, mortality rates, HIV/AIDS rates, and levels of antiretroviral therapy. We simulated 4480 populations in total and measured the amount of bias in U5M due to HIV/AIDS. We also developed a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood to correct this bias. RESULTS: We found that indirect methods can underestimate U5M by 0-41% in populations with HIV prevalence of 0-40%. Applying our model to 2010 survey data from Malawi and Tanzania, we show that indirect methods would underestimate U5M by up to 7.7% in those countries at that time. Our best fitting model to correct bias in U5M had a root median square error of 0.0012. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect estimates of U5M can be significantly biased in populations affected by HIV/AIDS. Our predictive model allows scholars and practitioners to correct that bias using commonly measured population characteristics. Policies and programs based on indirect estimates of U5M in populations with generalized HIV epidemics may need to be reevaluated after accounting for estimation bias.


Asunto(s)
Sesgo , Mortalidad del Niño , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Mortalidad Infantil , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Tasa de Natalidad , Causas de Muerte , Preescolar , Epidemias , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 224, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692753

RESUMEN

Introduction: Despite increasing efforts to address the reproductive health needs of persons living with Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV), a high unmet need for contraception exists among HIV+ women in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, Ethiopia promotes integration of family planning (FP) services in to HIV chronic care. Yet the contraceptive prevalence rate among clients remains low. The objective of the study was to assess the role of socio-cultural factors on modern family planning use among HIV+ clients attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics in Addis Ababa sub-cities. Methods: The study involved a facility based cross sectional survey. The ten sub cities were initially categorized/stratified into 5 based on direction (East, West, South, North and Central) and from each category one sub city was randomly selected. The total sample size was proportionally allocated to the selected health facilities according to previous monthly average client load per health center. Participants were selected using simple random sampling technique during their routine visit at the health centers. Data were collected through a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were generated and results considered significant at 95% confidence level using STATA version 14.0. Results: Six hundred and thirty-six clients participated in the study. Majority of them were age between 30-39 years. Though majority, 607 (95.4%) participants approved the use of modern FP method, current use rate stood at 39%. Condom was the most (14.5%) commonly used single method. The odds of FP use by participants who disclosed their HIV status were almost twice that of their counterparts (AOR= 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.95). Participants who held discussion with their spouse/partners concerning FP, irrespective of the frequency had an odd of more than four when using FP than their counterparts (AO= 4.35; 95% CI: 2.69, 7.04). Conclusion: This study revealed that 6 out of every 10 HIV+ clients are not currently using FP methods. Disclosure of HIV status as well as open discussion with spouse/partner were positively associated with family planning use. These study findings call for comprehensive and client focus FP education and counseling in line with disclosure of HIV status and dialogue with spouse/partner in order to increase uptake and utilization of FP among clients. Partners have a great influence on the use and choice of FP methods, so their views are paramount.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Educación Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Adulto , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Anticoncepción/métodos , Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Reproductiva , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Br J Nurs ; 28(21): 1355, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778335
20.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 93-107, nov. 2019.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184868

RESUMEN

Este artículo tiene como propósito reflexionar sobre la situación de estigma y discriminación que afecta a personas con VIH/SIDA. Esto constituye una vulneración a los derechos fundamentales de estas personas y una barrera en el avance hacia la eliminación de la enfermedad. Ya que estudios realizados en diferentes países dan cuenta que las personas en esta condición se sienten discriminadas por la sociedad, y por los profesionales de la salud. Este es uno de los aspectos que ha dificultado el acceso al tratamiento, su adhesión, y educación para el cambio de conducta en los grupos de riesgo


Aquest article té com a propòsit reflexionar sobre la situació d'estigma i discriminació que afecta a persones amb VIH/SIDA. Això constitueix una vulneració dels drets fonamentals d'aquestes persones i una barrera en l'avanç cap a l'eliminació de la malaltia. Estudis realitzats en diferents països exposen que les persones en aquesta condició se senten discriminades per la societat i pels professionals de la salut. Aquest és un dels aspectes que ha dificultat l'accés al tractament, l'adhesió al mateix, i educació per al canvi de conducta en el grups de risc


This article aims to reflect on the situation of stigma and discrimination affecting people with HIV/AIDS. This constitutes a violation of the fundamental rights of these people and a barrier to progress towards the elimination of the disease. Studies carried out in different countries show that people in this condition feel discriminated against by society and by health professionals. This is one of the aspects that has hindered access to treatment, adherence, and behaviour change education in at-risk groups


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Ageísmo/ética , Sexismo , Discriminación Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Riesgo , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente/ética , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Personal de Salud/ética , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Seroprevalencia de VIH , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/ética , Derechos Humanos
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