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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(12): 2093-2097, 2020 Dec 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378822

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze influencing factors of instant antiretroviral therapy (ART) and explore associution between strategies of ART and immunological effects among HIV/AIDS patients in Taizhou city during 2006-2019. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV/AIDS patients under ART, and a logistic regression model was used to analyze factors of instant ART. The student t-test and chi-square test were used to compare immunological effect of different ART strategies while the Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate a survival curve. Results: A total of 2 971 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled with 1 786 cases (60.1%) having instant ART strategy. The proportion of instant ART were 77.8% (1 170/1 504) during 2016 to 2019. The treatment success rate of the instant ART group (87.4%, 1 561/1 786) were higher than the delayed ART group (84.4%, 1 000/1 185). The results of multivariate logistic regression model indicated that male (aOR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.03-1.59), married (aOR=1.71, 95%CI: 1.33-2.19) and baseline CD(4)(+)T lymphocyte cells (CD(4)) counts ≤200 cells/µl (aOR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.27-2.02) were factors positively related to instant ART while 31-40 years old (aOR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.48-0.84), infected through heterosexual transmission(aOR=0.60, 95%CI: 0.49-0.74) and diagnosed before 2015 (aOR=0.20, 95%CI: 0.17-0.23) were inversely related to instant ART. The increase of the CD(4)/CD(8) ratio was greater, and the cumulative ART success rate was higher each year in the instant ART group than in the delayed ART group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The instant ART strategy has been well implemented in Taizhou city during 2006-2019, and the immunological effect was better in instant ART group. The proportion of instant ART were more than 60.0% among HIV/AIDS patients. Instant ART strategy needs to be strengthened for those who are 31-40 years old, women, unmarried, and infected through heterosexual transmission in an attempt to further increase treatment level and improve treatment effect.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Antirretrovirales , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/inmunología , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243773, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351812

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to elucidate the burden, risk factors, and prognosis of serious non-AIDS-defining events among admitted cART-naive AIDS patients in China. The evaluation of the burden, risk factors and prognosis of serious NADEs was carried out among 1309 cART-naive AIDS patients (median age: 38.2 years, range: 18-78 years) admitted in Beijing Ditan Hospital between January 2009 and December 2018. Among 1309 patients, 143 patients (10.9%) had at least one serious NADEs, including 49 (3.8%) with cerebrovascular diseases, 37 (2.8%) with non-AIDS-defining cancers, 28 (2.1%) with chronic kidney diseases, 26 (2.0%) with cardiovascular diseases, and 18 (1.4%) with liver cirrhosis. Serious NADEs distributed in different age and CD4 levels, especially with age ≥50 years and CD4 ≤350 cells/ul. Other traditional risk factors, including cigarette smoking (OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.3-2.8, p = 0.002), hypertension (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.7-3.7, p<0.001), chronic HCV infection (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 1.4-5.6, p = 0.004), and hypercholesterolemia (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.2-14.1, p = 0.026), were also associated with serious NADEs. Seventeen cases (1.3%) with serious NADEs died among hospitalized cART-naive AIDS patients, and severe pneumonia (HR = 5.5, 95%CI = 1.9-15.9, p<0.001) and AIDS-defining cancers (HR = 3.8, 95%CI = 1.1-13.2, p = 0.038) were identified as risk factors associated with an increased hazard of mortality among these patients with serious NADEs. Serious NADEs also occurred in cART-naive AIDS patients in China with low prevalence. Our results reminded physicians that early screening of serious NADEs, timely intervention of their risk factors, management of severe AIDS-defining events, multi-disciplinary cooperation, and early initiation of cART were essential to reduce the burden of serious NADEs.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/inmunología , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 836, 2020 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176715

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province of South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV infection in the world. Viral load (VL) testing is a crucial tool for clinical and programmatic monitoring. Within uMkhanyakude district, VL suppression rates were 91% among patients with VL data; however, VL performance rates averaged only 38·7%. The objective of this study was to determine if enhanced clinic processes and community outreach could improve VL monitoring within this district. METHODS: A packaged intervention was implemented at three rural clinics in the setting of the KZN HIV AIDS Drug Resistance Surveillance Study. This included file hygiene, outreach, a VL register and documentation revisions. Chart audits were used to assess fidelity. Outcome measures included percentage VL performed and suppressed. Each rural clinic was matched with a peri-urban clinic for comparison before and after the start of each phase of the intervention. Monthly sample proportions were modelled using quasi-likelihood regression methods for over-dispersed binomial data. RESULTS: Mkuze and Jozini clinics increased VL performance overall from 33·9% and 35·3% to 75·8% and 72·4%, respectively which was significantly greater than the increases in the comparison clinics (RR 1·86 and 1·68, p < 0·01). VL suppression rates similarly increased overall by 39·3% and 36·2% (RR 1·84 and 1·70, p < 0·01). The Chart Intervention phase showed significant increases in fidelity 16 months after implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The packaged intervention improved VL performance and suppression rates overall but was significant in Mkuze and Jozini. Larger sustained efforts will be needed to have a similar impact throughout the province.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , VIH-1/genética , Salud Rural , Carga Viral/métodos , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/virología , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Respuesta Virológica Sostenida , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1237-1242, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147923

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the survival time and to explore the releated factors of antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS patients in LiangShan Prefecture, Sichuan Province for reduction of AIDS death rate. Methods: The retrospective research method was used to collect relevant information from the Management Database of Antiviral Treatment from the National AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Information System. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to describe the survival distribution and to analyze the survival time by single factor and the model of Cox proportional riskanalysis was performed to analyze the survival time of HARRT by multi-factors analysis. Results: Total 14 219 adults and young persons aged ≥15 HIV/AIDS patients received antiviral treatment from 2005 to 2015. The average age of all cases was (36.10±9.41) years old and 10 021 were males (70.5%). The main route of infection was intravenous drug use (61.0%, 8 678 cases). At the end of the observation, 10001 cases (70.3%) were still treated, and 1 425 cases (10.0%) died; Cox Regression analysis showed that female (0.67 (0.55-0.81)), route of sexual infection (0.67 (0.56-0.79)), baseline CD4+T lymphocyte count 200-350 (0.41 (0.35-0.47)) and ≥350 (0.28 (0.24-0.34)), was a protective factor in death. At the beginning of treatment, the patient is clinically staging stage Ⅱ (0.70 (0.58-0.84)) and abnormal BMI (1.75 (1.50-2.03)), is a risk factor for death (P<0.05). Conclusion: Early antiviral treatment is of great significance in improving the anti-viral treatment effect of AIDS. Compliance education should be further strengthened so as to enhance their knowledge. And it is feasible to enhance the effect of treatment through nutritional support for prolonging patients survival time and improving the quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , China , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Supervivencia , Tasa de Supervivencia
5.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(5): e2962, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144688

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: En el Tratamiento Antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA), la prevalencia de la adherencia terapéutica es un proceso complejo influido por múltiples factores relacionados con el paciente, la enfermedad, el fármaco, el entorno y el médico. Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de adherencia a la TARGA en personas con VIH/sida de un área de salud y algunas variables relacionadas. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado en 153 pacientes de 18 y más años, con diagnóstico de VIH/sida, del Policlínico "Marcos Manduley", municipio Centro Habana, de enero a diciembre de 2018. La fuente de datos fueron las historias clínicas individuales y se aplicó el cuestionario SMAQ para complementar la información. Se utilizó la prueba de Chi cuadrado ((2) con significación estadística, ɒ = 0,05, se identificaron variables cuyos coeficientes fueron significativamente diferentes de 0 (p < 0,05) y el grado de correlación entre variables utilizando el coeficiente tau-b de Kendall. Resultados: El 70,5 por ciento tuvo buena adherencia a la TARGA. Se encontró asociación estadística y moderada relación directa entre la adherencia terapéutica y la menor edad de los pacientes, débil relación directa con el mayor tiempo bajo tratamiento y ligera relación directa con la presencia de reacciones adversa. Conclusiones: El estudio permitió identificar que el nivel de adherencia terapéutica a la TARGA fue adecuado, usando el cuestionario SMAQ y se relaciona con algunas variables, resultados que concuerdan con otros estudios consultados(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The prevalence of therapeutic adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a complex process influenced by multiple factors related to the patient, the disease, the drug, the environment and the doctor. Objective: To identify the level of adherence to HAART and some related variables in people with HIV / AIDS in a health area. Material and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in 153 patients aged 18 and over with HIV / AIDS diagnosis that received medical assistance at "Marcios Manduley" Polyclinic in Centro Habana municipality from January to December 2018. Data were obtained from individual medical records; the simplified medication adherence questionnaire (SMAQ) was applied to complement the information. The Chi-square test ((2) was used with statistical significance, p = 0.05; variables whose coefficients were significantly different from 0 (p <0.05) were identified and the degree of correlation between variables was obtained using Kendall's correlation coefficient. Results: The results show that 70.5 percent of people had good adherence to HAART. There was statistical association and moderate direct relationship between therapeutic adherence and younger age patients, weak direct relationship with the longest duration of treatment and a slight direct relationship with the presence of adverse reactions. Conclusions: The study allowed us to identify that the level of therapeutic adherence to HAART was adequate using the SMAQ questionnaire. It is related to some variables, showing results that are consistent with other studies consulted(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Atención Primaria de Salud , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/métodos , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudio Observacional
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239087, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960927

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Uganda has been making progress towards universal HIV test and treat since 2013 and the 2016 test and treat policy was expanded from the 2013 guidelines. The expanded policy was rolled out in 2017 across the country. The treatment outcomes of this new policy have not yet been assessed at program level. The objective of this study was to determine the treatment outcome of the HIV test and treat policy in TASO Tororo Clinic, Eastern Uganda. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective cohort study using secondary data. The study involved 580 clients who were newly diagnosed HIV positive in TASO Tororo clinic between June 2017 and May 2018, who were then followed up for ART initiation, retention in care, viral load monitoring and viral load suppression. The data was analyzed using Stat 14.0 version statistical software application. RESULTS: Of the 580 clients, 93.1%(540) were adults aged ≥20 years. The uptake of test and treat was at 92.4%(536) and 12 months retention was at 78.7% (422). The factors associated with retention in care were a) being counselled before ART initiation, AOR 2.41 (95%CI, 1.56-3.71), b) having a treatment supporter, AOR 1.57 (95%CI, 1.02-2.43) and having an opportunistic infection, AOR 2.99 (95%CI:1.21-7.41). The viral load coverage was 52.4% (221) and viral load suppression rate was 89.1% (197) of clients monitored. Age <20 years was the only identified factor associated with vial load non suppression, AOR 7.35 (95% CI = 2.23-24.24). CONCLUSION: This study found high uptake of ART under test and treat policy, with very low viral load coverage, and a high viral load suppression rate among those monitored. The study therefore highlights a need to differentiate viral load testing based on the population needs and ensure each client testing positive receives pre-ART initiation counselling so as to improve retention in care.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Uganda/epidemiología , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven
7.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4242-4258, 2020 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957788

RESUMEN

Viruses remain a major challenge in the fierce fight against diseases. There have been many pandemics caused by various viruses throughout the world over the years. Recently, the global outbreak of COVID-19 has had a catastrophic impact on human health and the world economy. Antiviral drug treatment has become another essential means to overcome pandemics in addition to vaccine development. How to quickly find effective drugs that can control the development of a pandemic is a hot issue that still needs to be resolved in medical research today. To accelerate the development of drugs, it is necessary to target the key target proteins in the development of the pandemic, screen active molecules, and develop reliable methods for the identification and characterization of target proteins based on the active ingredients of drugs. This article discusses key target proteins and their biological mechanisms in the progression of COVID-19 and other major epidemics. We propose a model based on these foundations, which includes identifying potential core targets, screening potential active molecules of core targets, and verifying active molecules. This article summarizes the related innovative technologies and methods. We hope to provide a reference for the screening of drugs related to pandemics and the development of new drugs.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo de Medicamentos/métodos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Pandemias , Proteómica/métodos , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Bases de Datos de Proteínas , Humanos , Peste/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico
10.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(8): e25587, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767707

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic reached the African continent in less than three months from when the first cases were reported from mainland China. As COVID-19 preparedness and response plans were rapidly instituted across sub-Saharan Africa, many governments and donor organizations braced themselves for the unknown impact the COVID-19 pandemic would have in under-resourced settings with high burdens of PLHIV. The potential negative impact of COVID-19 in these countries is uncertain, but is estimated to contribute both directly and indirectly to the morbidity and mortality of PLHIV, requiring countries to leverage existing HIV care systems to propel COVID-19 responses, while safeguarding PLHIV and HIV programme gains. In anticipation of COVID-19-related disruptions, PEPFAR promptly established guidance to rapidly adapt HIV programmes to maintain essential HIV services while protecting recipients of care and staff from COVID-19. This commentary reviews PEPFAR's COVID-19 technical guidance and provides country-specific examples of programme adaptions in sub-Saharan Africa. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 pandemic may pose significant risks to the continuity of HIV services, especially in countries with high HIV prevalence and weak and over-burdened health systems. Although there is currently limited understanding of how COVID-19 affects PLHIV, it is imperative that public health systems and academic centres monitor the impact of COVID-19 on PLHIV. The general principles of the HIV programme adaptation guidance from PEPFAR prioritize protecting the gains in the HIV response while minimizing in-person home and facility visits and other direct contact when COVID-19 control measures are in effect. PEPFAR-supported clinical, laboratory, supply chain, community and data reporting systems can play an important role in mitigating the impact of COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS: As community transmission of COVID-19 continues and the number of country cases rise, fragile health systems may be strained. Utilizing the adaptive, data-driven programme approaches in facilities and communities established and supported by PEPFAR provides the opportunity to strengthen the COVID-19 response while protecting the immense gains spanning HIV prevention, testing and treatment reached thus far.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/mortalidad , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia
11.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 705-711, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734734

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In the recent antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, a large proportion of Korean patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were shown to have low CD4 cell counts at diagnosis and during ART initiation. We investigated the survival trends in patients living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Korea who started ART in the 2000s, and evaluated the risk factors for mortality to elucidate the association between survival and low CD4 cell counts at ART initiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with HIV infection who were aged >18 years and had started ART between 2001 and 2015 in the Korean HIV/AIDS cohort study were enrolled. We compared the clinical characteristics, mortality, and causes of death among the enrolled subjects based on the time of ART initiation. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios of mortality based on the time of ART initiation. RESULTS: Among the 2474 patients enrolled, 105 (4.24%) died during the follow-up period of 9568 patient-years. Although CD4 cell counts at the time of ART initiation significantly increased from 161 [interquartile range (IQR), 73.5-303] in 2001-2003 to 273 (IQR, 108-399) in 2013-2015 (p<0.001), they remained low during the study period. The incidence of all-cause mortality was 10.97 per 1000 patient-years during the study period. There was no decreasing trend in mortality between 2001 and 2015. Age >40 years [adjusted hazard ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.35-5.84] and low CD4 counts (<100 cells/mm³: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.44-6.23) were significant risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Despite excellent HIV care available in the recent ART era, the survival of patients with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART did not improve between 2001 and 2015 in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/mortalidad , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Supervivencia
13.
Farm. hosp ; 44(4): 163-173, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195093

RESUMEN

La adherencia al tratamiento en el paciente con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana sigue siendo foco de atención de profesionales sanitarios e investigadores. Sin embargo, el perfil del paciente y el arsenal terapéutico disponible han cambiado enormemente en la última década. La adherencia inadecuada, no solo al tratamiento antirretroviral sino también a otros fármacos prescritos, sigue siendo la principal causa de fracaso terapéutico. Existen diversos factores asociados a la mala adherencia y otros que facilitan la misma, de ahí la importancia de identificar y manejar las situaciones que puedan dificultar la adherencia e intentar corregirlas. Asimismo, se debe reevaluar periódicamente la adherencia durante el seguimiento del tratamiento antirretroviral y del resto de los fármacos prescritos. En la actualidad no existe un método único para medir la adherencia de forma fiable. Por ello se hace necesario utilizar varios métodos combinados de fácil realización. Adicionalmente, una buena relación entre el personal sanitario y los pacientes facilita la obtención de una adecuada información sobre la adherencia. Las intervenciones para mejorar la adherencia deben ser multidisciplinares, individualizadas y ajustadas a los nuevos patrones de transmisión de la infección, y es fundamental incluir el control de la adherencia a otros fármacos prescritos al paciente con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. El presente documento actualiza las recomendaciones publicadas en 2008 tras una revisión de la literatura científica, lo que ha permitido emitir unas recomendaciones consensuadas para la mejora de la adherencia al tratamiento. El objetivo principal es ayudar a todos los profesionales sanitarios dedicados al control clínico y terapéutico de los pacientes con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (médicos, farmacéuticos, enfermeras, psicólogos y trabajadores sociales) a mejorar la adherencia a toda la farmacoterapia que tengan prescrita


Adherence to treatment in patients living with HIV remains the focus of attention of health professionals and researchers. However, patient pro-files and the available therapeutic arsenal have changed greatly over the last decade. Inadequate adherence not only to antiretroviral therapy but also to other prescribed drugs remains the main cause of therapeutic failure. There are several factors associated with poor adherence and others that facilitate it, hence the importance of identifying, managing and correcting situations that may hinder adherence. Likewise, adherence should be periodically reassessed during the follow-up of ART and other prescribed drugs. It has so far proved impossible to find a single method capable of providing a reliable measurement of adherence. That is why it is necessary to use a combination of multiple easy-to-implement methods. Additionally a good relationship with the patient facilitates the conveyance of adequate information on adherence. It is currently considered that interventions to improve adherence should be multidisciplinary, individualized and adjusted to the new patterns of infection transmission, and that controlling adherence to other drugs prescribed to patients with HIV should be part of such interventions. This document provides an update on the recommendations published in 2008 based on a review of the scientific literature. The main goal is to help healthcare professionals dedicated to the clinical and therapeutic management of HIV patients (doctors, pharmacists, nurses, psychologists and social workers) improve adherence of such patients to all the drugs prescribed to them as treatment for their HIV infection


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento , Consenso , Síndromes de Inmunodeficiencia/tratamiento farmacológico , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Antirretrovirales/farmacología , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (35): 194-217, maio-ago. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139640

RESUMEN

Resumo Neste artigo pretendo apresentar alguns dos resultados de uma pesquisa de pós- -doutoramento, na qual acompanhei grupos virtuais e encontros presenciais de interlocutores adeptos de práticas sexuais tidas como "de risco", tais como o sexo bareback, em eventos exclusivos para homens cisgêneros. O objetivo aqui é analisar um certo regime de regulação ético-moral percebido em campo relativo à preocupação de se afirmar que essas práticas sexuais partem de valores como a "responsabilidade", o "consentimento" e o "cuidado". Nas dinâmicas observadas, esses valores se (re)constroem e fissuram a partir do atravessamento de elementos diversos como drogas e medicamentos, além de diversos tensores libidinais. É sobre a produção contextual desses conceitos e a sua relação frente às atuais políticas pública de prevenção que pretendo me debruçar no artigo.


Abstract This article presents some results of a postdoctoral research, in which I followed virtual groups and face-to-face meetings of interlocutors engaging at sexual practices considered "risky", such as bareback sex, in events exclusive for cisgender men. The objective here is to analyze a certain regime of ethical-moral regulation perceived in the fieldwork regarding a concern to assign to these sexual practices values such as "responsibility", "consent" and "care". In the observed dynamics, these values are (re)constructed and fissured at the intersection of diverse elements such as drugs and medications, in addition to several libidinal tensors. This article addresses these concepts contextual production and their relation to current public prevention policies.


Resumen En este artículo tengo la intención de presentar algunos de los resultados de una investigación posdoctoral, en la que seguí grupos virtuales y reuniones cara a cara de interlocutores que eran expertos en prácticas sexuales consideradas "en riesgo", como el sexo a pelo, en eventos exclusivos para hombres cisgénero. El objetivo aquí es analizar un cierto régimen de regulación ético-moral percibido en el campo con respecto a la preocupación de afirmar que estas prácticas sexuales parten de valores tales como "responsabilidad", "consentimiento" y "cuidado". En la dinámica observada, estos valores se (re) construyen y descifran a través del cruce de diferentes elementos, como drogas y medicamentos, además de varios tensores libidinales. Se trata de la producción contextual de estos conceptos y su relación con las políticas actuales de prevención pública que pretendo abordar en el artículo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Sexualidad/ética , Sexo Inseguro , Placer , Personas Cisgénero , Autocuidado , Valores Sociales/etnología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 460, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611405

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the United Nations program on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90-targets recommends achieving 90% of viral suppression for patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy by 2020, virological failure is still high and it remains a global public health problem. Therefore, assessing the incidence and predictors of virological failure among adult HIV patients on first-line ART in Amhara regional referral hospitals, Ethiopia is vital to design appropriate prevention strategies for treatment failure and preventing the unnecessary switching to second-line regimens. METHOD: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted on 490 adult HIV patients. The simple random sampling technique was used, and data were entered into Epi data Version 4.2.0.0 and was exported to Stata version 14 for analysis. The proportional hazard assumption was checked, and the Weibull regression was fitted. Cox-Snell residual was used to test the goodness of fit, and the appropriate model was selected by AIC/BIC. Finally, an adjusted hazard ratio with a 95% CI was computed, and variables with P-value < 0.05 in the multivariable analysis were taken as significant predictors of virological failure. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of virological failure was 4.9 events per 1000 person-month observations (95%CI: 3.86-6.38). Users of CPT (AHR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.31-0.97), poor adherence (AHR = 5.46, 95%CI: 3.07-9.74), CD4 Count <=200 cells/mm3 (AHR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.07-13.9) and 201-350 cells/mm3 (AHR 4.1, 95%CI: 1.12-15) respectively, and NVP based first line drug regimen (AHR = 3.53, 95%CI: 1.73-7.21) were significantly associated with virological failure. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of virological failure was high. CPT, poor adherence, low baseline CD4 count and NVP based first-line drug regimen were independent risk factors associated with virological failure. Therefore, strengthening HIV care intervention and addressing these significant predictors is highly recommended in the study setting.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , VIH/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Derivación y Consulta , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 313-319, 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657744

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress viral replication to undetectable levels. These low viral load (VL) levels may not be attained in some patients, a situation representing potential virological failure during the course of treatment. OBJECTIVES: To present the results of a Markov model exploring how virological failure and active tuberculosis (TB) affect the progression of HIV in patients on ART. METHODS: A continuous-time non-homogeneous Markov model was used to model the progression of HIV/AIDS in patients on combination ART (cART). We define seven states in our model. The first five states are based on VL levels and the other two are absorbing states: death and withdrawal from the study. The effects of TB co-infection, baseline VL, lactic acidosis and treatment failure on transition intensities were assessed. RESULTS: The model shows that VL-based transition intensities do not follow a constant rate; rather, there are two different trends in HIV/AIDS progression. The first trend is an increase in the prevalence of state 1 (undetectable VL levels) in the first 0.5 years of treatment. The second trend follows thereafter and shows a slow decrease. Within the first 0.5 years of therapeutic intervention, the undetectable VL state is therefore attainable from any VL state. However, when virological failure occurs, there is an increased risk of death. Developing active TB while on cART increases the risk of viral rebound from undetectable levels to VLs between 50 and 10 000 copies/mL by ~1.03-fold. From a VL between 10 000 and 100 000 copies/mL, developing TB while on cART increases the rate of viral rebound by ~2.5-fold. However, if TB is detected and treated at enrolment, rates of viral rebound from undetectable levels are reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The model confirms that virological failure, coupled with developing active TB while on cART, increases mortality rates irrespective of patient CD4+ count status. It also suggests that while TB at the time of cART initiation does not increase the risk of viral rebound, development of active TB after cART initiation does increase this risk. These findings highlight the importance of strengthening VL monitoring, which should be performed every 2 months, especially in patients with TB, and addressing unsuppressed VLs appropriately if they are detected.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Acidosis Láctica/inducido químicamente , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/sangre , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Farmacorresistencia Viral , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Tuberculosis Latente/complicaciones , Masculino , Cadenas de Markov , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/inducido químicamente , Población Rural , Sudáfrica , Respuesta Virológica Sostenida , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 489, 2020 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646373

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This paper introduces a comprehensive case management model uniting doctors, nurses, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in order to shorten the time from HIV diagnosis to initiation of antiviral therapy, improve patients' adherence, and ameliorate antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related outcomes. METHODS: All newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases at Beijing YouAn Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013 were selected as the control group, while all newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients from January 2015 to December 2016 were selected as the intervention group, receiving the comprehensive case management model. RESULTS: 4906 patients were enrolled, of which 1549 were in the control group and 3357 in the intervention group. The median time from confirming HIV infection to ART initiation in the intervention group was 35 (18-133) days, much shorter than the control group (56 (26-253) days, P < 0.001). Participants in the intervention group had better ART adherence compared to those in the control group (intervention: 95.3%; control: 89.2%; p < 0.001). During the 2 years' follow-up, those receiving case management were at decreased odds of experiencing virological failure (OR: 0.27, 95%CI: 0.17-0.42, P < 0.001). Observed mortality was 0.4 deaths per 100 patient-years of follow-up for patients in the control group compared with 0.2 deaths per 100 patient-years of follow-up in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: People living with HIV engaged in the comprehensive case management model were more likely to initiate ART sooner and maintained better treatment compliance and improved clinical outcomes compared to those who received routine care. A comprehensive case management program could be implemented in hospitals across China in order to reduce the HIV disease burden in the country.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Manejo de Caso , VIH-1/inmunología , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/mortalidad , Adulto , Beijing/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Retención en el Cuidado , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 473, 2020 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620082

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) have an increased susceptibility to develop non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Infection with HIV contributes to the development of CVD independent of traditional risk factors, with endothelial dysfunction being the central physiological mechanism. While HIV-related mortality is declining due to antiretroviral treatment (ART), the number of deaths due to CVD is rising in South Africa - the country with the highest number of PLHIV and the world's largest ART programme. The EndoAfrica study was developed to determine whether HIV infection and ART are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and changes in vascular structure and function over 18 months in adults from different provinces of South Africa. This paper describes the rationale, methodology and baseline cohort profile of the EndoAfrica study conducted in the North West Province, South Africa. METHODS: In this case-control study, conducted between August 2017 and June 2018, 382 volunteers of African descent (276 women; 106 men), comprising of 278 HIV infected and 104 HIV free individuals were included. We measured health behaviours, a detailed cardiovascular profile, and performed biomarker analyses. We compared baseline characteristics, blood pressure, vascular function and biochemical markers between those infected and HIV free. RESULTS: At baseline, the HIV infected participants were older (43 vs 39 years), less were employed (21% vs 40%), less had a tertiary education (7% vs 16%) and their body mass index was lower (26 vs 29 kg/m2) than that of the HIV free participants. While the cardiovascular profile, flow-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity did not differ, glycated haemoglobin was lower (p = 0.017) and total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, gamma-glutamyltransferase and tobacco use were higher (all p < 0.047) in PLHIV. CONCLUSION: Despite PLHIV being older, preliminary cross-sectional analysis suggests that PLHIV being treated with ART do not have poorer endothelial or vascular function compared to the HIV free participants. More detailed analyses on the baseline and follow-up data will provide further clarity regarding the cardiovascular profile of South Africans living with HIV.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/sangre , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores/sangre , Presión Sanguínea , Estudios de Casos y Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Triglicéridos/sangre
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233849, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep is a natural, restorative, physiological process that is characterized by perceptual disengagement from and unresponsiveness to whatever going around, which is reversible. Sleep quality refers to a sense of being rested and refreshed after waking up from sleep. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are vulnerable to poor sleep quality as they suffer from social stigma and Anti-Retroviral drug side effects. The study aimed to examine the quality of sleep and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) clinic at Hawassa University comprehensive specialized hospital. METHOD: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA attending ART clinic at Hawassa University comprehensive specialized hospital from May 1-30, 2019. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select an estimated 422 study participants and data was collected using interviewer-administered technique. Sleep Quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 22 software. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with quality of sleep. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance with P-value less than 0.05. RESULT: Out of 422 respondents, 389 participated in the study giving a response rate of 92.1%. The prevalence of poor quality of sleep among study participants was found to be 57.6% (95% CI: 54.72, 60.48). 31.9% (124) and 30.6% (119) of study participants had anxiety and depression respectively. Being between the age of 55-64 years (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI (1.9, 17.8), Age ≥ 65 (AOR:6.6, 95% CI (1.2, 36.9), Monthly income <1656 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI (1.06, 4.4), having anxiety (AOR = 4.4, 95% CI (2.12, 9.2), having depression (AOR = 4.97, 95% CI (2.28, 10) and poor social support (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI (1.16, 7.3) were factors associated with poor quality of sleep. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of poor quality of sleep among PLWHA was significantly high. Average monthly income, age, anxiety, depression, and social support were found to be significantly associated with poor sleep quality. Health care professionals working at the ART clinic need to assess the sleep pattern of ART clients, give psychoeducation on the prevention and management of sleep pattern problems.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/psicología , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , VIH , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Ansiedad/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/complicaciones , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/etiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etiología , Estigma Social , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 443, 2020 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is one of the areas that most severely affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China, and virological failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is serious in this area. Analyses of prevalence and determinants of ART failure, the genetic diversity and drug resistance among people living with HIV (PLWH) helps improve HIV treatment efficiency and prevent HIV transmission. METHODS: A total of 5157 PLWH were recruited from 2016 to 2017. The venous blood samples were subjected to RT-PCR, followed by sequencing of the HIV-1 pol gene, targeting the protease and reverse transcriptase fragments. HIV-1 diversity was analyzed using the DNAStar software and drug resistance mutations were analyzed using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. RESULTS: A total of 2156 (41.81%) PLWH showed virological failure on ART. Males (ORm = 1.25), heterosexual behaviors and drug injection (ORm = 1.44) and mother to child transmission routes (ORm = 1.58), the clinical stage of AIDS (ORm = 1.35), having used illicit drugs and shared the needles (1-4 times: ORm = 1.34; more than 5 times: ORm = 1.52), having ever replaced ART regimen (ORm = 1.48) increased the risk of virological failure among PLWH, while higher education lever (ORm = 0.77) and ≥ 12 months on ART (12 ~ 36 months: ORm = 0.72; ≥36 months: ORm = 0.66) was associated with lower likelihood of virological failure. The data revealed that CRF07_BC (1508, 95.62%) were the most common strains, and the drug-resistant rate was 32.10% among PLWH with virological failure in this area. The high frequencies of drug resistance were found in EFV and NVP of NNRTIs, ABC, FTC and 3TC of NRTIs, and TPV/r in PIs. The most common mutations in NNRTIs, NRTIs and PIs were K103N/KN (64.69%), M184V/MV/I (36.29%) and Q58E/QE (4.93%), respectively. CONCLUSION: We concluded that surveillance of virological failure, HIV-1 subtypes, and drug resistance to understand HIV-1 epidemiology and guide modification of ART guidelines, and target prevention and control strategies should be formatted to reduce the virological failure and drug resistance to promote viral suppression and prevent HIV-1 transmission.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Variación Genética , VIH-1/genética , Grupos Minoritarios , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/sangre , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Genes pol , Humanos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Masculino , Mutación , Prevalencia , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
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