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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMEN

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Pakistán/epidemiología , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247237, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339386

RESUMEN

Abstract Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely "SARS-CoV-2" is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the "SARS-CoV-2" although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among "SARS-CoV-2" and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that "SARS-CoV-2" has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.


Resumo O novo coronavírus (nCoV), nomeadamente "SARS-CoV-2", foi considerado responsável pela pandemia atual iniciada em Wuhan (China) desde dezembro de 2019 e foi descrito com ligação epidemiológica à China em cerca de 221 países e territórios até agora. Neste estudo, caracterizamos a linhagem genética do SARS-CoV-2 e relatamos a recombinação dentro do gênero e subgênero dos coronavírus. A relação filogenética de 39 coronavírus pertencentes a seus quatro gêneros e cinco subgêneros foi analisada usando o método de Neighbour-joining usando MEGA 6.0. Árvores filogenéticas do genoma de comprimento total, várias proteínas (espícula, envelope, membrana e nucleocapsídeo), sequências de nucleotídeos foram construídas separadamente. A recombinação putativa foi testada via RDP4. Nossa análise descreve que o "SARS-CoV-2", embora mostre grande semelhança com as sequências de Bat-SARS-CoVs em todo o genoma (dando semelhança de sequência de 89%), exibe agrupamento conflitante com as sequências de coronavírus do tipo Bat-SARS (MG772933 e MG772934) Além disso, sete eventos de recombinação foram observados em SARS-CoV-2 (NC045512) por RDP4. Mas nem um único evento de recombinação preenche o alto nível de certeza. A recombinação está alojada mais em genes de proteína de pico, principalmente, do que no resto do genoma, indicando que o cluster de ponto de interrupção surge além dos intervalos de densidade de ponto de interrupção de 95% e 99%. Os níveis de similaridade genética observados entre "SARS-CoV-2" e Bat-SARS-CoVs defendem que o último não exibe a variante específica que causa surto em humanos, sugerindo que "SARS-CoV-2" tenha se originado possivelmente de morcegos. Essas características genômicas e sua provável associação com as características do vírus, juntamente com a virulência em humanos, requerem uma consideração mais aprofundada.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Quirópteros , COVID-19 , Filogenia , Simulación por Computador , Genoma Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247604, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339370

RESUMEN

Abstract In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.


Resumo No presente relatório, estudamos os possíveis inibidores de Covid-19 de constituintes bioativos de Centaurea jacea usando uma abordagem tripla que consiste em técnicas de química quântica, docking molecular e dinâmica molecular. Centaurea jacea é uma erva perene frequentemente usada em remédios populares de doenças dermatológicas e febre. Além disso, as propriedades anticâncer, antioxidante, antibacteriana e antiviral de seus compostos bioativos também são relatadas. A Mpro (proteases principais) foi acoplada a diferentes compostos de Centaurea jacea por meio de docking molecular. Todos os compostos estudados, incluindo apigenina, axilarina, Centaureidina, Cirsiliol, Eupatorina e Isokaempferide, mostram afinidades de ligação adequadas ao sítio de ligação da protease principal SARS-CoV-2 com suas energias de ligação -6,7 kcal / mol, -7,4 kcal / mol, - 7,0 kcal / mol, -5,8 kcal / mol, -6,2 kcal / mol e -6,8 kcal / mol, respectivamente. Dentre todos os compostos estudados, a axilarina apresentou eficiência máxima de inibidor, seguida pela Centaureidina, Isokaempferida, Apigenina, Eupatorina e Cirsiliol. Nossos resultados sugeriram que a axilarina se liga aos resíduos catalíticos mais cruciais CYS145 e HIS41 do Mpro, além disso a axilarina mostra 5 interações de ligações de hidrogênio e 5 interações hidrofóbicas com vários resíduos de Mpro. Além disso, os cálculos de dinâmica molecular em uma escala de tempo de 60 ns (6 × 106 femtossegundos) também mostraram percepções significativas sobre os efeitos de ligação da axilarina com Mpro de SARS-CoV-2 por imitação de proteínas como o ambiente aquoso. A partir de cálculos de dinâmica molecular, os cálculos RMSD e RMSF indicam a estabilidade e dinâmica do melhor complexo ancorado em ambiente aquoso. As propriedades ADME e a análise de previsão de toxicidade da axilarina também a recomendaram como um candidato a medicamento seguro. Além disso, as investigações in vivo e in vitro são essenciais para garantir a atividade anti-SARS-CoV-2 de todos os compostos bioativos, particularmente a axilarina, para encorajar o uso preventivo de Centaurea jacea contra infecções por Covid-19.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Centaurea , COVID-19 , Inhibidores de Proteasas , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

RESUMEN

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , COVID-19 , Pakistán/epidemiología , Incidencia , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

RESUMEN

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Seroconversión , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
6.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Esquizofrenia , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Demografía , Hospitalización , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología
7.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-10, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378456

RESUMEN

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the interactions of di- and tri-terpenes from Stillingia loranthacea with the enzyme NSP16-NSP10 of SARS-CoV-2, important for viral replication. Methods: The molecular docking technique was used to evaluate this interaction. Results: The analysis showed that the evaluated compounds obtained RMSD values of 0.888 to 1.944 Å and free energy of -6.1 to -9.4 kcal/mol, with the observation of hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and pi-sulfur, pi-alkyl, and hydrophobic interactions. Conclusion: Thus, the results obtained show the potential of the compounds analyzed against the selected target. Since computer simulations are only an initial step in projects for the development of antiviral drugs, this study provides important data for future research.


Objetivo: avaliar as interações de di- e tri-terpenos de Stillingia loranthacea com a enzima NSP16-NSP10 de SARS-CoV-2, importante para a replicação viral. Métodos: A técnica de docking molecular foi utilizada para avaliar essa interação. Resultados: A análise mostrou que os compostos avaliados obtiveram valores de RMSD de 0,888 a 1,944 Å e energia livre de -6,1 a -9,4 kcal/mol, observando-se ligações de hidrogênio, pontes salinas e pi-enxofre, pi-alquil, e interações hidrofóbicas. Conclusão: Assim, os resultados obtidos mostram o potencial dos compostos analisados frente ao alvo selecionado. Como as simulações computacionais são apenas um passo inicial nos projetos de desenvolvimento de medicamentos antivirais, este estudo fornece dados importantes para pesquisas futuras.


Asunto(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Antivirales , Terpenos , Replicación Viral , Enzimas , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular
8.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-20, 20221213.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369171

RESUMEN

Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 es un Betacoronavirus, así como el SARS-CoV y el MERS-CoV, ambos asociados a abortos espontáneos, parto prematuro, morbi-mortalidad materna y alto número de ingresos a UCI en las gestantes. Además, al ser un virus nuevo, se conoce poco sobre los efectos en la gestación. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar la evidencia disponible sobre el SARS-CoV-2 en la gestación. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, BVS y SciElo. Se realizó la crítica de la evidencia y la extracción de la información con dos instrumentos propuestos por el Instituto Joanna Briggs. Lo anterior bajo las directrices de PRISMA-ScR. Resultados: Se incluyeron 85 artículos que evidenciaron que la mayoría de gestantes con SARS-CoV-2 desarrollaron enfermedad leve a moderada, pero presentaron mayor riesgo de muerte y complicaciones comparado con las pacientes no embarazadas. Se documentó bajo riesgo de transmisión vertical y los resultados perinatales se asociaron a la severidad del cuadro clínico materno. La efectividad del tratamiento no fue concluyente.Discusión: Se discute la presentación clínica de la infección en las gestantes, la transmisión vertical, el tratamiento, la gravedad de la enfermedad y los desenlaces neonatales.Conclusiones: La COVID-19 en la gestación es una complicación que genera mayor morbimortalidad, por lo que es de vital importancia el desarrollo de más investigaciones que amplíen la comprensión de su comportamiento, las implicaciones fisiológicas, emocionales y el posible tratamiento. Esta revisión hace un análisis riguroso de la calidad de los estudios y aporta información valiosa de la evidencia.


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus as well as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, both associated with spontaneous miscarriage, preterm birth, maternal morbidity and mortality and a higher number of ICU admissions for pregnant women. Being a new virus, its effects on pregnancy are little known. This review aims to analyze the available evidence on SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A literature review was conducted in PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, BVS and SciElo. Evidence criticism and information extraction were conducted using two instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute, following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Results: 85 articles were included evidencing that most pregnant women with SARS-COV-2 suffered mild to moderate disease and were at a higher risk of death and complications compared to non-pregnant patients. Low risk of vertical transmission was documented and adverse perinatal outcomes were associated with severe maternal clinical manifestations. The effectiveness of treatment was inconclusive. Discussion: Clinical presentation of infection in pregnant women, vertical transmission, treatment, disease severity and neonatal outcomes were discussed. Conclusions: COVID-19 during pregnancy is a complication that generates greater morbidity and mortality, for which it is vital to develop further research on the understanding of the behavior, physiological and emotional implications and possible treatment. This review makes a rigorous analysis of the quality of studies and provides valuable information from evidence.


Introdução: O SARS-CoV-2 é um betacoronavírus, assim como o SARS-CoV e o MERS-CoV, ambos associados ao aborto espontâneo, parto prematuro, morbidade e mortalidade materna e alto número de internações na UTI em mulheres grávidas. Além disso, sendo um novo vírus, pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos na gravidez. Esta revisão tem como objetivo analisar as evidências disponíveis sobre o SARS-CoV-2 na gravidez. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica na PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, BVS e SciElo. A analise crítica das provas e a extração de dados foram realizadas utilizando dois instrumentos propostos pelo Instituto Joanna Briggs sob as diretrizes do PRISMA-ScR. Resultados: 85 artigos foram incluídos, mostrando que a maioria das mulheres grávidas com SRA-CoV-2 desenvolveu doença leve a moderada, mas tinha um risco maior de morte e complicações em comparação com pacientes não grávidas. Baixo risco de transmissão vertical foi documentado e os resultados perinatais foram associados à gravidade do quadro clínico materno. A eficácia do tratamento foi inconclusiva. Discussão: Apresentação clínica da infecção em mulheres grávidas, transmissão vertical, tratamento, gravidade da doença e resultados neonatais são discutidos. Conclusões: A COVID-19 na gravidez é uma complicação que gera maior morbidade e mortalidade, portanto, mais pesquisas para expandir a compreensão de seu comportamento, implicações fisiológicas e emocionais, e o tratamento potencial são de vital importância. Esta revisão fornece uma análise rigorosa da qualidade dos estudos e informações valiosas a partir das evidências.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
9.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(3): 24-32, set.-dez. 2022. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1381063

RESUMEN

O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar quais EPIs foram utilizados pelos cirurgiões-dentistas e a relação destes EPIs com a presença de dores osteomusculares em virtude do novo estilo de vida profissional ocasionado pelo SARS-CoV-2. Foram aplicados dois questionários com a temática por intermédio da plataforma Google Forms®. Os participantes da pesquisa (n= 110) tiveram acesso aos questionários via e-mail e através das redes sociais. A análise de dados foi realizada por meio de teste qui-quadrado com nível de confiança de 95%. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram predomínio de indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 21 a 29 anos, solteiros, entre 1 a 10 anos de formado, possuindo renda mensal de 1 a 5 salários-mínimos, especialistas, atuando em consultório particular, com atualizações para atendimento durante o período de pandemia. Observou-se relação estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05) na utilização de gorro durante os atendimentos odontológicos para os profissionais que realizaram atualizações para atendimento durante o período de pandemia da COVID-19. Em relação aos demais EPIs não houve relação estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05). No que diz respeito às dores osteomusculares, observou-se relação estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05) apenas entre a utilização de avental descartável e o relato de dores na região do pescoço, ombro e costas. Ademais, não foi possível observar relação estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05) entre EPIs e dores osteomusculares. Pôde-se concluir que uma grande parcela dos cirurgiões-dentistas adotou medidas de proteção contra o novo Coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2), utilizando os EPIs recomendados para executar atendimento durante o período pandêmico. Com relação às dores osteomusculares, os participantes relataram dor com ou sem a utilização de EPIs, porém ao utilizarem avental descartável, houve predominância de sintomatologia na região do pescoço, ombros e coluna(AU)


The aim of this study was to identify which PPE was used by Dental Surgeons and the relationship of this PPE with the presence of musculoskeletal pain due to the new professional lifestyle caused by SARS-CoV-2. Two questionnaires with the theme were applied through the Google Forms® platform. Research participants (n = 110) had access to the questionnaires via e-mail and through social networks. Data analysis was performed using a chi-square test with a 95% confidence level. The results showed a predominance of male individuals, aged between 21 and 29 years old, single, between 1 and 10 years since graduation, having a monthly income of 1 to 5 minimum wages, specialists, working in private practice, with updates for care during the pandemic period. There was a statistically significant relationship (p<0.05) in the use of a cap during dental care for professionals who updated for care during the COVID-19 pandemic period. About the other PPE there was no statistically significant relationship (p>0.05). Regarding musculoskeletal pain, there was a statistically significant relationship (p<0.05) only between the use of a disposable apron and the report of pain in the neck, shoulder, and back. Furthermore, it was not possible to observe a statistically significant relationship (p>0.05) between PPE and musculoskeletal pain. It was concluded that a large portion of dentists adopted protective measures against the new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), using the recommended PPE to perform care during the pandemic period. Regarding musculoskeletal pain, participants reported pain with or without the use of PPE, however, when using a disposable apron, there was a predominance of symptoms in the neck, shoulders, and back(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Odontólogos , Dolor Musculoesquelético , Equipo de Protección Personal , COVID-19 , Hombro , Riesgos Laborales , Salud Laboral , SARS-CoV-2 , Ergonomía
10.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-12, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378476

RESUMEN

Objective: Analyze lysosomotropic agents and their action on COVID-19 targets using the molecular docking technique. Methods: Molecular docking analyses of these lysosomotropic agents were performed, namely of fluoxetine, imipramine, chloroquine, verapamil, tamoxifen, amitriptyline, and chlorpromazine against important targets for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The results revealed that the inhibitors bind to distinct regions of Mpro COVID-19, with variations in RMSD values from 1.325 to 1.962 Å and binding free energy of -5.2 to -4.3 kcal/mol. Furthermore, the analysis of the second target showed that all inhibitors bonded at the same site as the enzyme, and the interaction resulted in an RMSD variation of 0.735 to 1.562 Å and binding free energy ranging from -6.0 to -8.7 kcal/mol. Conclusion: Therefore, this study allows proposing the use of these lysosomotropic compounds. However, these computer simulations are just an initial step toward conceiving new projects for the development of antiviral molecules.


Objetivo: aAnalisar agentes lisossomotrópicos e sua ação em alvos de COVID-19 usando a técnica de docking molecular. Métodos: Foram realizadas análises de docagem molecular destes agentes lisossomotrópicos, nomeadamente de fluoxetina, imipramina, cloroquina, verapamil, tamoxifeno, amitriptilina e clorpromazina contra alvos importantes para a patogenia do SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram que os inibidores se ligam a regiões distintas do Mpro COVID-19, com variações nos valores de RMSD de 1.325 a 1.962 Å e energia livre de ligação de -5,2 a -4,3 kcal/mol. Além disso, a análise do segundo alvo mostrou que todos os inibidores se ligaram no mesmo sítio da enzima, e a interação resultante em uma variação de RMSD de 0,735 a 1.562 Å e energia livre de ligação variando de -6,0 a -8,7 kcal/mol. Conclusão: Portanto, este estudo permite propor o uso desses compostos lisossomotrópicos. No entanto, essas simulações em computador são apenas um passo inicial para a concepção de novos projetos para o desenvolvimento de moléculas antivirais.


Asunto(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Antivirales , Cloroquina , Tamizaje Masivo , Fluoxetina , Amitriptilina , Imipramina
11.
Theranostics ; 12(12): 5522-5536, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910791

RESUMEN

Objective: Nobody knows when the COVID-19 pandemic will end or when and where the next coronavirus will outbreak. Therefore, it is still necessary to develop SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors for different variants or even the new coronavirus. Since SARS-CoV-2 uses its surface spike-protein to recognize hACE2, mediating its entry into cells, ligands that can specifically recognize the spike-protein have the potential to prevent infection. Methods: We have recently discovered DNA aptamers against the S2-domain of the WT spike-protein by exploiting the selection process called SELEX. After optimization, among all candidates, the aptamer S2A2C1 has the shortest sequence and the best binding affinity toward the S2-protein. More importantly, the S2A2C1 aptamer does not bind to the RBD of the spike-protein, but it efficiently blocks the spike-protein/hACE2 interaction, suggesting an RBD-independent inhibition approach. To further improve its performance, we conjugated the S2A2C1 aptamer with a reported anti-RBD aptamer, S1B6C3, using various linkers and constructed hetero-bivalent fusion aptamers. Binding affinities of mono and fusion aptamers against the spike-proteins were measured. The inhibition efficacies of mono and fusion aptamers to prevent the hACE2/spike-protein interaction were determined using ELISA. Results: Anti-spike-protein aptamers, including S2A2C1 and S1B6C3-A5-S2A2C1, maintained high binding affinity toward the WT, Delta, and Omicron spike-proteins and high inhibition efficacies to prevent them from binding to hACE2, rendering them well-suited as diagnostic and therapeutic molecular tools to target SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Conclusions: Overall, we discovered the anti-S2 aptamer, S2A2C1, which inhibits the hACE2/spike-protein interaction via an RBD-independent approach. The anti-S2 and anti-RBD aptamers were conjugated to obtain the fusion aptamer, S1B6C3-A5-S2A2C1, which recognizes the spike-protein by an RBD-dependent approach. Our strategies, which discovered aptamer inhibitors targeting the highly conserved S2-protein, as well as the design of fusion aptamers, can be used to target new coronaviruses as they emerge.


Asunto(s)
Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 , Aptámeros de Nucleótidos , COVID-19 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Aptámeros de Nucleótidos/inmunología , Aptámeros de Nucleótidos/farmacología , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Unión Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(8)2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914832

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A few studies have assessed the epidemiological impact and the cost-effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in settings where most of the population had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of COVID-19 vaccine in Kenya from a societal perspective over a 1.5-year time frame. An age-structured transmission model assumed at least 80% of the population to have prior natural immunity when an immune escape variant was introduced. We examine the effect of slow (18 months) or rapid (6 months) vaccine roll-out with vaccine coverage of 30%, 50% or 70% of the adult (>18 years) population prioritising roll-out in those over 50-years (80% uptake in all scenarios). Cost data were obtained from primary analyses. We assumed vaccine procurement at US$7 per dose and vaccine delivery costs of US$3.90-US$6.11 per dose. The cost-effectiveness threshold was US$919.11. FINDINGS: Slow roll-out at 30% coverage largely targets those over 50 years and resulted in 54% fewer deaths (8132 (7914-8373)) than no vaccination and was cost saving (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER=US$-1343 (US$-1345 to US$-1341) per disability-adjusted life-year, DALY averted). Increasing coverage to 50% and 70%, further reduced deaths by 12% (810 (757-872) and 5% (282 (251-317) but was not cost-effective, using Kenya's cost-effectiveness threshold (US$919.11). Rapid roll-out with 30% coverage averted 63% more deaths and was more cost-saving (ICER=US$-1607 (US$-1609 to US$-1604) per DALY averted) compared with slow roll-out at the same coverage level, but 50% and 70% coverage scenarios were not cost-effective. INTERPRETATION: With prior exposure partially protecting much of the Kenyan population, vaccination of young adults may no longer be cost-effective.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
14.
CMAJ Open ; 10(3): E714-E720, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918152

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians have had concerns related to the impact of the pandemic on their practice of medicine. Our objective was to evaluate physician questions and concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic by studying physician calls made to a medico-legal telephone helpline, and explore associations between the pattern of these calls and the temporal progression of the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study of calls related to the COVID-19 pandemic to the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA) from Jan. 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021. Using content analysis, we classified calls into themes. Using a Poisson regression model, we tested for associations between the weekly numbers of physician calls related to COVID-19 and national rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths. RESULTS: We analyzed 3810 COVID-19-related calls. The highest call volume was observed during the pandemic's early months and was widely distributed across the country. Call volume correlated with rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic's first wave (p = 0.002) but not across the entire study period. Call themes included virtual care (826 calls), the pandemic's effect on health care (1160 calls) and challenging patient interactions (1091 calls). INTERPRETATION: We observed high volumes of physician calls to a medico-legal helpline during the first 18 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. Our data provide insight into the questions and concerns of Canadian physicians, and serve as a contemporaneous account of the adaptability and resilience of physicians during this challenging time.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Médicos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4480, 2022 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918340

RESUMEN

REGEN-COV, a combination of the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab, has been approved as a treatment for high-risk patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 within five days of their diagnosis. We performed a retrospective cohort study, and used data repositories of Israel's largest healthcare organization to determine the real-world effectiveness of REGEN-COV treatment against COVID-19-related hospitalization, severe disease, and death. We compared patients infected with Delta variant and treated with REGEN-COV (n = 289) to those infected but not-treated with REGEN-COV (n = 1,296). Demographic and clinical characteristics were used to match patients and for further adjustment as part of the C0x model. Estimated treatment effectiveness was defined as one minus the hazard ratio. Treatment effectiveness of REGEN-COV was 56.4% (95% CI: 23.7-75.1%) in preventing COVID-19 hospitalization, 59.2% (95% CI: 19.9-79.2%) in preventing severe COVID-19, and 93.5% (95% CI: 52.1-99.1%) in preventing COVID-19 death in the 28 days after treatment. In conclusion, REGEN-COV was effective in reducing the risk of severe sequelae in high-risk COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Combinación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 199, 2022 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918719

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The mid-term respiratory sequelae in survivors of severe COVID-19 appear highly heterogeneous. In addition, factors associated with respiratory sequelae are not known. In this monocentric prospective study, we performed a multidisciplinary assessment for respiratory and muscular impairment and psychological distress 3 months after severe COVID-19. We analysed factors associated with severe persistent respiratory impairment, amongst demographic, COVID-19 severity, and 3-month assessment. METHODS: Patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring ≥ 4L/min were included for a systematic 3-month visit, including respiratory assessment (symptoms, lung function, CT scan), muscular evaluation (body composition, physical function and activity, disability), psychopathological evaluation (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder-PTSD) and quality of life. A cluster analysis was performed to identify subgroups of patients based on objective functional measurements: DLCO, total lung capacity and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were analysed, 39% had dyspnea on exercise (mMRC ≥ 2), 72% had DLCO < 80%, 90% had CT-scan abnormalities; 40% had sarcopenia/pre-sarcopenia and 31% had symptoms of PTSD. Cluster analysis identified a group of patients (n = 18, 30.5%) with a severe persistent (SP) respiratory impairment (DLCO 48 ± 12%, 6MWD 299 ± 141 m). This SP cluster was characterized by older age, severe respiratory symptoms, but also sarcopenia/pre-sarcopenia, symptoms of PTSD and markedly impaired quality of life. It was not associated with initial COVID-19 severity or management. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATION: We identified a phenotype of patients with severe persistent respiratory and muscular impairment and psychological distress 3 months after severe COVID-19. Our results highlight the need for multidisciplinary assessment and management after severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Trial registration The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (May 6, 2020): NCT04376840.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Insuficiencia Respiratoria , Sarcopenia , COVID-19/complicaciones , Análisis por Conglomerados , Humanos , Fenotipo , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(8): 3134-3136, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918988

RESUMEN

This report shows a case of corneal transplant rejection after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), short after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine, in a patient who had undergone keratoplasty more than 20 years ago, with no previous episodes of rejection and no other factor that could lead to the findings on his examinations. After treatment with high doses of topic, oral, and sub-conjunctival corticoids, the patient had a favorable therapeutic response. The signs of corneal transplant rejection must be oriented to the patients and the causing factors actively searched by ophthalmologists so that treatment is rapidly initiated and sequels are avoided. This report raises the question if these events are correlated and whether the patient should receive the second dose of the vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 or not.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna BNT162 , COVID-19 , Trasplante de Córnea , Rechazo de Injerto , Vacuna BNT162/efectos adversos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Rechazo de Injerto/inducido químicamente , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270469, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921608

RESUMEN

Shortly after the implementation of community mitigation measures in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), sharp declines in respiratory syncytial virus and influenza circulation were noted; post-mitigation circulation of other respiratory pathogens has gone unexplored. We retrospectively analyzed all records of a provider-ordered multiplex test between April 1, 2018, and July 31, 2021, in Nashville, Tennessee, and we noted disrupted historical seasonal patterns for common respiratory pathogens during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiología
20.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 207, 2022 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of COVID-19 cases continues to grow in Indonesia. This phenomenon motivates researchers to find alternative drugs that function for prevention or treatment. Due to the rich biodiversity of Indonesian medicinal plants, one alternative is to examine the potential of herbal medicines to support COVID therapy. This study aims to identify potential compound candidates in Indonesian herbal using a machine learning and pharmacophore modeling approaches. METHODS: We used three classification methods that had different decision-making processes: support vector machine (SVM), multilayer perceptron (MLP), and random forest (RF). For the pharmacophore modeling approach, we performed a structure-based analysis on the 3D structure of the main protease SARS-CoV-2 (3CLPro) and repurposed SARS, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2 drugs identified from the literature as datasets in the ligand-based method. Lastly, we used molecular docking to analyze the interactions between the 3CLpro and 14 hit compounds from the Indonesian Herbal Database (HerbalDB), with lopinavir as a positive control. RESULTS: From the molecular docking analysis, we found six potential compounds that may act as the main proteases of the SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor: hesperidin, kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (Ermanin); myricetin-3-glucoside, peonidin 3-(4'-arabinosylglucoside); quercetin 3-(2G-rhamnosylrutinoside); and rhamnetin 3-mannosyl-(1-2)-alloside. CONCLUSIONS: Our layered virtual screening with machine learning and pharmacophore modeling approaches provided a more objective and optimal virtual screening and avoided subjective decision making of the results. Herbal compounds from the screening, i.e. hesperidin, kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (Ermanin); myricetin-3-glucoside, peonidin 3-(4'-arabinosylglucoside); quercetin 3-(2G-rhamnosylrutinoside); and rhamnetin 3-mannosyl-(1-2)-alloside are potential antiviral candidates for SARS-CoV-2. Moringa oleifera and Psidium guajava that consist of those compounds, could be an alternative option as COVID-19 herbal preventions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hesperidina , Éteres Metílicos , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Glucósidos , Humanos , Indonesia , Quempferoles , Aprendizaje Automático , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Quercetina , SARS-CoV-2
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