Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.388
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5730, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593807

RESUMEN

Viral reproduction of SARS-CoV-2 provides opportunities for the acquisition of advantageous mutations, altering viral transmissibility, disease severity, and/or allowing escape from natural or vaccine-derived immunity. We use three mathematical models: a parsimonious deterministic model with homogeneous mixing; an age-structured model; and a stochastic importation model to investigate the effect of potential variants of concern (VOCs). Calibrating to the situation in England in May 2021, we find epidemiological trajectories for putative VOCs are wide-ranging and dependent on their transmissibility, immune escape capability, and the introduction timing of a postulated VOC-targeted vaccine. We demonstrate that a VOC with a substantial transmission advantage over resident variants, or with immune escape properties, can generate a wave of infections and hospitalisations comparable to the winter 2020-2021 wave. Moreover, a variant that is less transmissible, but shows partial immune-escape could provoke a wave of infection that would not be revealed until control measures are further relaxed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/transmisión , Evasión Inmune/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Simulación por Computador , Predicción/métodos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Procesos Estocásticos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931863, 2021 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508064

RESUMEN

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, numerous reports of ocular anomalies occurring in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged. The most frequently reported pathology is conjunctivitis, which may be the first or only clinical manifestation of the disease. Involvement of SARS-CoV-2 in development of alterations in other ocular structures was suggested, including the cornea, the retina, and blood vessels. Possible mechanisms include direct activity of the viral agent, as well as systemic inflammatory response with accompanying thromboembolic complications. Genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in ocular secretions of infected individuals, including asymptomatic patients. Moreover, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor protein used by the virus to enter the cell, has been found on the surface of various structures of the eye, which indicates a risk of transmission through ocular tissues. Therefore, it is crucial to use eye protection by medical professionals having contact with potentially infected patients. This paper is a review of the literature regarding ocular manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a summary of the current state of knowledge about possibility of transmission from an ophthalmology point of view. For data collection, a thorough PubMed search was performed, using the key words: "COVID ocular", "COVID eye", "SARS-CoV-2 ocular", and "SARS-CoV-2 eye". Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection may manifest itself in various ocular conditions. Eye protection should not be neglected, as recent studies suggest the eye as a potential route of transmission. Further search for adequate safety measures in ophthalmology practice is required.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Oftalmopatías/virología , COVID-19/transmisión , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 344, 2021 09 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545062

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. COVID-19 incidence, severity, and mortality rates differ greatly between populations, genders, ABO blood groups, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes, ethnic groups, and geographic backgrounds. This highly heterogeneous SARS-CoV-2 infection is multifactorial. Host genetic factors such as variants in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE), the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene (ACE2), the transmembrane protease serine 2 gene (TMPRSS2), along with HLA genotype, and ABO blood group help to explain individual susceptibility, severity, and outcomes of COVID-19. This review is focused on COVID-19 clinical and viral characteristics, pathogenesis, and genetic findings, with particular attention on genetic diversity and variants. The human genetic basis could provide scientific bases for disease prediction and targeted therapy to address the COVID-19 scourge.


Asunto(s)
Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sistema del Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/genética , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Serina Endopeptidasas/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544858

RESUMEN

The 2020 US mortality totaled 2.8 million after early March, which is 17.3% higher than age-population-weighted mortality over the same time interval in 2017 to 2019, for a total excess death count of 413,592. We use data on weekly death counts by cause, as well as life tables, to quantify excess mortality and life years lost from both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 causes by race/ethnicity, age, and gender/sex. Excess mortality from non-COVID-19 causes is substantial and much more heavily concentrated among males and minorities, especially Black, non-Hispanic males, than COVID-19 deaths. Thirty-four percent of the excess life years lost for males is from non-COVID-19 causes. While minorities represent 36% of COVID-19 deaths, they represent 70% of non-COVID-19 related excess deaths and 58% of non-COVID-19 excess life years lost. Black, non-Hispanic males represent only 6.9% of the population, but they are responsible for 8.9% of COVID-19 deaths and 28% of 2020 excess deaths from non-COVID-19 causes. For this group, nearly half of the excess life years lost in 2020 are due to non-COVID-19 causes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Causas de Muerte , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Grupos Minoritarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/genética , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Preescolar , Grupos de Población Continentales/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Caracteres Sexuales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544865

RESUMEN

Bats are responsible for the zoonotic transmission of several major viral diseases, including those leading to the 2003 SARS outbreak and likely the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While comparative genomics studies have revealed characteristic adaptations of the bat innate immune system, functional genomic studies are urgently needed to provide a foundation for the molecular dissection of the viral tolerance in bats. Here we report the establishment of genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR libraries for the screening of the model megabat, Pteropus alecto. We used the complementary RNAi and CRISPR libraries to interrogate P. alecto cells for infection with two different viruses: mumps virus and influenza A virus, respectively. Independent screening results converged on the endocytosis pathway and the protein secretory pathway as required for both viral infections. Additionally, we revealed a general dependence of the C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase gene, MTHFD1, for viral replication in bat cells and human cells. The MTHFD1 inhibitor, carolacton, potently blocked replication of several RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. We also discovered that bats have lower expression levels of MTHFD1 than humans. Our studies provide a resource for systematic inquiry into the genetic underpinnings of bat biology and a potential target for developing broad-spectrum antiviral therapy.


Asunto(s)
Aminohidrolasas/genética , COVID-19/genética , Formiato-Tetrahidrofolato Ligasa/genética , Metilenotetrahidrofolato Deshidrogenasa (NADP)/genética , Complejos Multienzimáticos/genética , Pandemias , Aminohidrolasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Animales , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/virología , Línea Celular , Quirópteros/genética , Quirópteros/virología , Formiato-Tetrahidrofolato Ligasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Humanos , Metilenotetrahidrofolato Deshidrogenasa (NADP)/antagonistas & inhibidores , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Menor , Complejos Multienzimáticos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Virus ARN/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Replicación Viral/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256203, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555027

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We conducted the present multicenter, retrospective study to assess the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with critical illness among patients with COVID-19 from Egypt. METHODS: The present study was a multicenter, retrospective study that retrieved the data of all Egyptian cases with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to hospitals affiliated to the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes (GOTHI) through the period from March to July 2020. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) laboratory test. RESULTS: This retrospective study included 2724 COVID-19 patients, of whom 423 (15.52%) were critically ill. Approximately 45.86% of the critical group aged above 60 years, compared to 39.59% in the non-critical group (p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis showed that many factors were predictors of critically illness, including age >60 years (OR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.05, 1.61], p = 0.014), low oxygen saturation (OR = 0.93, 95% CI [0.91, 0.95], p<0.001), low Glasgow coma scale (OR = 0.75, 95% CI [0.67, 0.84], p<0.001), diabetes (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.26, 2.08], p<0.001), cancer (OR = 2.47, 95% CI [1.41, 4.35], p = 0.002), and serum ferritin (OR = 1.004, 95% CI [1.0003, 1.008], p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: In the present report, we demonstrated that many factors are associated with COVID-19 critical illness, including older age groups, fatigue, elevated temperature, increased pulse, lower oxygen saturation, the preexistence of diabetes, malignancies, cardiovascular disease, renal diseases, and pulmonary disease. Moreover, elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, and ferritin are associated with worse outcomes. Further studies are required to identify independent predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedad Crítica/mortalidad , Egipto , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257093, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555033

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding patients with COVID-19 and analyse the influence factors. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect RCTs regarding patients with COVID-19. The retrieval time was from the inception to December 1, 2020. The CONSORT 2010 statement was used to evaluate the overall reporting quality of these RCTs. RESULTS: 53 RCTs were included. The study showed that the average reporting rate for 37 items in CONSORT checklist was 53.85% with mean overall adherence score of 13.02±3.546 (ranged: 7 to 22). The multivariate linear regression analysis showed the overall adherence score to the CONSORT guideline was associated with journal impact factor (P = 0.006), and endorsement of CONSORT statement (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Although many RCTs of COVID-19 have been published in different journals, the overall reporting quality of these articles was suboptimal, it can not provide valid evidence for clinical decision-making and systematic reviews. Therefore, more journals should endorse the CONSORT statement, authors should strictly follow the relevant provisions of the CONSORT guideline when reporting articles. Future RCTs should particularly focus on improvement of detailed reporting in allocation concealment, blinding and estimation of sample size.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Publicaciones/normas , Edición/normas , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/normas , Manejo de Datos/normas , Adhesión a Directriz/normas , Humanos , Factor de Impacto de la Revista , PubMed/normas , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257252, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555049

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Teaching work is stressful, moreover during the pandemic teachers' stress might have been intensified by distance education as well as by limited access to social support, which functions as a buffer in experiencing stress. The aim of the research was to investigate the relation between distance education and teachers' well-being, and their close relations and other social relations during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The research was conducted in two stages on 285 Polish primary and secondary school teachers who were recruited by means of the chain referral method. The following measures were used: The Depression Anxiety & Stress Scales-21, Berlin Social Support Scales, The Relationship Satisfaction Scale and The Injustice Experience Questionnaire. RESULTS: The teachers experienced at least mild levels of stress, anxiety and depression, both during the first as well as the second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. It has been confirmed that there is a negative relation between relationship quality change and social relations quality change, and stress, anxiety and depression. The variables taken into consideration in the research have provided the explanation for the variation of stress-from 6% in the first stage of the research to 47% in the second stage; for the variation of anxiety-from 21% to 31%; and for the variation of depression-from 12% to 46%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The research results show that due to distance work the distinction between professional work and family life might have been blurred, and as a consequence teachers' well-being could have been worsened. The isolation put on to stop the spreading of the virus might have contributed to changes in social relations, in close relations in particular, and at the same time negatively influenced teachers' abilities to effectively cope with the crisis situations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Maestros/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica/fisiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Femenino , Educación en Salud/métodos , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Satisfacción Personal , Polonia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Apoyo Social , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257428, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555060

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Twitter represents a mainstream news source for the American public, offering a valuable vehicle for learning how citizens make sense of pandemic health threats like Covid-19. Masking as a risk mitigation measure became controversial in the US. The social amplification risk framework offers insight into how a risk event interacts with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural communication processes to shape Covid-19 risk perception. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis was conducted on 7,024 mask tweets reflecting 6,286 users between January 24 and July 7, 2020, to identify how citizens expressed Covid-19 risk perception over time. Descriptive statistics were computed for (a) proportion of tweets using hyperlinks, (b) mentions, (c) hashtags, (d) questions, and (e) location. RESULTS: Six themes emerged regarding how mask tweets amplified and attenuated Covid-19 risk: (a) severity perceptions (18.0%) steadily increased across 5 months; (b) mask effectiveness debates (10.7%) persisted; (c) who is at risk (26.4%) peaked in April and May 2020; (d) mask guidelines (15.6%) peaked April 3, 2020, with federal guidelines; (e) political legitimizing of Covid-19 risk (18.3%) steadily increased; and (f) mask behavior of others (31.6%) composed the largest discussion category and increased over time. Of tweets, 45% contained a hyperlink, 40% contained mentions, 33% contained hashtags, and 16.5% were expressed as a question. CONCLUSIONS: Users ascribed many meanings to mask wearing in the social media information environment revealing that COVID-19 risk was expressed in a more expanded range than objective risk. The simultaneous amplification and attenuation of COVID-19 risk perception on social media complicates public health messaging about mask wearing.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Máscaras/virología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Comunicación , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Percepción/fisiología , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Opinión Pública , Asunción de Riesgos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257729, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555100

RESUMEN

Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, discussions about online learning referred to the use of e-learning platforms and social networks as auxiliary tools in the educational process. Due to the pandemic, universities were forced to adopt an exclusive online teaching process and most universities today use platforms dedicated to online learning such as Moodle platforms. In this context, we were interested in analyzing the attitude of students regarding the way social networks could be integrated into the educational process, and if the positive attitude of students towards social networks and their use for academic purposes, proven in previous studies, remains positive under the conditions generated by the pandemic. In this regard, the present study aimed at identifying the attitude of Romanian students towards the use of Facebook and Instagram as educational tools and the circumstances in which students believe these platforms could be used by them and their teachers. An online survey was conducted on 872 students from public higher education institutions in Romania. Based on the exploratory factor analysis and the parametric test, the empirical results show that students have a slightly positive attitude towards using Facebook in the educational process, but they have a more reticent, less positive attitude towards using Instagram. Thus, the most appropriate contexts in which these platforms could be used are represented by extracurricular activities. A higher preference for the use of Facebook rather than Instagram, was identified among master and PhD students. No major differences were revealed in student subgroups sorted by gender or study domain.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia/métodos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Masculino , Rumanía/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257775, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate whether FIB-4 index is useful in predicting mortality in patients with concurrent hematological malignancies and COVID-19. We also aimed to determine the optimal cut-off point for the prediction. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study conducted in Dharmais National Cancer Hospital, Indonesia. Consecutive sampling of adults with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 was performed between May 2020 and January 2021. COVID-19 screening test using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal samples were performed prior to hospitalization for chemotherapy. FIB-4 index is derived from [age (years) × AST (IU/L)]/[platelet count (109/L) × âˆšALT (U/L)]. The primary outcome of this study is mortality, defined as clinically validated death/non-survivor during a 3-months (90 days) follow-up. RESULTS: There were a total of 70 patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 in this study. Median FIB-4 Index was higher in non-survivors (13.1 vs 1.02, p<0.001). FIB-4 index above 3.85 has a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 84%, PLR of 5.27, and NLR of 0.32. The AUC was 0.849 95% CI 0.735-0.962, p<0.001. This cut-off point was associated with OR of 16.70 95% CI 4.07-66.67, p<0.001. In this study, a FIB-4 >3.85 confers to 80% posterior probability of mortality and FIB-4 <3.85 to 19% probability. FIB-4 >3.85 was associated with shorter time-to-mortality (HR 9.10 95% CI 2.99-27.65, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that FIB-4 >3.85 (HR 4.09 95% CI 1.32-12.70, p = 0.015) and CRP> 71.57 mg/L (HR 3.36 95% CI 1.08-10.50, p = 0.037) were independently associated with shorter time-to-mortality. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that a FIB-4 index >3.85 was independent predictor of mortality in patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidad , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia , Masculino , Recuento de Plaquetas/métodos , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad
12.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577194

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which initially appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Elderly individuals and those with comorbid conditions may be more vulnerable to this disease. Consequently, several research laboratories continue to focus on developing drugs to treat this infection because this disease has developed into a global pandemic with an extremely limited number of specific treatments available. Natural herbal remedies have long been used to treat illnesses in a variety of cultures. Modern medicine has achieved success due to the effectiveness of traditional medicines, which are derived from medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether components of natural origin from Iranian medicinal plants have an antiviral effect that can prevent humans from this coronavirus infection using the most reliable molecular docking method; in our case, we focused on the main protease (Mpro) and a receptor-binding domain (RBD). The results of molecular docking showed that among 169 molecules of natural origin from common Iranian medicinal plants, 20 molecules (chelidimerine, rutin, fumariline, catechin gallate, adlumidine, astragalin, somniferine, etc.) can be proposed as inhibitors against this coronavirus based on the binding free energy and type of interactions between these molecules and the studied proteins. Moreover, a molecular dynamics simulation study revealed that the chelidimerine-Mpro and somniferine-RBD complexes were stable for up to 50 ns below 0.5 nm. Our results provide valuable insights into this mechanism, which sheds light on future structure-based designs of high-potency inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Proteasa Viral/química , Antivirales/farmacología , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Irán , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Péptido Hidrolasas/química , Péptido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinales/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Proteasas/química , Inhibidores de Proteasas/farmacología , Unión Proteica , Receptores Virales/química , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efectos de los fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Termodinámica , Inhibidores de Proteasa Viral/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Proteasa Viral/farmacología
13.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048026, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569339

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a highly heterogeneous and complex medical disorder; indeed, severe COVID-19 is probably amongst the most complex of medical conditions known to medical science. While enormous strides have been made in understanding the molecular pathways involved in patients infected with coronaviruses an overarching and comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is lacking. Such an understanding is essential in the formulation of effective prophylactic and treatment strategies. Based on clinical, proteomic, and genomic studies as well as autopsy data severe COVID-19 disease can be considered to be the connection of three basic pathologic processes, namely a pulmonary macrophage activation syndrome with uncontrolled inflammation, a complement-mediated endothelialitis together with a procoagulant state with a thrombotic microangiopathy. In addition, platelet activation with the release of serotonin and the activation and degranulation of mast cells contributes to the hyper-inflammatory state. Auto-antibodies have been demonstrated in a large number of hospitalized patients which adds to the end-organ damage and pro-thrombotic state. This paper provides a clinical overview of the major pathogenetic mechanism leading to severe COVID-19 disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/virología , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/fisiopatología , Activación de Complemento , Proteínas del Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangre , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Inflamación/sangre , Inflamación/inmunología , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Inflamación/virología , Mediadores de Inflamación/sangre , Síndrome de Activación Macrofágica/sangre , Síndrome de Activación Macrofágica/inmunología , Síndrome de Activación Macrofágica/fisiopatología , Síndrome de Activación Macrofágica/virología , Activación Plaquetaria , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Serotonina/sangre , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Microangiopatías Trombóticas/sangre , Microangiopatías Trombóticas/inmunología , Microangiopatías Trombóticas/fisiopatología , Microangiopatías Trombóticas/virología
14.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(5): 415-422, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524196

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the literature assessing safety of air travel relating to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission from January 2020 to May 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on air travel and global mobility, and various efforts are being implemented to determine a safe way forward. As the pandemic evolves, so do the challenges that force various stakeholders, including the aviation industry, health authorities, and governments, to reassess and adapt their practices to ensure the safety of travellers. RECENT FINDINGS: The literature was reviewed for multiple aspects of air travel safety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recurring themes that surfaced included the pivotal role of commercial air travel in the geographic spread of COVID-19, the efficacy of travel restrictions and quarantines, inflight transmission risk and the role of preventive measures, the utility of pre and post flight testing, the development of effective vaccines and subsequent challenges of vaccine passports, and the ongoing threat of novel highly transmissible variants. SUMMARY: Much uncertainty lies ahead within the domains of these findings, and ongoing research, discourse and review will be necessary to navigate and determine the future direction and safety of air travel. Recovery will be slow, necessitating innovative, multipronged and collaborative solutions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/transmisión , Pandemias/prevención & control , Viaje en Avión , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Viaje , Incertidumbre
15.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(5): 471-476, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524198

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ubiquitous expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors and its significance as the origin of viral entry have assisted in comprehending the pathophysiology of extrapulmonary manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this review, we focus on the clinical significance of gastrointestinal manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: The global pandemic, a result of the widespread implications of SARS-CoV-2, remains a significant burden to current healthcare systems. Fever, dyspnea, and tussive symptoms have primarily been recognized as the most common presenting signs/symptoms. During the past one year our scope of practice has transcended beyond the management of the respiratory system to incorporate other varying systemic manifestations such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The outcomes reported by recent studies suggest an association between the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and important clinical factors such as delay in presentation, disease severity, and mortality. SUMMARY: We provide a summarization of the most recent in-depth investigations of coronavirus disease 2019 with gastrointestinal manifestations and their conclusions. Although the pathophysiology remains an area of evolving interest, a better understanding of this disease process may allow for early recognition, efficient triage, and improved prognostication for those presenting with gastrointestinal manifestations of SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/patología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/etiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/patología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/patología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/virología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/virología , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad
16.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211042980, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541957

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the truthfulness of patients about their pre-appointment COVID-19 screening tests at a dental clinic. METHODS: A total of 613 patients were recruited for the study from the dental clinic at the Faculty of Dentistry, Najran University, Saudi Arabia. The data collection was done in three parts from the patients who visited the hospital to receive dental treatment. The first part included the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the COVID-19 swab tests performed within the past 14 days. The second part was the clinical examination, and the third part was a confirmation of the swab test taken by the patient by checking the Hesen website using the patient ID. After data collection, statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 26.0. Descriptive analysis was done and expressed as mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage (%). A cross-tabulation, also described as a contingency table, was used to identify trends and patterns across data and explain the correlation between different variables. RESULTS: It was seen from the status of the swab test within 14 days of the patient's arrival at the hospital for the dental treatment that 18 (2.9%) patients lied about the pre-treatment swab test within 14 days, and 595 (97.1%) were truthful. The observed and expected counts showed across genders and diagnosis a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001), and there was no significant difference seen across different age groups (p = 0.064) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dental healthcare workers are worried and assume a high risk of COVID-19 infection as the patients are not truthful about the pre-treatment COVID-19 swab test. Routine rapid tests on patients and the healthcare staff are a feasible option for lowering overall risks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Revelación de la Verdad/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmisión , Prueba de COVID-19 , Consultorios Odontológicos/ética , Consultorios Odontológicos/organización & administración , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nasofaringe/virología , Visita a Consultorio Médico/estadística & datos numéricos , Cooperación del Paciente/psicología , Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5313832, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485513

RESUMEN

Background: Coinfections have a potential role in increased morbidity and mortality rates during pandemics. Our investigation is aimed at evaluating the viral coinfection prevalence in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We systematically searched scientific databases, including Medline, Scopus, WOS, and Embase, from December 1, 2019, to December 30, 2020. Preprint servers such as medRxiv were also scanned to find other related preprint papers. All types of studies evaluating the viral coinfection prevalence in COVID-19 patients were considered. We applied the random effects model to pool all of the related studies. Results: Thirty-three studies including 10484 patients were identified. The viral coinfection estimated pooled prevalence was 12.58%; 95% CI: 7.31 to 18.96). Blood viruses (pooled prevalence: 12.48%; 95% CI: 8.57 to 16.93) had the most frequent viral coinfection, and respiratory viruses (pooled prevalence: 4.32%; 95% CI: 2.78 to 6.15) had less frequent viral coinfection. The herpesvirus pooled prevalence was 11.71% (95% CI: 3.02 to 24.80). Also, the maximum and minimum of viral coinfection pooled prevalence were in AMRO and EMRO with 15.63% (95% CI: 3.78 to 33.31) and 7.05% (95% CI: 3.84 to 11.07), respectively. Conclusion: The lowest rate of coinfection belonged to respiratory viruses. Blood-borne viruses had the highest coinfection rate. Our results provide important data about the prevalence of blood-borne viruses among COVID-19 patients which can be critical when it comes to their treatment procedure.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/virología , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/virología , Virus/patogenicidad
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17755, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493762

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This disease has spread globally, causing more than 161.5 million cases and 3.3 million deaths to date. Surveillance and monitoring of new mutations in the virus' genome are crucial to our understanding of the adaptation of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, how the temporal dynamics of these mutations is influenced by control measures and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is poorly understood. Using 1,058,020 SARS-CoV-2 from sequenced COVID-19 cases from 98 countries (totaling 714 country-month combinations), we perform a normalization by COVID-19 cases to calculate the relative frequency of SARS-CoV-2 mutations and explore their dynamics over time. We found 115 mutations estimated to be present in more than 3% of global COVID-19 cases and determined three types of mutation dynamics: high-frequency, medium-frequency, and low-frequency. Classification of mutations based on temporal dynamics enable us to examine viral adaptation and evaluate the effects of implemented control measures in virus evolution during the pandemic. We showed that medium-frequency mutations are characterized by high prevalence in specific regions and/or in constant competition with other mutations in several regions. Finally, taking N501Y mutation as representative of high-frequency mutations, we showed that level of control measure stringency negatively correlates with the effective reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 with high-frequency or not-high-frequency and both follows similar trends in different levels of stringency.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/virología , Genoma Viral , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Humanos , Tasa de Mutación , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17774, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493763

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic imposed a high burden of morbidity and mortality. In COVID-19, direct lung parenchymal involvement and pulmonary microcirculation dysfunction may entail pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH and direct cardiac injury beget right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) occurrence, which has been frequently reported in COVID-19 patients; however, the prevalence of RVD and its impact on outcomes during COVID-19 are still unclear. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of RVD and associated outcomes in patients with COVID-19, through a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched from inception to 15th July 2021. All studies reporting either the prevalence of RVD in COVID-19 patients or all-cause death according to RVD status were included. The pooled prevalence of RVD and Odds Ratio (OR) for all-cause death according to RVD status were computed and reported. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also performed. Among 29 studies (3813 patients) included, pooled prevalence of RVD was 20.4% (95% CI 17.1-24.3%; 95% PI 7.8-43.9%), with a high grade of heterogeneity. No significant differences were found across geographical locations, or according to the risk of bias. Severity of COVID-19 was associated with increased prevalence of RVD at meta-regression. The presence of RVD was found associated with an increased likelihood of all-cause death (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.94-5.70). RVD was found in 1 out of 5 COVID-19 patients, and was associated with all-cause mortality. RVD may represent one crucial marker for prognostic stratification in COVID-19; further prospective and larger are needed to investigate specific management and therapeutic approach for these patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Disfunción Ventricular Derecha/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virología , Causas de Muerte , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Disfunción Ventricular Derecha/terapia , Disfunción Ventricular Derecha/virología
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17798, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493765

RESUMEN

There is increasing evidence of cardiac involvement post-SARS-CoV-2 infections in symptomatic as well as in oligo- and asymptomatic athletes. This study aimed to characterize the possible early effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections on myocardial morphology and cardiopulmonary function in athletes. Eight male elite handball players (27 ± 3.5 y) with past SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with four uninfected teammates (22 ± 2.6 y). Infected athletes were examined 19 ± 7 days after the first positive PCR test. Echocardiographic assessment of the global longitudinal strain under resting conditions was not significantly changed (- 17.7% vs. - 18.1%). However, magnetic resonance imaging showed minor signs of acute inflammation/oedema in all infected athletes (T2-mapping: + 4.1 ms, p = 0.034) without reaching the Lake-Louis criteria. Spiroergometric analysis showed a significant reduction in VO2max (- 292 ml/min, - 7.0%), oxygen pulse (- 2.4 ml/beat, - 10.4%), and respiratory minute volume (VE) (- 18.9 l/min, - 13.8%) in athletes with a history of SARS-CoV2 infection (p < 0.05, respectively). The parameters were unchanged in the uninfected teammates. SARS-CoV2 infection caused impairment of cardiopulmonary performance during physical effort in elite athletes. It seems reasonable to screen athletes after SARS-CoV2 infection with spiroergometry to identify performance limitations and to guide the return to competition.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/fisiopatología , Corazón/fisiopatología , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Adulto , Infecciones Asintomáticas , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virología , Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/estadística & datos numéricos , Ecocardiografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Prueba de Esfuerzo/estadística & datos numéricos , Alemania , Corazón/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Espirometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...