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4.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827383

RESUMEN

The article discusses such issues of current state of staffing in medical sector as availability of health care system specialists, training programs for applicants to medical educational organizations and post-graduate programs for specialists, professional motivation and job prospects for graduates, prospects for development of medical education and training. In addition to professional sphere, modern health care system is also a market for medical services, which, according to expert estimates, is about 10 trillion US dollars per year. The participants in the field of medical services are not only organizations that provide medical care, but also manufacturers of medical equipment and medications. The medical sphere can't to effectively develop isolated from social structure. The staffing in medical field requires, along with professional motivation and job prospects in order to attract specialists in the field of medicine, and provide social support for their retention. The students entering medical university need decent salary after graduation and favorable conditions for further progression in professional field.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Recursos Humanos , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Motivación , Salarios y Beneficios
5.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(4): 57-63, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692521

RESUMEN

Changes in the legislation, the development of the regulatory and legal framework governing relations in the sphere of wage payment for health care workers has caused the transition of medical organizations to the new system of salaries payments (NSWP). This system has given executives and economists significant freedom when determining the size of payments to the employee per hour worked, including stimulating and compensation payments, bonuses and other regular pension benefits. However, given situation has also resulted in the need for studies intended on the formulation of the criteria's for medical workers of different specialties actions evaluation and the quality of medical services that they have provided, as well as on the efficiency of the health care organizations in general.


Asunto(s)
Salarios y Beneficios , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S186-S187, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551757

RESUMEN

An examination of the trajectory of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its subsequent economic impacts has revealed that this crisis will impact low-wage workers more severely than all others. The present commentary highlights the unique factors associated with low-wage work that make these workers particularly vulnerable to the effects of the pandemic, identifies potential adverse effects on the mental health of this population, and provides recommendations to maintain the safety, wellbeing, and dignity of low-wage workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Empleo , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Trauma Psicológico , Seguridad , Salarios y Beneficios , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto , Empleo/psicología , Empleo/normas , Humanos , Satisfacción Personal , Trauma Psicológico/prevención & control , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Riesgo , Seguridad/normas , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología
9.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1126-1132, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552016

RESUMEN

Objectives. To characterize which occupations in the United States could likely work from home during a pandemic such as COVID-19.Methods. I merged 2018 US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) national employment and wage data with measures ranking the importance of computer use at work and the importance of working with or performing for the public from the BLS O*NET survey.Results. Approximately 25% (35.6 million) of US workers are employed in occupations (such as technology, administrative, financial, and engineering) that could be done from home; the remaining 75% work in occupations (including health care, manufacturing, retail, and food services) that are challenging to do from home.Conclusions. Most US workers are employed in occupations that cannot be done at home, putting 108.4 million workers at increased risk for adverse health outcomes related to working during a pandemic. These workers tend to be lower paid. The stress experienced by lower-income groups, coupled with job insecurity, could result in a large burden of mental health disorders in the United States in addition to increased cases of COVID-19 from workplace transmission.


Asunto(s)
Ocupaciones/clasificación , Pandemias , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Computadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Estrés Laboral , Ocupaciones/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
10.
New Solut ; 30(2): 95-101, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567480

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is exposing critical failures in public and occupational health in the United States. So-called hazard pay for essential workers is a necessary but insufficient response to the lack of workplace protections. The roots of these failures in the weakening of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement and pandemic preparedness and the dramatic shifts in the economy and labor market in recent decades are explored along with the history of hazard pay. The current prominence of COVID-19-related workplace hazards, and the mobilization by both nonunion and union workers experiencing them, presents opportunities amid the crisis and tragic losses to envision a revival of worker protection measures. Strategies are needed for organizing and legislative advocacy to address the disparate impact of both normal and crisis conditions on low-wage workers, especially women and workers of color.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Laboral/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salarios y Beneficios , Lugar de Trabajo/economía , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Población Continentales , Humanos , Sindicatos/economía , Sindicatos/normas , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration , Mujeres Trabajadoras
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234737, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555700

RESUMEN

Social mobility is high on the policy agenda and is an important component of reducing inequalities. Estimating the relationship across generations of multiple dimensions of mobility such as health and wages can be used to understand the current state of mobility. However, there has been little research on how policy impacts on the relationship of multiple outcomes across generations and how that may be contributing to health inequalities and long-term mobility. In this paper, we use the UK as a case study to evaluate the impact of three distinct policy periods: 1991-1998 (Increasing neo-liberalism); 1998-2009 (English Health Inequalities Strategy); 2010-2017 (Austerity) on the relationship across generations in health (self-assessed health (SAH) and mental health measured by General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12)) and hourly wages. We employ fixed effects models on data from the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2008) and its successor the Understanding Society Survey (2009-2017). To investigate the role of policy on inequalities, sub-group analysis is performed by parental socioeconomic status measured by parental educational attainment, parental occupation, and if a single parent household. Results show that for the population on average, a changing policy focus has no impact on the strength of the relationship across generations in both health and wages. However, when looking at sub-groups the strength of the relationship in SAH and wages is increasing for parents with basic and higher qualifications and their young adult children. Whereas the influence of parents on their young adult children's SAH, mental health, and wages has remained fairly constant over the period 1991-2017 for parents with manual occupations and professional occupations. There has been a slight weakening in the influence of parents on their young adult children's SAH and wages for single parent families from 2010.


Asunto(s)
Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Políticas , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232396, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442175

RESUMEN

The development of the Internet is often seen as a source of demand for skilled workers and therefore a potential driver of the wage gap between skilled and unskilled workers. This paper focuses on the impact that international trade in online platforms has on the skilled-unskilled wage gap. Because online trade allows smaller firms with relatively more unskilled workers to access world markets, one can expect an expansion of online exports to reduce the wage gap. After correcting for potential endogeneity bias in a sample of 22 developing countries for which online trade and wage gap data can be matched, we find that a 1 percent increase in the share of online exports over GDP leads to a 0.01 percent decline in the skilled-unskilled wage gap.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Salarios y Beneficios , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Modelos Económicos , Sistemas en Línea/economía , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos
14.
Glob Public Health ; 15(7): 925-934, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396447

RESUMEN

Well-designed paid sick leave is critical to ensure workers stay home when sick to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious pathogens, both when the economy is open and during an economic shutdown. To assess whether paid sick leave is available in countries around the world, we created and analysed a database of legislative guarantees of paid leave for personal illness in 193 UN member states. Original labour and social security legislation and global information on social security systems for each country were obtained and analysed by a multilingual research team using a common coding framework. While strong models exist across low- middle- and high-income countries, critical gaps that jeopardise health and economic security remain. 27% of countries do not guarantee paid sick leave from the first day of illness, essential to encouraging workers to stay home when they are sick and prevent spread. 58% of countries do not have explicit provisions to ensure self-employed and gig economy workers have access to paid sick leave benefits. Comprehensive paid sick leave policies that cover all workers are urgently needed if we are to reduce the spread of COVID-19, and be ready to respond to threats from new pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Global , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ausencia por Enfermedad/economía , Ausencia por Enfermedad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salarios y Beneficios , Naciones Unidas
15.
Am J Public Health ; 110(7): 978-985, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437275

RESUMEN

As postsecondary tuition and debt levels continue to rise, the value proposition of higher education has been increasingly called into question by the popular media and the general public. Recent data from the National Center for Education Statistics now show early career earnings and debt, by program, for thousands of institutions across the United States. This comes at an inflection point for public health education-master's degrees have seen 20 years of growth, but forecasts now call for, at best, stagnation.Forces inside and outside the field of public health are shifting supply and demand for public health master's degrees. We discuss these forces and identify potential monetary and nonmonetary costs and benefits of these degrees.Overall, we found a net benefit in career outcomes associated with a public health master's degree, although it is clear that some other master's degrees likely offer greater lifetime earning potentials or lower lifetime debt associated with degree attainment. We outline the issues academic public health must engage in to successfully attract and train the next generation of public health graduates.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado/economía , Salud Pública/educación , Salarios y Beneficios , Selección de Profesión , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Empleo , Humanos , Salud Pública/economía , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional , Estados Unidos
16.
J Dent ; 99: 103387, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473182

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To combat SARS-CoV2 (Covid-19), policy makers worldwide have adopted different policy alternatives, often including mitigation/suppression policies. We assessed the economic impact of such policies on dental practices in Germany using a modelling approach. METHODS: A providers' perspective within German healthcare was taken, with two provider scenarios (low/high volume practice, low/high proportion of non-statutory insurance revenue, low/high staff pool and costs; S1 and S2 scenarios) being modelled. Providers' costs were estimated in different blocks (staff, material, laboratory, others). A telephone-based survey was conducted on 24th March to 2nd April 2020 on a random sample of 300 German dentists (response: n = 146) to determine the experienced dental services utilization changes in these service blocks. A Markov model was constructed, following 100 practices in each scenario for a total of 365 days. Different Covid-19 mitigation/suppression periods (90 days: base-case, 45, 135 days: sensitivity analyses) were modelled. Monte-Carlo micro-simulation was performed and uncertainty introduced via probabilistic and univariate sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Mitigation/suppression reduced utilization of all services, the most severe for prevention (-80 % in mean), periodontics (-76 %) and prosthetics (-70 %). Within the base-case, mean revenue reductions were 18.7 %/15.7 % from the public insurance, 18.7/18.6 % from private insurers and 19 %/19 % for out-of-pocket expenses in S1/S2, respectively. If the mitigation/suppression was upheld for 135 days, overall revenue decreased by 31 %/30 % in S1/S2, respectively. In this case, 29 %/12 % S1/S2 would have a negative net profit over the course of one year. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 and associated policies have profound economic effect on dental practices. CLINICAL SIGNIFIANCE: Policy makers will want to consider our findings when designing governmental subsidy and safety nets with immediate and midterm economic relieve effects. Dentists may consider practice re-organization to reduce costs and maintain minimum profitability.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Atención Odontológica/economía , Consultorios Odontológicos/economía , Consultorios Odontológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Odontólogos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Alemania , Humanos , Cadenas de Markov , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salarios y Beneficios , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave
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