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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-05-04. (PAHO/CDE/CE/21-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53884

RESUMEN

This technical note aims to help countries enhance their health commitments and actions in the updated round of nationally determined contributions (NDCs). It provides seven key messages formulated from an analysis of NDCs submitted by countries of the Americas before March 2020. Each key message is accompanied by key findings of the situation, rationale, suggested actions, inspiring examples, and additional resources that PAHO, the UNFCCC, and the NDC Partnership can offer to support countries’ enhancement of health commitments in the updated round of NDCs. This technical note represents an opportunity beyond NDC processes to ensure that recovery plans in the face of COVID-19 are low carbon and climate resilient, while identifying and maximizing health-related co-benefits.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Salud Ambiental , Enfermedad Crónica , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Américas
2.
Recurso de Internet en Español | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48182

RESUMEN

Este mapa distribuye gráficamente los estudios de acuerdo con una matriz con 38 intervenciones y 39 hallazgos. La mayoría de los estudios incluidos estuvieron enfocados en población en general, población vulnerable y poblaciones en minoría (grupo étnico o racial). El tema de salud en general (26.5%) y estilos de vida saludables (16.3%) fueron los más abordados por las RL incluidas. Adicionalmente, el 63.3% de las estrategias evidenciadas en las RL estuvieron enfocadas en el sector salud y el 36.7% fueron de carácter intersectorial.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Salud Materno-Infantil , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Salud Ambiental/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800009

RESUMEN

The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on 11 September 2001 resulted in acute and chronic dust and fume exposures to community members, including local workers and residents, with well-described aerodigestive adverse health effects. This study aimed to characterize lung cancer in the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) focusing on gender and smoking history. WTC EHC patients undergo an initial evaluation that includes WTC exposure information, demographics, and tobacco use. Detailed cancer characteristics are recorded from pathology reports. As of 31 December 2019, 248 WTC EHC patients had a diagnosis of lung cancer. More patients with lung cancer were women (57%) compared to men (43%). Many cases (47% women, 51% men) reported acute dust cloud exposure. Thirty-seven percent of lung cancer cases with available smoking history were never-smokers (≤1 pack-years) and 42% had a ≤5 pack-year history. The median age of cancer diagnosis in never-smoking women was 61 years compared to 66 years in men. Adenocarcinoma was more common in never-smokers compared to ever-smokers (72% vs. 65%) and in women compared to men (70% vs. 65%). We provide an initial description of lung cancers in local community members with documented exposure to the WTC dust and fumes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Pulmonares , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Ataques Terroristas del 11 de Septiembre , Polvo , Salud Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804085

RESUMEN

Least developed countries (LDCs) are home to over a billion people throughout Africa, Asia-Pacific, and the Caribbean. The people who live in LDCs represent just 13% of the global population but 40% of its growth rate. Characterised by low incomes and low education levels, high proportions of the population practising subsistence living, inadequate infrastructure, and lack of economic diversity and resilience, LDCs face serious health, environmental, social, and economic challenges. Many communities in LDCs have very limited access to adequate sanitation, safe water, and clean cooking fuel. LDCs are environmentally vulnerable; facing depletion of natural resources, the effects of unsustainable urbanization, and the impacts of climate change, leaving them unable to safeguard their children's lifetime health and wellbeing. This paper reviews and describes the complexity of the causal relationships between children's health and its environmental, social, and economic influences in LDCs using a causal loop diagram (CLD). The results identify some critical feedbacks between poverty, family size, population growth, children's and adults' health, inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), air pollution, and education levels in LDCs and suggest leverage points for potential interventions. A CLD can also be a starting point for quantitative systems science approaches in the field, which can predict and compare the effects of interventions.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Países en Desarrollo , África , Asia , Región del Caribe , Niño , Salud Ambiental , Humanos
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804102

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Human exposure to parabens is very common in daily life, and prenatal exposure to these chemicals is associated with poor birth outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms on the association between prenatal exposure to parabens and birth outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a multivariate analysis involving 177 subjects to determine the association between paraben concentrations and birth outcomes in mothers with GST mu 1 (GSTM1) and GST theta 1 (GSTT1) polymorphisms from 2017 to 2019. Furthermore, we determined the interactive effect between paraben levels and GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms using regression analysis, in addition to a generalized linear model after stratifying GSTM1/GSTT1 genotype into three categories. RESULTS: Methyl and propyl paraben concentrations were significantly and positively associated with birth weight (methyl, ß = 116.525, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 22.460-210.590; propyl, ß = 82.352, 95% CI = 9.147-155.557) in individuals with the GSTM1-null genotype. Moreover, the propyl paraben concentration was significantly associated with an increase in gestational age (ß = 0.312, 95% CI = 0.085-0.539) in individuals with the GSTM1-null genotype. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported the association between prenatal paraben exposure and birth outcomes in individuals with GST polymorphisms. We found positive relationships of maternal exposure to methyl parabens with birth weight in both mothers with GSTM1 and GSTT1-null genotypes.


Asunto(s)
Parabenos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Salud Ambiental , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Glutatión Transferasa/genética , Humanos , Madres , Parabenos/toxicidad , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/genética
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 17, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909871

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Analyze the incorporation of climate change and environmental health courses in the curriculum grids of Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology undergraduate courses in Latin American universities. METHODS: Descriptive and cross-sectional document review. Curriculum grids of the top ten Latin American universities were analyzed according to the rankings of QS Latin American University 2020, Times Higher Education World University 2020 and Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019. The presence of courses related to climate change and environmental health was sought in each curriculum grid. RESULTS: 104 of the 161 universities included in the study offered Medicine courses, 93 Nursing courses, 77 Nutrition courses and 118 Clinical Psychology courses. Most of the curriculum grids incorporated courses in public health and/or epidemiology (more than 70%); however, between 22% and 41% included courses on environmental health, and only one curriculum grid had a course on climate change in Medicine and Nursing (1%). CONCLUSIONS: Courses on climate change and environmental health have been scarcely introduced in the curriculum grids of the health field in Latin American universities. This could weaken the important role that health professionals play in providing health care to the population.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Universidades , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , América Latina
7.
Environ Int ; 152: 106473, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798823

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Synthesizing environmental health science is crucial to taking action to protect public health. Procedures for evidence evaluation and integration are transitioning from "expert-based narrative" to "systematic" review methods. However, little is known about the methodology being utilized for either type of review. OBJECTIVES: To appraise the methodological strengths and weaknesses of a sample of "expert-based narrative" and "systematic" reviews in environmental health. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of multiple databases and identified relevant reviews using pre-specified eligibility criteria. We applied a modified version of the Literature Review Appraisal Toolkit (LRAT) to three environmental health topics that assessed the utility, validity and transparency of reviews. RESULTS: We identified 29 reviews published between 2003 and 2019, of which 13 (45%) were self-identified as systematic reviews. Across every LRAT domain, systematic reviews received a higher percentage of "satisfactory" ratings compared to non-systematic reviews. In eight of these domains, there was a statistically significant difference observed between the two types of reviews and "satisfactory" ratings. Non-systematic reviews performed poorly with the majority receiving an "unsatisfactory" or "unclear" rating in 11 of the 12 domains. Systematic reviews performed poorly in six of the 12 domains; 10 (77%) did not state the reviews objectives or develop a protocol; eight (62%) did not state the roles and contribution of the authors, or evaluate the internal validity of the included evidence consistently using a valid method; and only seven (54%) stated a pre-defined definition of the evidence bar on which their conclusions were based, or had an author disclosure of interest statement. DISCUSSION: Systematic reviews produced more useful, valid, and transparent conclusions compared to non-systematic reviews, but poorly conducted systematic reviews were prevalent. Ongoing development and implementation of empirically based systematic review methods are required in environmental health to ensure transparent and timely decision making to protect the public's health.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668159

RESUMEN

In 2014, city and state officials channeled toxic water into Flint, Michigan and its unevenly distributed and corroding lead service lines (LSLs). The resulting Flint water crisis is a tragic example of environmental racism against a majority Black city and enduring racial and spatial disparities in environmental lead exposures in the United States. Important questions remain about how race intersected with other established environmental health vulnerabilities of gender and single-parent family structure to create unequal toxic exposures within Flint. We address this question with (1) an "intercategorical ecology" framework that extends the "racial ecology" lens into the complex spatial and demographic dimensions of environmental health vulnerabilities and (2) a multivariate analysis using block-level data from the 2010 U.S. decennial census and a key dataset estimating the LSL connections for 56,038 land parcels in Flint. We found that blocks exposed to LSLs had, on average, higher concentrations of single-parent white, Black, and Latinx families. However, logistic regression results indicate that the likelihood of block exposure to LSLs was most consistently and positively associated with the percentage of single-father Black and single-mother Latina families, net of other racialized and gendered single-parent family structures, socioeconomic status, and the spatial concentration of LSL exposure.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Ciudades , Agua Potable/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Plomo , Michigan , Estados Unidos , Abastecimiento de Agua
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668799

RESUMEN

Previous studies have highlighted the potential health effects of phthalate exposure, such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. However, evidence supporting the association between phthalate exposure and atopic dermatitis is limited and based on data collected from Western populations. This study aimed to analyze the association between phthalate exposure and atopic dermatitis in Korean adolescents aged 12-17 years using a nationally representative dataset. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a publicly available dataset from the third Korean National Environmental Health Survey (n = 797). We divided the study participants into four quartiles according to urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. The odds ratio of having atopic dermatitis was calculated using the first quartile as the reference group in binary logistic regression. We found that in the logistic regression model, both the urinary Mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECCP; OR: 1.81; CI: 1.01-3.25) and Mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP; OR: 1.81; CI: 1.01-3.25) concentrations in the highest quartile were positively associated with atopic dermatitis. The atopic dermatitis group had a significantly higher mean urinary MECCP and MBzP concentration. In the future, longitudinal studies involving repeated measurements are warranted to analyze the long-term effects of phthalate.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Contaminantes Ambientales , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dermatitis Atópica/inducido químicamente , Dermatitis Atópica/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , República de Corea/epidemiología
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672107

RESUMEN

Training in environmental health (EH) engages and inspires youth to tackle health promotion and policy change. Yet, there is little guidance on how to successfully nurture and sustain youth engagement. This paper compares four case studies of youth engagement to promote EH in rural and urban communities using the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES!) framework. Of the case studies in rural (Central Appalachia) and urban (Cincinnati, Ohio) communities, two employ citizen science approaches using PhotoVoice and environmental sampling; one engages youth in a science communication camp; and one focuses on policy advocacy. We compare and contrast these case studies using the YES! Critical Components and Empowerment levels. The case studies were discussed at the 2020 Partnerships in Environmental Public Health Meeting, where participants identified challenges and possible solutions for promoting and maintaining authentic youth engagement in EH research and advocacy. Analysis of the case studies indicated that youth engagement activities focusing on the individual were more common than those targeting the organizational setting or the community. Youth demonstrate agency to impact EH issues in their communities by engaging in hands-on opportunities to practice citizen science and advocacy. Overcoming challenges to authentic young engagement is important to sustain this work.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Promoción de la Salud , Adolescente , Región de los Apalaches , Humanos , Ohio , Salud Pública
12.
Environ Int ; 152: 106470, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677244

RESUMEN

Several citizen science (CS) initiatives have been adopted in environmental science to monitor air and noise pollution, and water quality related to civic concerns. Nevertheless, CS projects in environmental epidemiology remain scarce. This is because little attention has been paid to evaluate associations of environmental exposures with health effects directly. This narrative review aims to promote the understanding and application of CS in environmental epidemiology. There are many commonalities between CS and other participatory approaches in environmental epidemiology. Yet, CS can foster the democratization of scientific governance and enhance the sustainability of research projects more effectively than other existing participatory approaches. This is especially the case in projects where citizens are invited to participate, engage and become involved throughout all the phases of a research project (co-created projects). This paper identifies various challenges and opportunities specific to the implementation of co-created CS projects in environmental epidemiology. The development of more locally relevant research designs, using local knowledge, obtaining medical ethical clearance, and co-analysing the association between exposure and health, are examples of opportunities and challenges that require epidemiologists to go beyond the traditional research framework and include more outreach activities. Continued efforts, particularly the sharing of information about projects' collaborative processes, are needed to make CS a more concrete and cohesive approach in environmental epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia Ciudadana , Salud Ambiental , Conocimiento
13.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 34, 2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771185

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An unusual feature of SARS-Cov-2 infection and the COVID-19 pandemic is that children are less severely affected than adults. This is especially paradoxical given the epidemiological links between poor air quality and increased COVID-19 severity in adults and that children are generally more vulnerable than adults to the adverse consequences of air pollution. OBJECTIVES: To identify gaps in knowledge about the factors that protect children from severe SARS-Cov-2 infection even in the face of air pollution, and to develop a transdisciplinary research strategy to address these gaps. METHODS: An international group of researchers interested in children's environmental health was invited to identify knowledge gaps and to develop research questions to close these gaps. DISCUSSION: Key research questions identified include: what are the effects of SAR-Cov-2 infection during pregnancy on the developing fetus and child; what is the impact of age at infection and genetic susceptibility on disease severity; why do some children with COVID-19 infection develop toxic shock and Kawasaki-like symptoms; what are the impacts of toxic environmental exposures including poor air quality, chemical and metal exposures on innate immunity, especially in the respiratory epithelium; what is the possible role of a "dirty" environment in conveying protection - an example of the "hygiene hypothesis"; and what are the long term health effects of SARS-Cov-2 infection in early life. CONCLUSION: A concerted research effort by a multidisciplinary team of scientists is needed to understand the links between environmental exposures, especially air pollution and COVID-19. We call for specific research funding to encourage basic and clinical research to understand if/why exposure to environmental factors is associated with more severe disease, why children appear to be protected, and how innate immune responses may be involved. Lessons learned about SARS-Cov-2 infection in our children will help us to understand and reduce disease severity in adults, the opposite of the usual scenario.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Salud del Niño , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Salud Ambiental , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , /patología , Niño , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/epidemiología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/patología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Desarrollo Fetal , Humanos , Hipótesis de la Higiene , Inmunidad Innata , Sistema Respiratorio/patología , Sistema Respiratorio/virología
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(3): 424-427, 2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730839

RESUMEN

In this paper, the history and current situation of environmental health standardization in China are reviewed, and the experience and shortcomings in the process of environmental health standardization in China are analyzed, suggestions for the next step of environmental health standards are also put forward.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , China , Humanos , Estándares de Referencia
16.
Environ Pollut ; 279: 116925, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744636

RESUMEN

Numerous pieces of evidence documented the importance of gut microbiota in regulating human health and evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants, which are closely related to the host health in various aspects, including nutrition, energy translation, metabolism, pathogen resistance, and immune function. A variety of environmental factors can disrupt gut microbiota and their functions, and inevitably cause immune diseases, obesity and diabetes. However, deciphering the inner mechanisms involved in the functional interaction of gut microbes with host health is still needed extensive investigations. This review focused on the essential roles of intestinal microbes in host-related diseases and highlighted the development and applications of germ-free (GF) animal models, mainly zebrafish. Moreover, the generation, immunity characters, advantages and challenges of GF zebrafish models were also summarized. Importantly, the composition and isolation of zebrafish gut bacteria for further application and toxicity evaluation of aquatic environmental pollutants were also discussed. In conclusion, GF zebrafish play irreplaceable roles in understanding the potential functions and responses of customized microbiota towards human and environmental health implications.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animales , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Animales , Pez Cebra
17.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 8, 2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598388

RESUMEN

Although the attention of the world and the global health community specifically is deservedly focused on the COVID-19 pandemic, other determinants of health continue to have large impacts and may also interact with COVID-19. Air pollution is one crucial example. Established evidence from other respiratory viruses and emerging evidence for COVID-19 specifically indicates that air pollution alters respiratory defense mechanisms leading to worsened infection severity. Air pollution also contributes to co-morbidities that are known to worsen outcomes amongst those infected with COVID-19, and air pollution may also enhance infection transmission due to its impact on more frequent coughing. Yet despite the massive disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are reasons for optimism: broad societal lockdowns have shown us a glimpse of what a future with strong air pollution measures could yield. Thus, the urgency to combat air pollution is not diminished, but instead heightened in the context of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Salud Global , Enfermedad Aguda , American Heart Association , Cardiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Enfermedad Crónica , Salud Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Inflamación , Estrés Oxidativo , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572220

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Recent studies have reported elevated risks of multiple cancers in the World Trade Center (WTC) affected community members (also called WTC "Survivors"). The large variety of WTC-cancers created a need to develop a comprehensive cancer database. This paper describes the development of a pan-cancer database at the WTC Environmental Health Center (EHC) Data Center. (2) Methods: A new REDCap-based pan-cancer database was created using the pathology reports and available biomarker data of confirmed cancer cases after review by a cancer epidemiologist, a pathologist, physicians and biostatisticians. (3) Results: The WTC EHC pan-cancer database contains cancer characteristics and emerging biomarker information for cancers of individuals enrolled in the WTC EHC and diagnosed after 11 September 2001 and up to 31 December 2019 obtained from WTC EHC clinical records, pathological reports and state cancer registries. As of 31 December 2019, the database included 3440 cancer cases with cancer characteristics and biomarker information. (4) Conclusions: This evolving database represents an important resource for the scientific community facilitating future research about the etiology, heterogeneity, characteristics and outcomes of cancers and comorbid mental health conditions, cancer economics and gene-environment interaction in the unique population of WTC survivors.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Ataques Terroristas del 11 de Septiembre , Bases de Datos Factuales , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Ciudad de Nueva York , Sobrevivientes
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546334

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The New Environmental Health is an approach to environmental health adopted in 1999. The new approach was in response to emerging health risks from the pressures that development placed on the environment, climate change, and increasing vulnerabilities of local communities. The new approach heralded a change in perception and roles within environmental health. Twenty years on, it seems these changes have not been embraced by local government. METHODS: To determine whether this was the case, we assessed the use of the term "environmental health" in local government annual reports, and where environmental health functions sit within the organisational structure of councils. RESULTS: We found that the New Environmental Health has not been adopted by councils and environmental health relates solely to the delivery of statutory services and legislative compliance. CONCLUSIONS: One result of this is local environmental health practitioners, who constitute the major health protection capability of councils, are defined by the narrow legislative obligations imposed on councils. This represents a significant lost opportunity as public health is not protected in the way that was envisaged with the adoption of the New Environmental Health.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Gobierno Local , Australia , Salud Pública
20.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112174, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607566

RESUMEN

Chromium (Cr) is a trace element critical to human health and well-being. In the last few decades, its contamination, especially hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] form in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, has amplified as a result of various anthropogenic activities. Chromium pollution is a significant environmental threat, severely impacting our environment and natural resources, especially water and soil. Excessive exposure could lead to higher levels of accumulation in human and animal tissues, leading to toxic and detrimental health effects. Several studies have shown that chromium is a toxic element that negatively affects plant metabolic activities, hampering crop growth and yield and reducing vegetable and grain quality. Thus, it must be monitored in water, soil, and crop production system. Various useful and practical remediation technologies have been emerging in regulating chromium in water, soil, and other resources. A sustainable remediation approach must be adopted to balance the environment and nature.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Cromo/análisis , Ecosistema , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
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