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1.
Ciudad de Panamá; OPS; 2022-08-05. (OPS/PAN/21-0002).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56221

RESUMEN

[Introducción]: El uso de combustibles sólidos para cocinar es un importante problema de salud pública en las Américas y el principal riesgo ambiental, pues afecta a casi 90 millones de personas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha estimado que en el 2016 la quema de combustibles sólidos para cocinar y calentarse en las Américas causó la muerte de más de 82 000 personas y una pérdida de más de 2,3 millones de años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD) ... En este informe se presentan los avances, retos y oportunidades para avanzar en la transición energética al uso de combustibles modernos y limpios como el GLP y la electricidad para cocinar, y para cumplir con las directrices de calidad del aire en la vivienda recomendadas por la OMS, contribuyendo a la implementación de la Agenda 2030 de Desarrollo Sostenible.


Asunto(s)
Energía Renovable , Salud Ambiental , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Electricidad , Combustibles , Energía Solar , Factores Socioeconómicos , Planes y Programas de Salud , Panamá
2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(8): 85001, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many pesticide products are mixtures of multiple chemicals. These include active ingredients intended to kill pests, and so-called inert ingredients intended to improve the physical characteristics of the product. In addition, shortly before applying a pesticide product, applicators often mix adjuvants into the sprayer tank. Adjuvants are products designed to improve the performance or physical properties of a pesticide spray mixture. Manufacturers may use a particular chemical compound both as an inert ingredient within pesticide products and as a component of adjuvant products. Nonetheless, regulations dictate that data on use are publicly available only for the portion used in adjuvants. Adjuvants are exempt from federal registration, but are defined as pesticides in California. Based on that definition, California has identified α-(p-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) (APNOHO) as the most widely used pesticide in the state, applied to more than 10 million acres annually. That quantified use includes only agricultural acres treated with adjuvants containing APNOHO. Total APNOHO use is likely higher because manufacturers also use the chemical as an inert ingredient within pesticide products, although data on such use are shielded by regulation. OBJECTIVES: We use APNOHO as a case study to demonstrate that the use of adjuvants and inert ingredients is difficult to track because relevant information is not publicly available. We synthesize information that suggests widespread agricultural use of alkylphenol ethoxylates, such as APNOHO, may pose significant human and environmental health risks. We then make recommendations for future research and policy. METHODS: We used information from California's pesticide use reporting system and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estimate use of APNOHO. We used U.S. EPA and European databases, as well as published research, to identify human and environmental health hazards of APNOHO. We focused on research showing that APNOHO is an endocrine-disrupting chemical. DISCUSSION: Within California, APNOHO is applied in more than 150 adjuvant products. Nationwide, it is used as an inert ingredient in at least 650 pesticide products. Exposure to APNOHO is associated with endocrine disruption, birth defects, and aquatic toxicity. We suggest that the case of APNOHO illustrates the larger problem of a lack of publicly available data on use and toxicity of many adjuvants and pesticide inert ingredients. We recommend that researchers and regulators include adjuvants and inert ingredients when evaluating pesticide hazards, including endocrine disruption. We also recommend regulatory requirements to identify all ingredients on product labels. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10634.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Agricultura , California , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
3.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 67, 2022 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821055

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although there is increasing interest in reporting results of environmental research efforts back to participants, evidence-based tools have not yet been applied to developed materials to ensure their accessibility in terms of literacy, numeracy, and data visualization demand. Additionally, there is not yet guidance as to how to formally assess the created materials to assure a match with the intended audience. METHODS: Relying on formative qualitative research with participants of an indoor air quality study in Dorchester, Massachusetts, we identified means of enhancing accessibility of indoor air quality data report-back materials for participants. Participants (n = 20) engaged in semi-structured interviews in which they described challenges they encountered with scientific and medical materials and outlined written and verbal communication techniques that would help facilitate engagement with and accessibility of environmental health report-back materials. We coupled these insights from participants with best practice guidelines for written materials by operationalizing health literacy tools to produce accessible audience-informed data report-back materials. RESULTS: The resulting data report-back materials had a 7th -grade reading level, and between a 4th -8th grade level of overall document complexity. The numeracy skills required to engage with the material were of the lowest demand, and we incorporated best practices for risk communication and facilitating understanding and actionability of the materials. Use of a rigorous assessment tool provides evidence of accessibility and appropriateness of the material for the audience. CONCLUSIONS: We outline a process for developing and evaluating environmental health data reports that are tailored to inspire risk-reduction actions, and are demonstrably accessible in terms of their literacy, numeracy, and data visualization demand. Adapting health literacy tools to create and evaluate environmental data report-back materials is a novel and evidence-based means of ensuring their accessibility.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Alfabetización en Salud , Comunicación , Escolaridad , Salud Ambiental , Humanos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805276

RESUMEN

The destruction of the World Trade Center towers on 11 September 2001 exposed local residents, workers, and individuals in the area (Survivors) to dust and fumes that included known and suspected carcinogens. Given the potential for inhalation of toxic substances and the long latency after exposure, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to increase in WTC-exposed individuals. We describe the characteristics of women WTC Survivors with lung adenocarcinoma who were enrolled in the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) between May 2002 and July 2021. A total of 173 women in WTC EHC had a diagnosis of any type of lung cancer, representing 10% of all cancers in women. Most of the lung cancers (87%) were non-small cell carcinomas, with adenocarcinoma (77%) being the most common subtype. Nearly half (46%) of these patients were exposed to dust clouds on 11 September 2001. Race and ethnicity varied by smoking status, as follows: 44% of Asian women compared with 29% of non-Hispanic White women were never-smokers (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the pathologic characteristics of adenocarcinomas between never and ever smokers. We also summarize EGFR, ALK, KRAS, ROS-1 and BRAF mutation status stratified by smoking, race and ethnicity. The identification of a relatively high proportion of women never-smokers with lung cancer warrants further investigation into the role of WTC dust exposure.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Ataques Terroristas del 11 de Septiembre , Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón/epidemiología , Polvo/análisis , Salud Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiología , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805338

RESUMEN

Does representative hazardous-waste-site testing tend to follow or to violate government technical guidance? This is an important question, because following such guidance promotes reliable risk analysis, adequate remediation, and environmental-justice and -health protection. Yet only government documents typically address this question, usually only when it is too late, when citizens have already exhibited health harm, allegedly from living or working near current/former hazardous-waste sites. Because no systematic, representative, scientific analyses have answered the preceding question, this article begins to investigate it by posing a narrower part of the question: Does representative US testing of volatile-organic-compound (VOC) waste sites tend to follow or to violate government technical requirements? The article (i) outlines US/state-government technical guidance for VOC testing; (ii) develops criteria for discovering representative US cases of VOC testing; (iii) uses the dominant US Environmental Protection Agency method to assess whether these representative cases follow such guidance; (iv) employs the results of (iii) to begin to answer the preceding question; then (v) discusses the degree to which, if any, these results suggest threats to environmental health or justice. Our initial, but representative, results show that almost all US VOC-waste-site testing (that we investigated) violates government technical requirements and systematically underestimates risks, and this may help justify less expensive, potentially health-threatening cleanups, mostly in environmental justice communities. We outline needed future research and suggest two strategies to promote following government technical guidance for hazardous-waste testing.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Peligrosos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Salud Ambiental , Justicia Ambiental , Sitios de Residuos Peligrosos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805801

RESUMEN

To address community-driven concerns about lead-contaminated drinking water in residential homes in the Greater Fifth Ward neighborhood in Northeast Houston, Texas utilizing participatory-based research. The study collected survey data and performed lead analysis on drinking water from residents' homes. The Greater Fifth Ward is characterized as a majority-minority environmental justice community and is located within two confirmed cancer clusters. The residents of 172 homes completed a survey and had detectable lead levels in their water samples. Survey results indicated that more than half of the residents (58.2%) were concerned with the water quality and 42.9% rated the drinking water as poor. Water lead levels detected ranged from 0.01 to 22 µg/L. 10.9% of homes exceeding 1 µg/L, and one located exceeded the USEPA's action limit of 15 µg/L. Homes built prior to 1978 without major renovation had significantly higher levels of lead in their drinking water compared to homes built after 1978 (p-value < 0.05). These findings demonstrate the need for lead testing of residential water in low socioeconomic-status communities, as well as demonstrating the benefits of community engagement and participatory research to address environmental health concerns.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Plomo , Agua Potable/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Salud Ambiental , Plomo/análisis , Características de la Residencia , Calidad del Agua
7.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Jul. 2022. 60 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1379491

RESUMEN

La presente publicación proporciona información clara y concisa sobre el saneamiento básico, con un enfoque intercultural en áreas rurales, ya sea para uso unifamiliar, como así también para aquellos que necesiten transmitir conocimientos. Se describirán los procedimientos sobre cómo obtener agua segura a nivel domiciliario para cualquier fuente de agua disponible; los sistemas de tratamiento de excretas adecuados a las zonas rurales; y las buenas prácticas para el tratamiento de la basura. Cuenta con ilustraciones que ayudan a la buena comprensión y que pueden ser utilizadas en futuras capacitaciones. Todavía falta mucho por hacer para que millones de personas, sobre todo en ámbitos rurales, accedan a servicios de saneamiento básico seguro. Este cuadernillo busca transmitir conocimientos a aquellas personas, familias y/o comunidades, cualesquiera sean las condiciones actuales de saneamiento básico con las que cuentan, para lograr solucionarlas a corto plazo y así mejorar sus condiciones de salud.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Eliminación de Excretas , Agua , Residuos Sólidos , Medio Rural , Salud Ambiental , Estado de Salud , Saneamiento Básico
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805812

RESUMEN

COVID-19 presented challenges for global health research training programs. The Clean Air Research and Education (CARE) program, which aims to enhance research capacity related to noncommunicable diseases and environmental health in the country of Georgia, was launched in 2020-as the COVID-19 pandemic began. At its foundation is mentorship and mentored research, alongside formal didactic training, informal training/meetings, and other supports. Current analyses examined CARE's initial 1.5 years (e.g., program benefits, mentorship relationships) using data from an evaluation survey among trainees and faculty in January 2022. Trainees (100% response rate: n = 12/12; 4 MPH, 8 PhD) and faculty (86.7% response rate: n = 13/15; 7 Georgia-based, 6 United States-based) rated factors related to mentor-mentee relationships highly, particularly mutual consideration of each other's thoughts, opinions, and perspectives; one major challenge was completing goals planned. Trainees and faculty identified several growth experiences and program benefits (e.g., skills development, expanding professional network) but also identified challenges (e.g., meeting program demands, communication gaps, unclear expectations)-exacerbated by the pandemic. Findings underscore the importance of strong mentorship relationships and that the pandemic negatively impacted communication and clarity of expectations. Given the likely ongoing impact of the pandemic on such programs, program leaders must identify ways to address these challenges.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Ambiental , Georgia (República)/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estados Unidos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805813

RESUMEN

Residents at one of the nation's largest and longest-operating Superfund sites (Butte, Montana) have expressed environmental health risk perceptions that often diverge from those of EPA and other official stakeholders responsible for the investigation and remediation of site contamination aimed at protecting human health and the environment. A random sample of Butte residents participated in a study of how home-based environmental screening influences environmental health perceptions. Participants completed surveys measuring environmental health perceptions before and after a home site screening of soil and drinking water for lead and arsenic conducted by the research team. Local air monitoring for the same contaminants was also completed during the study period. The home-based screening intervention improved the alignment of subjective participant environmental health perceptions with objective environmental screening measures. Key features of the process that helped achieve this effect included (1) co-locating the collection of participant perceptions and individualized screening measurements; (2) sharing environmental screening results in a clear and unbiased manner; and (3) conducting this work independent of agencies and organizations with direct responsibility for Superfund-related cleanup activities. Empowering residents of a Superfund community with knowledge of the specific kinds and levels of environmental contamination in their home environment may help overcome the gap between agency conclusions regarding environmental health risk and the perceptions of community members.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Contaminación Ambiental , Sustancias Peligrosas , Humanos , Percepción , Suelo
10.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(7): E599-610, 2022 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838388

RESUMEN

Background: Omaha, Nebraska, has a lead-contaminated superfund site and substandard housing that pose risks for childhood lead exposure. Healthy Housing Omaha (formerly, Omaha Healthy Kids Alliance), an environmental health nonprofit, partnered with the fourth author, an artist, and a newspaper to raise awareness about lead poisoning by publishing portraits and stories of affected community members. Methods: The authors analyzed an interview with the artist, photographs of portraits published in a local newspaper, and quotations from portrait sitters. Results: Shared stories of lead exposure and poisoning conveyed in the portraiture and printmaking processes revealed structural racism as an emergent theme. Conclusions: Arts-based research methods, such as portraiture, can be scaled and applied to support national and international community engagement efforts to advocate for environmental justice and public health.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Plomo , Plomo , Niño , Salud Ambiental , Vivienda , Humanos , Plomo/toxicidad , Salud Pública
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886287

RESUMEN

The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) has increased its publications of scientific papers related to exercise; a search of Pubmed (on 22 June 2022) using IJERPH and exercise as keywords showed 1788 entries for 2021 compared to 80 entries in 2016 [...].


Asunto(s)
Deportes , Salud Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico , PubMed
12.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4414582, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866039

RESUMEN

Analysis of environmental data with lower detection limits (LDL) using mixture models has recently gained importance. However, only a particular type of mixture models under classical estimation methods have been used in the literature. We have proposed the Bayesian analysis for the said data using mixture models. In addition, an optimal mixture distribution to model such data has been explored. The sensitivity of the proposed estimators with respect to LDL, model parameters, hyperparameters, mixing weights, loss functions, sample size, and Bayesian estimation methods has also been proposed. The optimal number of components for the mixture has also been explored. As a practical example, we analyzed two environmental datasets involving LDL. We also compared the proposed estimators with existing estimators, based on different goodness of fit criteria. The results under the proposed estimators were more convincing as compared to those using existing estimators.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Tamaño de la Muestra
13.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(7): e565-e576, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809586

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic arrived at a time of faltering global poverty reduction and increasing levels of diet-related diseases, both of which have a strong link to poor outcomes for those with COVID-19. Governments responded to the pandemic by placing unprecedented restrictions on internal and external movements, which have resulted in an economic contraction. In response to the economic shock, G20 governments have committed to providing US$14 trillion stimuli to support economic recovery. We aimed to assess the impact of different COVID-19 recovery paths on human health, environmental sustainability, and food sustainability. METHODS: We used LandSyMM, a global gridded land use change model, to analyse the impact of recovery paths from COVID-19. The paths were illustrated by four scenarios that represent different pandemic severities (including a single or recurrent pandemic) and alternate modes of recovery, including a transition of food demand towards healthier diets that result in changes to the food system: (1) solidarity and celery, (2) nothing new, (3) fries and fragmentation, and (4) best laid plans. For each scenario, we modelled the economic shocks of the pandemic and the impact of policy measures to promote healthier diets in the years after the COVID-19 pandemic, including the supply of and demand for food, environmental outcomes, and human health outcomes. The four scenarios use established future population growth and economic development projections derived from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways 2. We quantified the outcomes from more societally cooperative pandemic responses that result in reduced trade barriers and improved technological development against less cooperative responses. FINDINGS: Repeated pandemic shocks (the fries and fragmentation and best laid plans scenarios) reduce the ability of the lowest income countries to ensure food security. A post-pandemic recovery that includes dietary transition towards the consumption of less meat and more fruits and vegetables (the solidarity and celery scenario) could prevent 2583 premature deaths per million in 2060, whereas recovery paths that are focused on economic recovery (the fries and fragmentation scenario) could trigger an additional 778 deaths per million in 2060. The transition of dietary preferences towards healthier diets (the solidarity and celery scenario) also reduces nitrogen fertiliser use by 40 million tonnes and irrigation water by 400 km3 compared with no dietary change in 2060 (the nothing new scenario). Finally, the scenario with dietary transition increases the affordability of the average diet. INTERPRETATION: The economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is most visible in low-income countries, where a reduction in growth projections makes a greater difference to the affordability of a basic diet. A change in dietary preferences is most impactful in reducing mortality and the burden of disease when income levels are high. At lower income, a transition towards lower meat consumption reduces undernourishment and diet-related mortality. FUNDING: The Global Food Security's Resilience of the UK Food System Programme project, with support from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Economic and Social Research Council, Natural Environment Research Council, and the Scottish Government.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Dieta , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Verduras
14.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(7): e613-e627, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809589

RESUMEN

The quantitative literature on climate change and mental health is growing rapidly. However, the methodological quality of the evidence is heterogeneous, and there is scope for methodological improvement and innovation. The first section of this Personal View provides a snapshot of current methodological trends and issues in the quantitative literature on climate change and mental health, drawing on literature collected through a previous scoping review. The second part of this Personal View outlines opportunities for methodological innovation concerning the assessment of the relationship between climate change and mental health. We then highlight possible methodological innovations in intervention research and in the measurement of climate change and mental health-related variables. This section draws upon methods from public mental health, environmental epidemiology, and other fields. The objective is not to provide a detailed description of different methodological techniques, but rather to highlight opportunities to use diverse methods, collaborate across disciplines, and inspire methodological innovation. The reader will be referred to practical guidance on different methods when available. We hope this Personal View will constitute a roadmap and launching pad for methodological innovation for researchers interested in investigating a rapidly growing area of research.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Salud Mental , Salud Ambiental , Predicción , Salud Pública
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(7): 72001, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904520

Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 890741, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812483

RESUMEN

Human health and wellbeing are intimately linked to the state of the environment. The current study emphasizes the role of environmental quality, government policies, and human health. This paper provides a detailed literature review of existing findings regarding our key variables of interest. The results argue that the implications of poor government policies and environmental pollution for rising economic development have led to poor environmental quality and health issues for humans. Based on earlier investigations, the present study reviewed the state-of-the-art review and determined innovative insights for outdoor and indoor environment difficulties. This study provides a detailed review of human health, environmental quality, and governance quality. In addition, the study conducts an empirical analysis using the annual data of low-income countries from 1996 to 2020. Government actions and health systems must be modified immediately to address these rising concerns successfully. The report offers policy recommendations for addressing health, governance, and environmental change mitigation issues, all of which are directly or indirectly related to the study. This article presents an overview of environmental change's health impacts and explores how health hazards may be reduced or eliminated through effective adaptation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Gobierno , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Políticas
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886145

RESUMEN

Pharmaceutical products, including active pharmaceutical ingredients and inactive ingredients such as packaging materials, have raised significant concerns due to their persistent input and potential threats to human and environmental health. Discourse on reducing pharmaceutical waste and subsequent pollution is often limited, as information about the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans is yet to be fully established. Nevertheless, there is growing awareness about ecotoxicity, and efforts to curb pharmaceutical pollution in the European Union (EU), United States (US), and Canada have emerged along with waste disposal and treatment procedures, as well as growing concerns about impacts on human and animal health, such as through antimicrobial resistance. Yet, the outcomes of such endeavors are often disparate and involve multiple agencies, organizations, and departments with little evidence of cooperation, collaboration, or oversight. Environmental health disparities occur when communities exposed to a combination of poor environmental quality and social inequities experience more sickness and disease than wealthier, less polluted communities. In this paper, we discuss pharmaceutical environmental pollution in the context of health disparities and examine policies across the US, EU, and Canada in minimizing environmental pollution.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental , Contaminación Ambiental , Animales , Salud Ambiental , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Unión Europea , Humanos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Estados Unidos
18.
J Law Med Ethics ; 50(2): 368-374, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894583

RESUMEN

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued an emergency temporary standard (ETS) for COVID-19 applicable to private sector employers with 100 or more employees. Among other things, the ETS required employers either to mandate employee vaccination or weekly testing and wearing masks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Laboral , COVID-19/prevención & control , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration , Vacunación
19.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9692

RESUMEN

O II Seminário Internacional de Alimentação e Nutrição na Atenção Primária à Saúde teve como objetivo disseminar informações técnico-científicas e promover trocas de experiências a partir de espaços de discussão e proposição de ações em conjunto com coordenadores estaduais e municipais de alimentação e nutrição, gestores e profissionais envolvidos no desenvolvimento destas ações nos territórios, além de pesquisadores, estudantes e demais interessados no tema. Esse contou com um público de 5 mil pessoas, residentes em mais de 50 países. Houve o lançamento de duas importantes publicações: Recomendações para o Fortalecimento da Atenção Nutricional na Atenção Primária à Saúde no Brasil e Matriz para Organização dos Cuidados em Alimentação e Nutrição na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Esses materiais foram desenvolvidos para dar apoio técnico aos gestores e profissionais na organização da atenção nutricional e na formulação de estratégias de cuidado nos territórios cobertos pela APS no Brasil, buscando reverter cenários de má nutrição.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Política Nutricional , Seguridad Alimentaria , Inseguridad Alimentaria , Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional , Promoción de la Salud , Obesidad/prevención & control , Integralidad en Salud , Salud Ambiental , Colaboración Intersectorial , Sistemas Locales de Salud , Bebidas Azucaradas/normas , COVID-19/epidemiología , Dieta Saludable , Alimentos Industrializados , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Guías Alimentarias , Salud de la Familia , Desarrollo Sostenible , Manejo de la Obesidad , Estigma Social , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Calidad de Vida , Canadá , Brasil , Reino Unido
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