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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407447

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The choices that policymakers make are shaped by how their problems are framed. At last, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have risen high on the global policy agenda, but there are many disputed issues. First, what are they? Their name refers not to what they are but what they are not. Second, where do their boundaries lie? What diseases are included? Third, should we view their causes as mainly biomedical, behavioural, or social, or a combination? Our failure to resolve these issues has been invoked as a reason for our limited progress in developing and implementing effective remedies. In this scoping review, we ask "What is known from the existing literature about how NCDs are framed in the global policy discourses?" We answer it by reviewing the frames employed in policy and academic discourses. METHODS: We searched nine electronic databases for articles published since inception to 31 May 2019. We also reviewed websites of eight international organisations to identify global NCDs policies. We extracted data and synthesised findings to identify key thematic frames. RESULTS: We included 36 articles and nine policy documents on global NCDs policies. We identified five discursive domains that have been used and where there are differing perspectives. These are: "Expanding the NCDs frame to include mental health and air pollution"; "NCDs and their determinants"; "A rights-based approach to NCDs"; "Approaches to achieving policy coherence in NCDs globally"; and "NCDs as part of Sustainable Socio-economic Development". We further identified 12 frames within the five discursive domains. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review identifies issues that remain unresolved and points to a need for alignment of perspectives among global health policy actors, as well as synergies with those working on mental health, maternal health, and child health. The current COVID-19 pandemic warrants greater consideration of its impact on global NCDs policies. Future global strategies for NCDs need to consider explicitly how NCDs are framed in a changing global health discourse and ensure adequate alignment with implementation and global health issues. There is a need for global strategies to recognise the pertinent role of actors in shaping policy discourses.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Política de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Humanos
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(12): e00155720, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440419

RESUMEN

As the COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide in 2020, populations, authorities, and local and global health governance institutions have been affected differently. Global Health Diplomacy and "paradiplomacy" have become relevant instruments and arenas for the challenges raised by the pandemic, especially for non-State or subnational actors. This Essay analyzes the case of the Brazilian state of Maranhão during the pandemic, which used a "wartime operation" to purchase more than a hundred mechanical ventilators on the international market, over the Federal Government's head, at a moment of fierce international competition for medical supplies and equipment. The Essay examines the principal aspects, contexts, reasons, factors, actors, and actions that contextualize the operation conducted by the state of Maranhão as an activity in paradiplomacy and Global Health Diplomacy by a subnational government in Brazil. We analyzed these concepts in light of the literature on the topic and studied the action by Maranhão based on cross-analysis of data from documents, statements, and news coverage. We conclude that the case of Maranhão illustrates the capacity of subnational bodies to respond to global emergencies, mainly in contexts of inefficacy or absence of the Federal executive, legitimizing independent action aimed at saving lives.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Brasil , Salud Global , Humanos
4.
Global Health ; 17(1): 3, 2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402174

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Previous studies of infectious diseases showed that infectious diseases not only cause physical damage to infected individuals but also damage to the mental health of the public. Therefore this study aims to analyze the factors that affected depression in the public during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide evidence for COVID-19-related mental health policies and to emphasize the need to prepare for mental health issues related to potential infectious disease outbreaks in the future. RESULTS: This study performed the following statistical analyses to analyze the factors that influence depression in the public during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, to confirm the level of depression in the public in each country, the participants' depression was plotted on a Boxplot graph for analysis. Second, to confirm personal and national factors that influence depression in individuals, a multi-level analysis was conducted. As a result, the median Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score for all participants was 6. The median was higher than the overall median for the Philippines, Indonesia, and Paraguay, suggesting a higher level of depression. In personal variables, depression was higher in females than in males, and higher in participants who had experienced discrimination due to COVID-19 than those who had not. In contrast, depression was lower in older participants, those with good subjective health, and those who practiced personal hygiene for prevention. In national variables, depression was higher when the Government Response Stringency Index score was higher, when life expectancy was higher, and when social capital was higher. In contrast, depression was lower when literacy rates were higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that depression was higher in participants living in countries with higher stringency index scores than in participants living in other countries. Maintaining a high level of vigilance for safety cannot be criticized. However, in the current situation, where coexisting with COVID-19 has become inevitable, inflexible and stringent policies not only increase depression in the public, but may also decrease resilience to COVID-19 and compromise preparations for coexistence with COVID-19. Accordingly, when establishing policies such as social distancing and quarantine, each country should consider the context of their own country.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Salud Global , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida , Masculino , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Capital Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397494

RESUMEN

With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic showing no signs of abating, resuming neglected tropical disease (NTD) activities, particularly mass drug administration (MDA), is vital. Failure to resume activities will not only enhance the risk of NTD transmission, but will fail to leverage behaviour change messaging on the importance of hand and face washing and improved sanitation-a common strategy for several NTDs that also reduces the risk of COVID-19 spread. This so-called "hybrid approach" will demonstrate best practices for mitigating the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by incorporating physical distancing, use of masks, and frequent hand-washing in the delivery of medicines to endemic communities and support action against the transmission of the virus through water, sanitation and hygiene interventions promoted by NTD programmes. Unless MDA and morbidity management activities resume, achievement of NTD targets as projected in the WHO/NTD Roadmap (2021-2030) will be deferred, the aspirational goal of NTD programmes to enhance universal health coverage jeopardised and the call to 'leave no one behind' a hollow one. We outline what implementing this hybrid approach, which aims to strengthen health systems, and facilitate integration and cross-sector collaboration, can achieve based on work undertaken in several African countries.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , África/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Salud Global , Humanos , Higiene , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Morbilidad , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal , Saneamiento , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397510

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The damage inflicted by the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic upon humanity is and will continue to be considerable. Unprecedented progress made in global health over the past 20 years has reverted and economic growth has already evaporated, giving rise to a global recession, the likes of which we may not have experienced since the Second World War. Our aim is to draw the attention of the neglected tropical disease (NTD) community towards some of the major emerging economic opportunities which are quickly appearing on the horizon as a result of COVID-19. MAIN TEXT: This scoping review relied on a literature search comprised of a sample of articles, statements, and press releases on initiatives aimed at mitigating the impact of COVID-19, while supporting economic recovery. Of note, the donor scenario and economic development agendas are highly dynamic and expected to change rapidly as the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds, as are donor and lender priorities. CONCLUSIONS: The NTD community, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), will need to work quickly, diligently, and in close collaboration with decision-makers and key stakeholders, across sectors at national and international level to secure its position. Doing so might enhance the odds of grasping potential opportunities to access some of the massive resources that are now available in the form of contributions from corporate foundations, trust funds, loans, debt relieve schemes, and other financial mechanisms, as part of the ongoing and future economic development agendas and public health priorities driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper should serve as a starting point for the NTD community to seek much needed financial support in order to sustain and revitalize control and elimination efforts pertaining to NTDs in LMICs.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Enfermedades Desatendidas/economía , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Estatus Económico , Salud Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Pobreza , Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Clima Tropical , Naciones Unidas , Organización Mundial de la Salud
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244534, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411827

RESUMEN

The current pandemic outbreak of the novel COVID-19, which originated from Wuhan in China in late 2019, has eventually spread to six continents with a rising toll of death cases. No vaccine has yet been developed for COVID-19. The compliance of the general public with the advice and regulations of the health authorities and the adoption of effective health behavior regimens are currently the only weapons to effectively cope with the disease. Here we report the results of a worldwide survey (n = 953) conducted between March 2 and March 14, 2020 that sought (a) to identify critical proximal predictors of health behavior relevant to the current situation, (b) to examine their relationships to various demographic characteristics of the population, (c) and to provide a model of health behavior specific to COVID-19. We found that the perceived severity of the disease and susceptibility to it, emotional reactions, and attitudes toward COVID-19 predicted one-third of the preventive behavior variance. Various demographic variables influenced these predictors. Based on the data collected, we constructed, using path analysis, a theoretical model of health behavior. Our results emphasize the need to consider the impact of antecedent variables on actual precautionary behavior and the influence of demographic factors on these antecedent variables. Understanding the complex interplay of these precursors in health behavior will maximize their beneficial role, eliminate maladaptive prevention patterns, and facilitate the eradication of the disease.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Colaboración de las Masas , Demografía , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
10.
Global Health ; 17(1): 9, 2021 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422092

RESUMEN

Since COVID-19 was first discovered, it exploded into a pandemic resulting in devastating effects on human lives and a global recession. While there have been discussions that COVID-19 will accelerate the 'end of globalization and multilateralism', we have already seen the high costs of non-cooperation in responding to the virus resulting in sub-optimal use of resources, rapid spread of the virus between countries, and, ultimately, significant loss of life. In spite of their favorable demographic structures and relatively young populations, countries in the Global South are still harshly affected in both epidemiological and economic terms. Nations must find innovative ways to address health concerns and regional bodies are possible mechanisms for facilitating international cooperation on health. We delineate how regional organizations can support how countries address health threats namely by serving as a bridge between the global and national policy levels; strengthening disease surveillance; mobilizing supply chains and facilitating trade; supporting the production and procurement of medicines and supplies; and coordinating policies and work with other actors. We finalize by arguing that mechanisms for regional cooperation must be strengthened themselves in order to effectively contribute to positive health outcomes within member states.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Cooperación Internacional , Regionalización/organización & administración , /epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Política de Salud , Humanos
11.
Br J Nurs ; 30(1): 6, 2021 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433282
12.
Instr Course Lect ; 70: 623-636, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438940

RESUMEN

The burden of unmet surgical need is heavily weighted toward low-income and middle-income countries. North American orthopaedic surgeons are increasingly interested in volunteer activities in resource-limited areas around the globe. There are multiple avenues through which an orthopaedic surgeon can positively contribute to improving musculoskeletal care around the world. Unfortunately, short-term missions are at risk of undermining local long-term development efforts if they do not mitigate harm and optimize benefit for host communities. Work in this area should be grounded in beneficence and sustainability with an emphasis on mutual respect, exchange, and a commitment to capacity building. All of the necessary information for adequate preparation for these activities is beyond the scope of this chapter, but the goal is to introduce a range of volunteer options, ethical considerations, cultural competence and volunteer preparedness principles, considerations when including trainees in global health work, and some nuts-and-bolts details on trip planning.


Asunto(s)
Misiones Médicas , Cirujanos Ortopédicos , Países en Desarrollo , Salud Global , Humanos , Voluntarios
17.
Nurs Sci Q ; 34(1): 81-87, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349187

RESUMEN

The purpose of this article is to report the details of the humanbecoming hermeneutic sciencing of presence in In Harm's Way. Humanbecoming hermeneutic sciencing is dialoguing with an artform by discoursing with penetrating engaging, interpreting with quiescent beholding, and understanding with inspiring envisaging. The artform explored in this article is the comments and images of 60 nurses from around the world included in The New York Times story titled "In Harm's Way." The report is on the meaning of presence as lived and talked about by nurses on the front lines at the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
/enfermería , Hermenéutica , Humanismo , /epidemiología , Salud Global , Humanos , Periódicos como Asunto
18.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 17(1): 11-15, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139947

RESUMEN

The emergence of COVID-19 in early 2020 led to unprecedented changes to rheumatology clinical practice worldwide, including the closure of research laboratories, the restructuring of hospitals and the rapid transition to virtual care. As governments sought to slow and contain the spread of the disease, rheumatologists were presented with the difficult task of managing risks, to their patients as well as to themselves, while learning and implementing new systems for remote health care. Consequently, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a transformation in health infrastructures and telemedicine that could become powerful tools for rheumatologists, despite having some limitations. In this Viewpoint, five experts from different regions discuss their experiences of the pandemic, including the most challenging aspects of this unexpected transition, the advantages and limitations of virtual visits, and potential opportunities going forward.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Pandemias , Enfermedades Reumáticas/epidemiología , Reumatología , Telemedicina/métodos , Comorbilidad , Salud Global , Humanos
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