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1.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(10): 1-9, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135928

RESUMEN

After initially emerging in late 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly to cause a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that is closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, all of which can cause severe lung injury, respiratory distress and cytokine storm. While mortality rates associated with SARS-CoV-2 are lower than those associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, it is more contagious and spreads more rapidly than these other viruses. This article summarises the epidemiology and potential options for treating COVID-19 to give a foundation for future studies of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this deadly disease.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1700-1705, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180759

RESUMEN

In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the following three milestones for measles control to be achieved by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district, 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to <5 cases per 1 million population, and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate* (1). In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan,† with the objective of eliminating measles§ in five of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. This report describes progress toward WHA milestones and regional measles elimination during 2000-2019 and updates a previous report (2). During 2000-2010, estimated MCV1 coverage increased globally from 72% to 84% but has since plateaued at 84%-85%. All countries conducted measles surveillance; however, approximately half did not achieve the sensitivity indicator target of two or more discarded measles and rubella cases per 100,000 population. Annual reported measles incidence decreased 88%, from 145 to 18 cases per 1 million population during 2000-2016; the lowest incidence occurred in 2016, but by 2019 incidence had risen to 120 cases per 1 million population. During 2000-2019, the annual number of estimated measles deaths decreased 62%, from 539,000 to 207,500; an estimated 25.5 million measles deaths were averted. To drive progress toward the regional measles elimination targets, additional strategies are needed to help countries reach all children with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine, identify and close immunity gaps, and improve surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Sarampión/prevención & control , Objetivos , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Incidencia , Lactante , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/mortalidad , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Organización Mundial de la Salud
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1487-1493, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076604

RESUMEN

Objective: To compare the indicators of non-communicable diseases (NCD) and predict the achieving time of United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in 125 countries participating in the Belt and Road (B&R) initiative and China. Methods: Using the open access data of Global Burden of Disease study, we first got the premature mortality rates of four main chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases) and suicide mortality rate in the 126 countries from1990 to 2017. We transformed the value of each indicator into a scale of 0-100 in percentile for each country and applied geometric mean to calculate total NCD score for comparison among 126 countries. We then examined the association of NCD scores with socio-demographic index (SDI) values. Finally, we used annualized rates of change during 1990-2015 to predict achieving time of the UN goal by 2030 for each indicator of chronic diseases premature mortality rate and suicide mortality rates in each B&R country. Results: The integral median of total NCD score in the 126 countries in 2017 was 82.7. The score of China was 87.6, ranking 33(rd). The top three countries were Kuwait (98.1), Peru (97.5) and Italy (96.0). The last three countries were Papua New Guinea (28.9), Vanuatu (54.7) and Ukraine (58.0). The total NCD score showed positive correlation with SDI values (r=0.33) mainly due to chronic disease indicator (r=0.45). Fifteen countries will achieve the SDG goal of chronic disease premature mortality in or before 2030, but China will achieve it in 2038. Fifteen countries are expected to achieve the goal of suicide mortality, and China will acheive the goal ahead of schedule in 2024. Conclusions: The NCD rates varied widely among the countries along B&R. It is a challenge to achieve the SDG goal of chronic disease premature mortality rate by 2030 for China. In order to achieve the SDG goals by 2030, we should strengthen multilateral cooperation and complement each other's advantages, and reduce NCD mortality of people and improve people's health in countries along B&R.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Predicción , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología
5.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020511, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110594

RESUMEN

Background: Internet search engine data, such as Google Trends, was shown to be correlated with the incidence of COVID-19, but only in several countries. We aim to develop a model from a small number of countries to predict the epidemic alert level in all the countries worldwide. Methods: The "interest over time" and "interest by region" Google Trends data of Coronavirus, pneumonia, and six COVID symptom-related terms were searched. The daily incidence of COVID-19 from 10 January to 23 April 2020 of 202 countries was retrieved from the World Health Organization. Three alert levels were defined. Ten weeks' data from 20 countries were used for training with machine learning algorithms. The features were selected according to the correlation and importance. The model was then tested on 2830 samples of 202 countries. Results: Our model performed well in 154 (76.2%) countries, of which each had no more than four misclassified samples. In these 154 countries, the accuracy was 0.8133, and the kappa coefficient was 0.6828. While in all 202 countries, the accuracy was 0.7527, and the kappa coefficient was 0.5841. The proposed algorithm based on Random Forest Classification and nine features performed better compared to other machine learning methods and the models with different numbers of features. Conclusions: Our result suggested that the model developed from 20 countries with Google Trends data and Random Forest Classification can be applied to predict the epidemic alert levels of most countries worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Automático/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Motor de Búsqueda/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Exactitud de los Datos , Humanos , Incidencia , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMEN

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Medicina del Viajero/organización & administración , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bélgica/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Biomarcadores/análisis , Biomarcadores/sangre , Cambodia/epidemiología , Niño , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico/organización & administración , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Islas/epidemiología , Lenguaje , Laos/epidemiología , Louisiana/epidemiología , Masculino , Personal de Laboratorio Clínico/organización & administración , Personal de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Supervivencia , Medicina del Viajero/métodos , Medicina del Viajero/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organización & administración , Medicina Tropical/estadística & datos numéricos , Vietnam/epidemiología
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 744, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036570

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus is one of the major global health challenges of the twenty-first century. In high burden HIV/TB countries, the spread of COVID-19 among people living with HIV is a well-founded concern. A thorough understanding of HIV/TB and COVID-19 pandemics is important as the three diseases interact. This may clarify HIV/TB/COVID-19 as a newly related field. However, several gaps remain in the knowledge of the burden of COVID-19 on patients with TB and HIV. This study was conducted to review different studies on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or COVID-19 associated with HIV/TB co-infection or only TB, to understand the interactions between HIV, TB and COVID-19 and its implications on the burden of the COVID-19 among HIV/TB co-infected or TB patients, screening algorithm and clinical management. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of potentially eligible studies published in English in the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, PubMed, Medrxiv, Google scholar and Clinical Trials Registry databases. We included case studies, case series and observational studies published between January, 2002 and July, 2020 in which SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and COVID-19 co-infected to HIV/TB or TB in adults. We screened titles, abstracts and full articles for eligibility. Descriptive and meta-analysis were done and results have been presented in graphs and tables. RESULTS: After removing 95 duplicates, 58 out of 437 articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 14 studies were included for descriptive analysis and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to the descriptive analysis, the meta-analysis showed strong evidence that current TB exposure was high-risk COVID-19 group (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.65, P = 0.03). The pooled of COVID-19/TB severity rate increased from OR 4.50 (95% CI 1.12-18.10, P = 0.03), the recovery rate was high among COVID-19 compared to COVID-19/TB irrespective of HIV status (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.83-2.74, P < 0.001) and the mortality was reduced among non-TB group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In summary, TB was a risk factor for COVID-19 both in terms of severity and mortality irrespective of HIV status. Structured diagnostic algorithms and clinical management are suggested to improve COVID-19/HIV/TB or COVID-19/TB co-infections outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Prevalencia , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo
9.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 49(10): 683-686, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015684

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 is known to cause milder disease in children when compared with adults, but the extent of this is unclear. The aim of this article is to estimate the case fatality rate (CFR) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in young children aged <5 years, and compare this with estimated CFRs for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. METHOD: This article reviews published case series of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population and epidemiological data on COVID-19 published on official government websites internationally and in Australia. RESULTS: The CFR of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in children aged <5 years is estimated to be 0.15-1.35%, which is lower than the estimated CFR of RSV pneumonia of 0.3-2.1%, but higher than the estimated CFR of influenza pneumonia of 0.14-0.45%. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection is likely to be less lethal than RSV in children aged <5 years, but more lethal than influenza.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Gripe Humana/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/mortalidad , Adolescente , Preescolar , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Mortalidad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/etiología
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1563-1568, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119555

RESUMEN

Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis and is acquired by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) infected with D. medinensis larvae. The worm typically emerges through the skin on a lower limb approximately 1 year after infection, resulting in pain and disability (1). There is no vaccine or medicine to treat the disease; eradication efforts rely on case containment* to prevent water contamination. Other interventions to prevent infection include health education, water filtration, chemical treatment of unsafe water with temephos (an organophosphate larvicide to kill copepods), and provision of safe drinking water (1,2). The worldwide eradication campaign began in 1980 at CDC (1). In 1986, with an estimated 3.5 million cases† occurring each year in 20 African and Asian countries§ (3), the World Health Assembly (WHA) called for dracunculiasis elimination (4). The global Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP), led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund, CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries with dracunculiasis. This report, based on updated health ministry data (4), describes progress made during January 2019-June 2020 and updates previous reports (2,4,5). With only 54 human cases reported in 2019, 19 human cases reported during January 2019-June 2020, and only six countries currently affected by dracunculiasis (Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, South Sudan, and importations into Cameroon), the achievement of eradication is within reach, but it is challenged by civil unrest, insecurity, and lingering epidemiologic and zoologic concerns, including 2,000 reported animal cases in 2019 and 1,063 animal cases in 2020, mostly in dogs. All national GWEPs remain fully operational, with precautions taken to ensure safety of program staff members and community members in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Dracunculiasis/prevención & control , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , Dracunculiasis/epidemiología , Dracunculiasis/veterinaria , Humanos
11.
Public Health ; 188: 18-20, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049491

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: With COVID-19 infections resulting in death according to a hierarchy of risks, with age and pre-existing health conditions enhancing disease severity, the objective of this study is to estimate the condition-specific case fatality ratio (CFR) for different subpopulations in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: The design of the study was to estimate the 'pre-existing comorbidity'-conditional CFR to eventually explain the mortality risk variability reported around in different countries. METHODS: We use the available information on pre-existing health conditions identified for deceased patients 'positive with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)' in Italy. We (i) estimated the total number of deaths for different pre-existing health conditions categories and (ii) calculated a conditional CFR based upon the number of comorbidities before SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Our results show a 0.6% conditional CFR for a population with zero pre-existing pathology, increasing to 13.9% for a population diagnosed with one and more pre-existing health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Condition-specific mortality risks are important to be evaluated during the COVID-19 pandemic, with potential elements to explain the CFR variability around the globe. A careful postmortem examination of deceased cases to differentiate death 'caused by COVID-19' from death 'positive with SARS-CoV-2' is therefore urgently needed and will likely improve our understanding of the COVID-19 mortality risk and virus pathogenicity.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1427-e1434, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069303

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: 3 billion people worldwide rely on polluting fuels and technologies for domestic cooking and heating. We estimate the global, regional, and national health burden associated with exposure to household air pollution. METHODS: For the systematic review and meta-analysis, we systematically searched four databases for studies published from database inception to April 2, 2020, that evaluated the risk of adverse cardiorespiratory, paediatric, and maternal outcomes from exposure to household air pollution, compared with no exposure. We used a random-effects model to calculate disease-specific relative risk (RR) meta-estimates. Household air pollution exposure was defined as use of polluting fuels (coal, wood, charcoal, agricultural wastes, animal dung, or kerosene) for household cooking or heating. Temporal trends in mortality and disease burden associated with household air pollution, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), were estimated from 2000 to 2017 using exposure prevalence data from 183 of 193 UN member states. 95% CIs were estimated by propagating uncertainty from the RR meta-estimates, prevalence of household air pollution exposure, and disease-specific mortality and burden estimates using a simulation-based approach. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42019125060. FINDINGS: 476 studies (15·5 million participants) from 123 nations (99 [80%] of which were classified as low-income and middle-income) met the inclusion criteria. Household air pollution was positively associated with asthma (RR 1·23, 95% CI 1·11-1·36), acute respiratory infection in both adults (1·53, 1·22-1·93) and children (1·39, 1·29-1·49), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1·70, 1·47-1·97), lung cancer (1·69, 1·44-1·98), and tuberculosis (1·26, 1·08-1·48); cerebrovascular disease (1·09, 1·04-1·14) and ischaemic heart disease (1·10, 1·09-1·11); and low birthweight (1·36, 1·19-1·55) and stillbirth (1·22, 1·06-1·41); as well as with under-5 (1·25, 1·18-1·33), respiratory (1·19, 1·18-1·20), and cardiovascular (1·07, 1·04-1·11) mortality. Household air pollution was associated with 1·8 million (95% CI 1·1-2·7) deaths and 60·9 million (34·6-93·3) DALYs in 2017, with the burden overwhelmingly experienced in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs; 60·8 million [34·6-92·9] DALYs) compared with high-income countries (0·09 million [0·01-0·40] DALYs). From 2000, mortality associated with household air pollution had reduced by 36% (95% CI 29-43) and disease burden by 30% (25-36), with the greatest reductions observed in higher-income nations. INTERPRETATION: The burden of cardiorespiratory, paediatric, and maternal diseases associated with household air pollution has declined worldwide but remains high in the world's poorest regions. Urgent integrated health and energy strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health impact of household air pollution, especially in LMICs. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation, Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/efectos adversos , Costo de Enfermedad , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238782, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021973

RESUMEN

In 2015, UN member states committed to eliminate female genital mutilation (FGM) by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Agenda. To reach this goal, interventions need to be targeted and guided by the best available evidence. To date, however, estimates of the number of girls and women affected by FGM and their trends over time and geographic space have been limited by the availability, specificity and quality of population-level data. We present new estimates based on all publicly available nationally representative surveys collected since the 1990s that contain both information on FGM status and on the age at which FGM occurred. Using survival analysis, we generate estimates of FGM risk by single year of age for all countries with available data, and for rural and urban areas separately. The likelihood of experiencing FGM has decreased at the global level, but progress has been starkly uneven between countries. The available data indicate no progress in reducing FGM risk in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali and Guinea. In addition, rural and urban areas have diverged over the last two decades, with FGM declining more rapidly in urban areas. We describe limitations in the availability and quality of data on FGM occurrence and age-at-FGM. Based on current trends, the SDG goal of eliminating FGM by 2030 is out of reach, and the pace at which the practice is being abandoned would need to accelerate to eliminate FGM by 2030. The heterogeneity in trends between countries and rural vs urban areas offers an opportunity to contrast countries where FGM is in rapid decline and explore potential policy lessons and programmatic implications for countries where the practice of FGM appears to remain entrenched.


Asunto(s)
Circuncisión Femenina , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Circuncisión Femenina/legislación & jurisprudencia , Circuncisión Femenina/estadística & datos numéricos , Circuncisión Femenina/tendencias , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Salud Global/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global/tendencias , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Salud Rural , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Naciones Unidas , Salud Urbana , Salud de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud de la Mujer/tendencias , Adulto Joven
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1330-1333, 2020 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941411

RESUMEN

Since 1988, when World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and partners launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined from 350,000 in 125 countries to 176 in only two countries in 2019 (1). The Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) declared two of the three WPV types, type 2 (WPV2) and type 3 (WPV3), eradicated globally in 2015 and 2019, respectively (1). Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) remains endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Containment under strict biorisk management measures is vital to prevent reintroduction of eradicated polioviruses into communities from poliovirus facilities. In 2015, Member States committed to contain type 2 polioviruses (PV2) in poliovirus-essential facilities (PEFs) certified in accordance with a global standard (2). Member states agreed to report national PV2 inventories annually, destroy unneeded PV2 materials, and, if retaining PV2 materials, establish national authorities for containment (NACs) and a PEF auditing process. Since declaration of WPV3 eradication in October 2019, these activities are also required with WPV3 materials. Despite challenges faced during 2019-2020, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the global poliovirus containment program continues to work toward important milestones. To maintain progress, all WHO Member States are urged to adhere to the agreed containment resolutions, including officially establishing legally empowered NACs and submission of PEF Certificates of Participation.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/administración & dosificación
15.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(3): 204-208, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954710

RESUMEN

Death rates due to COVID-19 pandemic vary considerably across regions and countries. Case Mortality Rates (CMR) per 100,000 population are more reliable than case-fatality rates per 100 test-positive cases, which are heavily dependent on the extent of viral case testing carried out in a country. We aimed to study the variations in CMR against population risk factors such as aging, underlying chronic diseases and social determinants such as poverty and overcrowding. Data on COVID-19 CMR in 93 countries was analyzed for associations with preexisting prevalence rates of eight diseases [asthma, lung cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), hypertension, ischemic heart disease, depression and diabetes], and six socio-demographic factors [Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, unemployment, age over 65 years, urbanization, population density, and socio-demographic index]. These data were analyzed in three steps: correlation analysis, bivariate comparison of countries, and multivariate modelling. Bivariate analysis revealed that COVID-19 CMR were higher in countries that had high prevalence of population risk factors such as AD, lung cancer, asthma and COPD. On multivariate modeling however, AD, COPD, depression and higher GDP predicted increased death rates. Comorbid illnesses such as AD and lung diseases may be more influential than aging alone.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Vigilancia de la Población , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 302-311, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920565

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 has created a global disaster by infecting millions of people and causing thousands of deaths across hundreds of countries. Currently, the infection is in its exponential phase in several countries and there is no sign of immediate relief from this deadly virus. At the same time, some "conspiracy theories" have arisen on the origin of this virus due to the lack of a "definite origin". To understand if this controversy is also reflected in scientific publications, here, we reviewed the key articles published at initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic (January 01, 2020 to April 30, 2020) related to the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2 and the articles opposing the "conspiracy theories". We also provide an overview on the current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 Spike as well as the Coronavirus research domain. Furthermore, a few important points related to the "conspiracy theories" such as "laboratory engineering" or "bioweapon" aspects of SARS-CoV-2 are also reviewed. In this article, we have only considered the peer-reviewed publications that are indexed in PubMed and other official publications, and we have directly quoted the authors' statements from their respective articles to avoid any controversy.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Ingeniería Genética/métodos , Neumonía Viral/virología , Selección Genética , Animales , Derrame de Material Biológico , Armas Biológicas , Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Disentimientos y Disputas , Euterios/clasificación , Euterios/virología , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Recombinación Genética , Alineación de Secuencia , Zoonosis/virología
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22181, 2020 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Real-time global mental health surveillance is urgently needed for tracking the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use Google Trends data to investigate the impact of the pandemic on global mental health by analyzing three keywords indicative of mental distress: "insomnia," "depression," and "suicide." METHODS: We examined increases in search queries for 19 countries. Significant increases were defined as the actual daily search value (from March 20 to April 19, 2020) being higher than the 95% CIs of the forecast from the 3-month baseline via ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) modeling. We examined the correlation between increases in COVID-19-related deaths and the number of days with significant increases in search volumes for insomnia, depression, and suicide across multiple nations. RESULTS: The countries with the greatest increases in searches for insomnia were Iran, Spain, the United States, and Italy; these countries exhibited a significant increase in insomnia searches on more than 10 of the 31 days observed. The number of COVID-19-related deaths was positively correlated to the number of days with an increase in searches for insomnia in the 19 countries (ρ=0.64, P=.003). By contrast, there was no significant correlation between the number of deaths and increases in searches for depression (ρ=-0.12, P=.63) or suicide (ρ=-0.07, P=.79). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that insomnia could be a part of routine mental health screening during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Motor de Búsqueda/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992643

RESUMEN

The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has adversely affected many countries in the world. The unexpected large number of COVID-19 cases has disrupted the healthcare system in many countries and resulted in a shortage of bed spaces in the hospitals. Consequently, predicting the number of COVID-19 cases is imperative for governments to take appropriate actions. The number of COVID-19 cases can be accurately predicted by considering historical data of reported cases alongside some external factors that affect the spread of the virus. In the literature, most of the existing prediction methods focus only on the historical data and overlook most of the external factors. Hence, the number of COVID-19 cases is inaccurately predicted. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to simultaneously consider historical data and the external factors. This can be accomplished by adopting data analytics, which include developing a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous input (NARX) neural network-based algorithm. The viability and superiority of the developed algorithm are demonstrated by conducting experiments using data collected for top five affected countries in each continent. The results show an improved accuracy when compared with existing methods. Moreover, the experiments are extended to make future prediction for the number of patients afflicted with COVID-19 during the period from August 2020 until September 2020. By using such predictions, both the government and people in the affected countries can take appropriate measures to resume pre-epidemic activities.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ciencia de los Datos , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Predicción/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias
19.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 235, 2020 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958001

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data analysis and visualization is an essential tool for exploring and communicating findings in medical research, especially in epidemiological surveillance. RESULTS: Data on COVID-19 diagnosed cases and mortality, from January 1st, 2020, onwards is collected automatically from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). We have developed a Shiny application for data visualization and analysis of several indicators to follow the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic using ECDC data. A country-specific tool for basic epidemiological surveillance, in an interactive and user-friendly manner. The available analyses cover time trends and projections, attack rate, population fatality rate, case fatality rate, and basic reproduction number. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID19-World online web application systematically produces daily updated country-specific data visualization and analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic worldwide. The application may help for a better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Biología Computacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Visualización de Datos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Biología Computacional/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Internet , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos
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