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1.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 58744, Jan.-Jun. 2024. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550248

RESUMEN

Resumo Introdução: A profissão policial é considerada de alto risco e exige um vigor físico e mental do trabalhador diante do serviço realizado. De tal modo que uma boa qualidade do sono é importante, pois impacta diretamente em diversos aspectos na saúde desses trabalhadores. Ademais, a falta de uma boa qualidade do sono devido ao trabalho pode influenciar negativamente a qualidade de vida no trabalho. Objetivo: Analisar a influência da qualidade do sono na qualidade de vida no trabalho de policiais militares. Metodologia: Estudo quantitativo, correlacionalde corte transversal, realizado no primeiro semestre de 2019, com policiais de três municípios da Bahia, Brasil. Foram utilizados três instrumentos: sociodemográfico e características laborais; qualidade de vida de vida no trabalho; e qualidade do sono. Foi aplicado o teste do qui quadrado para as variáveis sociodemograficas e ocupacionais. Posteriormente, foi aplicado o teste de correlação de Spearman entre a qualidade do sono com as dimensões da qualidade de vida no trabalho. Resultados: Evidenciou-se entre os 298 policiais que a mediana da idade foi de 40 anos e tempo de serviço ≤ 7 anos, observou-se também que os policiais com pior qualidade do sono apresentaram qualidade de vida no trabalho insatisfatória em todas as dimensões (biológica/fisiológica; psicológica/comportamental; sociológica/relacional; econômica/política, ambiental/organizacional). Conclusão: Os policiais sofrem com a qualidade do sono e consequentemente influencia negativamente a qualidade de vida no trabalho. Assim, há uma necessidade de desenvolver ações no ambiente de trabalho que possam diminuir os afastamentos decorrentes dos problemas de saúde ocasionados pela qualidade do sono.


Resumen Introdución: La formación policial se considera de alto riesgo y requiere vigor físico y mental por parte de la persona trabajadora antes de realizar el servicio. Para esto, la buena calidad de sueño es importante, ya que impacta directamente en la salud de la población trabajadora en varios aspectos. Además, la falta de una buena calidad de sueño debido al trabajo puede influir negativamente en la calidad de vida fuera del trabajo. Objetivo: Analizar la influencia de la calidad del sueño en la calidad de vida en el trabajo de policías militares. Metodología: Estudio cuantitativo, correlacional transversal, realizado en el primer semestre de 2019, con policías de tres municipios de Bahía, Brasil. Se utilizaron tres instrumentos: características sociodemográficas y laborales, calidad de vida en el trabajo y calidad de sueño. Se aplicó la prueba chi cuadrado para las variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales. Posteriormente, se aplicó la prueba de correlación de Spearman entre la calidad del sueño y las dimensiones de calidad de vida en el trabajo. Resultados: La muestra fue de 298 policías, la mediana de edad fue de 40 años y la antigüedad en el servicio fue ≤ 7 años. También, se observó quienes tuvieron peor calidad de sueño, también tuvieron una calidad de vida en el trabajo insatisfactoria en todos sus dimensiones (biológica/fisiológica; psicológica/conductual; sociológica/relacional; económica/política, ambiental/organizacional). Conclusión: Quienes son agentes de policía sufren de mala calidad de sueño y, en consecuencia, se influye negativamente su calidad de vida en el trabajo. Por lo tanto, existe la necesidad de desarrollar acciones en el lugar de trabajo que pueda reducir los riesgos de problemas de salud causados por la calidad del sueño.


Abstract Background: Police training is considered high risk and demands physical and mental vigor from the worker before preforming the service. Therefore, sleep quality is important as it directly impacts the health of these workers in several aspects. Furthermore, the lack of sleep quality due to work can negatively influence the quality of life outside of work. Aim: To analyze the influence of sleep quality on the quality of life and work of military police officers. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional correlational study, conducted in the first half of 2019 with police officers from three municipalities in Bahia, Brazil. Three instruments were used: sociodemographic and work characteristics; quality of life at work; and sleep quality. The chi-square test was applied for sociodemographic and occupational variations. Subsequently, the Spearman correlation test was applied between sleep quality and the quality of life and work dimensions. Results: Among the 298 police officers the median age was 40 years and the length of service was ≤ 7 years. It was also observed that police officers with poorer sleep quality had an unsatisfactory quality of life at work in all its dimensions (biological/physiological; psychological/behavioral; sociological/relational; economic/political, environmental/organizational). Conclusion: Police officers suffer from poor sleep quality and this negatively influence their quality of life and work. Therefore, there is a need to develop actions in the workplace that may reduce the risks of health problems caused by poor sleep quality.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Policia , Salud Militar , Calidad del Sueño , Calidad de Vida , Brasil , Salud Laboral
2.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 35(1): 47-59, 2024.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710631

RESUMEN

The widespread use of teleworking during the health crisis reduced the flow of occupational accident claims by 20%. This applies to commuting accidents, as well as claims related to « immediate » or “deferred” risks (Rapp. annuel 2020 de l’Assurance maladie - Risques professionnels : Eléments statistiques et financiers, déc. 2021, p. 2 and 113). On the basis of these figures, working at home could be analyzed as a means of preventing occupational risks and improving workers’ health. In reality, however, these figures should not obscure the fact that telecommuting is a major occupational hazard. This is all the more the case given that, while telecommuting was not very widespread before the pandemic, it is now popular with employees and is being developed by many companies as a source of productivity (Rapp. CNP, May 16 2022). We therefore need to keep a close eye on the development of workplace accident legislation in this area, its adaptability to the specific claims experience of teleworkers and its perfectibility, not forgetting the thorny question of the possible recognition of the employer’s inexcusable fault in the event of the accident being covered by professional legislation.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , Teletrabajo , Humanos , Accidentes de Trabajo/prevención & control , Accidentes de Trabajo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Laboral/legislación & jurisprudencia , Francia
3.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 35(1): 25-34, 2024.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710628

RESUMEN

The Covid-19 pandemic has spurred the development of telecommuting in many companies, which are now tending to make it a permanent fixture for activities that lend themselves to it. Despite its advantages, however, telecommuting does not exclude all occupational risks when carried out from the employee’s home. Under these conditions, the employer must guarantee the protection of teleworkers’ health by virtue of his safety obligation. But the implementation of a preventive approach is severely challenged by a private space that is beyond the employer’s control. What are these difficulties? How can we proceed? The ANI of November 26, which clarifies the legal framework for telecommuting, offers a few clues, and suggests a form of empowerment for employees and their managers.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Teletrabajo , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Laboral/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Francia
4.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 35(1): 35-43, 2024.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710629

RESUMEN

For a long time, telecommuting was an atypical and little-used form of work organization. But the health crisis has changed all that. The rise of telecommuting has led to a radical transformation of the professional landscape. Its impact on the health of teleworkers is both major and little-known. In particular, the psychosocial risks induced by this work organization are difficult to grasp. What’s more, the law applicable to the protection of health in the workplace has not been adapted. All these circumstances call into question the need to create a common set of rules specific to telecommuting.


Asunto(s)
Teletrabajo , Humanos , Salud Laboral/legislación & jurisprudencia , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
5.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 35(1): 61-70, 2024.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710633

RESUMEN

Teleworkers who are exposed to digital incivilities need to be helped to adapt to teleworking arrangements, maintain close links with their team members, enjoy an effective right to disconnect, be trained in conflict management and set limits to protect their personal lives. This is the only way for teleworkers to remain motivated and efficient at work, in good physical and mental health, even when exposed to digital incivilities, whoever the perpetrator may be. But they can’t act in isolation: they need to be able to rely on the organization to which they belong, on the responsible commitment of management, and on the concerted and relevant action of employee representatives, both trade unions, for the collective negotiation of agreements aimed at reinforcing the protection of teleworkers’ health and working conditions, and elected representatives, to act in the event of infringements of people’s rights.


Asunto(s)
Teletrabajo , Humanos , Salud Laboral
6.
Am J Health Promot ; 38(5): 597-602, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712808
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10844, 2024 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735987

RESUMEN

The rail industry in Australia screens workers for probable obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) due to known safety risks. However, existing criteria to trigger screening only identify a small proportion of workers with OSA. The current study sought to examine the relationship between OSA risk and rail incidents in real-world data from Australian train drivers, and conducted a proof of concept analysis to determine whether more conservative screening criteria are justified. Health assessment (2016-2018) and subsequent rail incident data (2016-2020) were collected from two passenger rail service providers. Predictors included OSA status (confirmed no OSA with a sleep study, controlled OSA, unknown OSA [no recorded sleep assessment data] and confirmed OSA with no indication of treatment); OSA risk according to the current Standard, and OSA risk according to more conservative clinical markers (BMI threshold and cardiometabolic burden). Coded rail safety incidents involving the train driver were included. Data were analysed using zero-inflated negative binomial models to account for over-dispersion with high 0 counts, and rail safety incidents are reported using Incidence Risk Ratios (IRRs). A total of 751 train drivers, typically middle-aged, overweight to obese and mostly men, were included in analyses. There were 43 (5.7%) drivers with confirmed OSA, 62 (8.2%) with controlled OSA, 13 (1.7%) with confirmed no OSA and 633 (84.4%) drivers with unknown OSA. Of the 633 train drivers with unknown OSA status, 21 (3.3%) met 'at risk' criteria for OSA according to the Standard, and incidents were 61% greater (IRR: 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02-2.56) in the years following their health assessment compared to drivers who did not meet 'at risk' criteria. A more conservative OSA risk status using lower BMI threshold and cardiometabolic burden identified an additional 30 'at risk' train drivers who had 46% greater incidents compared to drivers who did not meet risk criteria (IRR (95% CI) 1.46 (1.00-2.13)). Our more conservative OSA risk criteria identified more workers, with greater prospective incidents. These findings suggest that existing validated tools could be considered in future iterations of the Standard in order to more sensitively screen for OSA.


Asunto(s)
Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Humanos , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/epidemiología , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Australia/epidemiología , Adulto , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Vías Férreas , Incidencia , Factores de Riesgo , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Salud Laboral
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e12892022, 2024 May.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747776

RESUMEN

Hospital managers should target occupational risks and harm prevention since this can contribute to the quality of life at work and patient safety. This article aims to elucidate the activity of prevention of occupational risks and injuries in the hospital setting based on analysis of historical and empirical contradictions of the activity system. An exploratory qualitative study grounded in the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory was conducted at a university hospital in the state of São Paulo. Data were collected between September 2021 and January 2022 via individual semi-structured interviews of 9 professionals from the Occupational Health and Safety services and of five hospital managers, involving 20 hours of field observation and document analysis. Despite the expansion of the object of prevention activity, the other elements of the activity system did not adapt to the new demands, causing incompatibilities and contradictions that compromised the attainment of the expected outcomes. The main response actions observed were centered on complying with regulatory items, such as team composition, medical examinations and others, that contribute little toward promoting occupational health and safety.


A prevenção de riscos e agravos à saúde dos trabalhadores nos hospitais deve ser foco dos gestores, pois contribui para a qualidade de vida no trabalho e a segurança do paciente. O objetivo deste artigo é compreender a atividade de prevenção de riscos e agravos à saúde dos trabalhadores no contexto hospitalar, a partir das contradições históricas e empíricas do sistema de atividade. Estudo qualitativo exploratório, ancorado na Teoria da Atividade Histórico-Cultural, desenvolvido em um hospital universitário do estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados entre setembro de 2021 e janeiro de 2022 por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com nove profissionais do Serviço Especializado em Engenharia de Segurança e Medicina do Trabalho e cinco gestores do hospital; 20 horas de observação de campo; e análise documental. Apesar da expansão do objeto da atividade de prevenção, os demais elementos do sistema de atividade não se adaptaram às novas exigências, evoluindo com incompatibilidades e contradições que comprometeram o alcance dos resultados esperados. As principais ações de resposta observadas ficaram centradas em adequações a exigências de itens de normas, como composição de equipe, exames médicos e outras que pouco atuam na promoção e proteção da saúde.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Universitarios , Salud Laboral , Humanos , Brasil , Entrevistas como Asunto , Calidad de Vida , Investigación Cualitativa , Seguridad del Paciente , Administradores de Hospital
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 134, 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741143

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In agricultural activities, pesticide use is critical, but poisoning issues are one of the most important occupational hazards for farmers. Training can help protect farmers' health from pesticide hazards. This study aimed to investigate the effect of education on farmers' behavior in the safe use of pesticides using the health belief model. METHODS: A quasi-experimental (pretest-post-test) study conducted on 84 farmers who were selected using the convenience sampling method. The data collection tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic information and a questionnaire designed based on the constructs of the health belief model in using personal protective equipment while working with the pesticides. The instrument was completed before and two weeks after an educational intervention. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 26. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 48.94 ± 9.14 years and 69% were male. The study showed that with increasing age, the mean score of health belief model constructs in the safe use of pesticides decreased. Female and higher-educated farmers had higher scores. After the intervention, the mean scores of health belief model constructs in the safe use of pesticides increased significantly, except perceived barriers construct which decreased significantly. Also, the frequency of protective equipment uses while working with pesticides increased significantly after the intervention and safe behaviors increased, while unsafe behaviors decreased. CONCLUSION: The education as an effective intervention, improves farmers' safety attitudes and behaviors in pesticide use and it is recommended that educational programs be designed according to the characteristics of the audience.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Modelo de Creencias sobre la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Humanos , Plaguicidas/efectos adversos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Agricultores/educación , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Educación en Salud/métodos , Salud Laboral , Equipo de Protección Personal , Agricultura/educación , Agricultura/métodos
10.
J Occup Environ Med ; 66(5): 375-380, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709180

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to clarify the longitudinal association between teleworking and physical health changes of Japanese workers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants were in a certain company who received mandatory health examinations in 2019 and 2020. In June 2020, the participants were asked about frequency of teleworking, which was introduced owing to the COVID-19. Whether physical health differed by the frequency of teleworking was analyzed. RESULTS: The participants were 3689 workers. Frequency of teleworking were associated with more deleterious changes in diastolic blood pressure, antilipidemic drug use, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase(GOT), Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase(GPT), metabolic syndrome, and insufficient walking time among men. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: Male workers who teleworked more frequently were more likely to experience a deterioration in their physical health within 1-year compared with those who worked at the office.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estado de Salud , Salud Laboral , SARS-CoV-2 , Teletrabajo , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Japón , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Presión Sanguínea
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1347534, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716243

RESUMEN

Introduction: Occupational health disparities are well documented among immigrant populations and occupational injury remains a high cause of morbidity and mortality among immigrant populations. There are several factors that contribute to the high prevalence of work-related injury among this population and those without legal status are more likely to experience abusive labor practices that can lead to injury. While the work-related injuries and experiences of Spanish-speaking workers have been explored previously, there is a paucity of literature documenting injury among hospitalized patients. Additionally, there are few documented hospital-based occupational injury prevention programs and no programs that implement workers rights information. The purpose of this study was to further explore the context of work related injuries primarily experienced by Spanish speaking patients and knowledge of their rights in the workplace. Methods: This was a semi-structured qualitative interview study with Spanish speaking patients admitted to the hospital for work related injuries. The study team member conducting interviews was bilingual and trained in qualitative methodology. An interview guide was utilized for all interviews and was developed with an immigrant workers rights organization and study team expertise, and factors documented in the literature. Participants were asked about the type and context of the injury sustained, access and perceptions of workplace safety, and knowledge of participants rights as workers. All interviews were conducted in Spanish, recorded, transcribed in Spanish and then translated into English. A codebook was developed and refined iteratively and two independent coders coded all English transcripts using Dedoose. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached and data was analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: A total of eight interviews were completed. All participants reported working in hazardous conditions that resulted in an injury. Participants expressed a relative acceptance that their workplace environment was dangerous and acknowledged that injuries were common, essentially normalizing the risk of injury. There were varying reports of access to and utilization of safety information and equipment and employer engagement in safety was perceived as a facilitator to safety. Most participants did have some familiarity with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspections but were not as familiar with OSHA procedures and their rights as workers. Discussion: We identified several themes related to workplace injury among Spanish speaking patients, many of which raise concerns about access to workplace safety, re-injury and long-term recovery. The context around immigration is particularly important to consider and may lead to unique risk factors for injury, recovery, and re-injury both in the workplace and beyond the workplace, suggesting that perhaps immigration status alone may serve as a predisposition to injury. Thus, it is critical to understand the context around work related injuries in this population considering the tremendous impact of employment on one's health and financial stability. Further research on this topic is warranted, specifically the exploration of multiple intersecting layers of exposure to injury among immigrant populations. Future work should focus on hospital-based strategies for injury prevention and know your rights education tailored to Spanish speaking populations.


Asunto(s)
Hispánicos o Latinos , Salud Laboral , Traumatismos Ocupacionales , Investigación Cualitativa , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Hispánicos o Latinos/psicología , Hispánicos o Latinos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/prevención & control , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Entrevistas como Asunto , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Am J Ind Med ; 67(6): 515-531, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689533

RESUMEN

Excess health and safety risks of commercial drivers are largely determined by, embedded in, or operate as complex, dynamic, and randomly determined systems with interacting parts. Yet, prevailing epidemiology is entrenched in narrow, deterministic, and static exposure-response frameworks along with ensuing inadequate data and limiting methods, thereby perpetuating an incomplete understanding of commercial drivers' health and safety risks. This paper is grounded in our ongoing research that conceptualizes health and safety challenges of working people as multilayered "wholes" of interacting work and nonwork factors, exemplified by complex-systems epistemologies. Building upon and expanding these assumptions, herein we: (a) discuss how insights from integrative exposome and network-science-based frameworks can enhance our understanding of commercial drivers' chronic disease and injury burden; (b) introduce the "working life exposome of commercial driving" (WLE-CD)-an array of multifactorial and interdependent work and nonwork exposures and associated biological responses that concurrently or sequentially impact commercial drivers' health and safety during and beyond their work tenure; (c) conceptualize commercial drivers' health and safety risks as multilayered networks centered on the WLE-CD and network relational patterns and topological properties-that is, arrangement, connections, and relationships among network components-that largely govern risk dynamics; and (d) elucidate how integrative exposome and network-science-based innovations can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of commercial drivers' chronic disease and injury risk dynamics. Development, validation, and proliferation of this emerging discourse can move commercial driving epidemiology to the frontier of science with implications for policy, action, other working populations, and population health at large.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Exposoma , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Conocimiento , Comercio , Salud Laboral , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología
13.
Medwave ; 24(4): e2910, 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776528

RESUMEN

Introduction: Perceived workplace discrimination is a complex phenomenon involving unfair treatment in the workplace based on personal characteristics such as age, ethnicity, gender, or disability. The objective of this study is to explore the association of perceived workplace discrimination with health and occupational outcomes. Methods: Following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines and the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology, a scoping review of articles published between 2000 and 2022 was conducted in databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, and PsyInfo. Inclusion criteria focused on studies exploring perceived workplace discrimination among workers, excluding those on patients, students, or the general population, and articles not written in English or Spanish. Results: Of the 9,871 articles identified, 102 met the criteria and were analyzed. Research showed a progressive increase in the study of perceived workplace discrimination, with a majority of studies in North America and Europe and a predominance of cross-sectional designs. Most studies did not clearly define the concept of perceived workplace discrimination nor report the psychometric characteristics of the measurement instruments. A significant association was found between perceived discrimination and negative outcomes in workers' mental and physical health, as well as a negative impact on job satisfaction and an increase in absenteeism. Additionally, sociodemographic characteristics such as race/ethnicity, gender, and age influenced the perception of discrimination. Conclusions: This review confirms that perceived workplace discrimination significantly impacts the health and job satisfaction of workers, with particular detriment in minorities and women. Despite an increase in research over the last two decades, there remains a lack of consistency in the definition and measurement of the phenomenon. Most studies have used cross-sectional designs, and there is a notable absence of research in the Latin American context.


Introducción: La discriminación laboral percibida es un fenómeno complejo que implica un trato injusto en el lugar de trabajo, basado en características personales como edad, etnia, género o discapacidad. El objetivo de este estudio es explorar cómo ha sido investigada la discriminación laboral percibida, en el contexto de investigaciones acerca de su asociación con salud y resultados ocupacionales. Métodos: Siguiendo la guía PRISMA-ScR y la metodología del Instituto Joanna Briggs, se realizó una revisión panorámica de artículos publicados entre los años 2000 y 2022 en bases de datos como PubMed, Scopus y PsycInfo. Los criterios de inclusión se centraron en estudios que exploraron la discriminación laboral percibida en trabajadores, excluyendo aquellos en pacientes, estudiantes o población general, y artículos no escritos en inglés o español. Resultados: De los 9871 artículos identificados, 102 cumplieron con los criterios y fueron analizados. La investigación mostró un aumento progresivo en el estudio de la discriminación laboral percibida, con una mayoría de estudios en América del Norte y Europa y un predominio de diseños transversales. La mayoría no definió claramente el concepto de discriminación laboral percibida ni reportó las características psicométricas de los instrumentos de medición. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre la discriminación percibida y resultados negativos en la salud mental y física de los trabajadores, así como un impacto negativo en la satisfacción laboral y un aumento en el ausentismo. Además, las características sociodemográficas como raza/etnia, género y edad influyeron en la percepción de discriminación. Conclusiones: Esta revisión confirma que la discriminación laboral percibida impacta considerablemente la salud y satisfacción laboral de los trabajadores, afectando más a minorías y mujeres. A pesar de un incremento en su investigación en las últimas dos décadas, persiste una carencia de consistencia en la definición y medición del fenómeno. La mayoría de los estudios han utilizado diseños transversales, y se observa una notable ausencia de investigaciones en el contexto latinoamericano.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Salud Laboral , Discriminación Social , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Absentismo , Estado de Salud , Masculino , Salud Mental
14.
BMJ Mil Health ; 170(3): 212-215, 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777366

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The selection process to the British Army's Brigade of Gurkhas is rigorous, demanding and competitive. The ethos of recruitment to the Gurkhas is grounded in an overarching tenant: that selection is free, fair and transparent. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review reasons for potential recruits (PRs) to be deemed medically unsuitable or deferred suitability on medical grounds for selection to the Brigade of Gurkhas. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted by extracted data from published post-exercise reports for the past four years to ascertain numbers of PRs deemed medically fit, medically unsuitable or deferred suitability on medical grounds. The International Classification of Disease version 11 (ICD-11) codes were retrospectively assigned to code medical reasons for non-progression. Rates of medical non-progression were compared by year. RESULTS: A total of 3154 PRs were analysed between 2018 and 2021. There was no significant difference between PRs deemed medically fit and those deemed medically suitable or deferred on medical grounds over the study period (p=0.351). There was a significant difference in the ratio of PRs deferred on medical grounds and those deemed medically unsuitable over the study period (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Selection to the Gurkhas is extremely competitive. These data demonstrate that, overall, reasons for medical deferral or unsuitability have remained constant despite the impact of a global pandemic. These data reinforce the central tenant of Gurkha selection; that it continues to be free, fair, and transparent.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Estudios de Cohortes , Reino Unido , Selección de Personal/métodos , Selección de Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , India/epidemiología , Adulto
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1292692, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784580

RESUMEN

Background: Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) has become an area of increasing concern for organizations and institutions. As it evolves, it has gradually posed ongoing challenges, becoming more complex, for organizations. Consequently, more comprehensive studies are required to advance academic and institutional research. From this perspective, this study aims to gather research contributions on the effectiveness of existing interventions for OSH improvement and identify areas for further exploration. Methods: According to the nature of scientific literature, the overall process of a literature review was investigated following an integrative approach, which involved searching for, selecting, and analyzing various literature in a creative and integrated manner, without a predefined structure. Results: The analysis suggests that there is room for improvement in understanding the effectiveness of OSH interventions and more concrete guidance is still desirable. Based on the literature, some research areas for future developments in OSH interventions are identified. One potential area to explore further is fostering human-centered technological development and a more conscious network of stakeholders, with higher coordination, shared knowledge, and open communication. Implications: Focusing on the proposed directions will support scholars and practitioners in pursuing continuous OSH improvement through more effective and well-grounded workplace interventions and encourage organizations to be proactive in daily OSH management.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Humanos , Lugar de Trabajo
16.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 49(3): 210-219, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757905

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization posits that adequate maternity health is possible if midwives are supported, respected, protected, motivated, and equipped to work safely and optimally within interdisciplinary health care teams. Based on qualitative survey data, we argue that the COVID-19 pandemic amplified job demands and resources, professional invisibility, and gender norms to negatively impact midwives' well-being. PURPOSES: We aim to develop a refined understanding of the antecedents of well-being in midwifery to equip policymakers, administrators, and professional associations with the knowledge to enhance midwives' well-being postpandemic. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources model, we thematically analyzed qualitative survey data ( N = 215) from New Zealand midwives to reveal how job demands, resources, and structural factors impacted midwives' well-being. RESULTS: We identified fear of contracting and spreading COVID-19, financial and legal imperatives (job demands), work-related hypervigilance, sense of professional duty, practical and social support, and appreciation and recognition (job resources) as key antecedents of midwives' well-being. These job demands and resources were influenced by professional invisibility and gender norms. CONCLUSION: Policy and practice solutions must address job demands, resources, and structural factors to meaningfully enhance midwives' well-being postpandemic. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: We recommend that policymakers, administrators, and professional associations monitor for signs of overcommitment and perfectionistic strivings and then take appropriate remedial action. We also suggest that midwives receive equitable pay, sick leave, and other related benefits.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Partería , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Nueva Zelanda , Femenino , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Salud Laboral , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras Obstetrices/psicología , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Pandemias
17.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1351568, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689767

RESUMEN

Introduction: Physical and mental health problems among pilots affect their working state and impact flight safety. Although pilots' physical and mental health problems have become increasingly prominent, their health has not been taken seriously. This study aimed to clarify challenges and support needs related to psychological and physical health among pilots to inform development of a more scientific and comprehensive physical and mental health system for civil aviation pilots. Methods: This qualitative study recruited pilots from nine civil aviation companies. Focus group interviews via an online conference platform were conducted in August 2022. Colaizzi analysis was used to derive themes from the data and explore pilots' experiences, challenges, and support needs. Results: The main sub-themes capturing pilots' psychological and physical health challenges were: (1) imbalance between family life and work; (2) pressure from assessment and physical examination eligibility requirements; (3) pressure from worries about being infected with COVID-19; (4) nutrition deficiency during working hours; (5) changes in eating habits because of the COVID-19 pandemic; (6) sleep deprivation; (7) occupational diseases; (8) lack of support from the company in coping with stress; (9) pilots' yearly examination standards; (10) support with sports equipment; (11) respecting planned rest time; and (12) isolation periods. Discussion: The interviewed pilots experienced major psychological pressure from various sources, and their physical health condition was concerning. We offer several suggestions that could be addressed to improve pilots' physical and mental health. However, more research is needed to compare standard health measures for pilots around the world in order to improve their physical and mental health and contribute to overall aviation safety.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Grupos Focales , Pilotos , Investigación Cualitativa , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pilotos/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Salud Mental , Estado de Salud , Adaptación Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Salud Laboral
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 66(5): 403-420, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709181

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Unidentified or nonmitigated occupational illnesses and injuries can complicate disease management. The "occupational health" (OCCHLTH) mnemonic aims to raise awareness of work-related exposures and associated illnesses and injuries. METHODS: Occupational safety and health history-taking elements were combined with peer-reviewed information [from the PubMed database (first review January 1, 2000, to February 8, 2016; updated to February 8, 2021)] about workplace exposure-outcome associations to create the mnemonic. RESULTS: Seven components constitute the OCCHLTH mnemonic. Literature results support its categories and subcategories. Three components represent symptom onset and health conditions. Four represent occupational exposures. Evaluating published occupational illness cases explored mnemonic applicability. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of occupational risk factors can affect clinical decision-making. The OCCHLTH mnemonic encourages consideration of occupational causes of illness and injury to optimize patient care. Further evaluation of the utility of the OCCHLTH mnemonic is needed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Profesionales , Exposición Profesional , Traumatismos Ocupacionales , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Salud Laboral , Factores de Riesgo , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
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