Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40.420
Filtrar
1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(38): e274, 2021 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609094

RESUMEN

Applying work restrictions for asymptomatic healthcare personnel (HCP) with potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is recommended to prevent transmission from potentially contagious HCP to patients and other HCP. However, it can lead to understaffing, which threatens the safety of both patients and HCP. We evaluated 203 COVID-19 exposure events at a single tertiary hospital from January 2020 to June 2021. A total of 2,365 HCP were potentially exposed, and work restrictions were imposed on 320 HCP, leading to the loss of 3,311 working days. However, only one of the work-restricted HCP was confirmed with COVID-19. During the study period, the work restriction measures might be taken excessively compared to their benefit, so establishing more effective standards for work restriction is required.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , Personal de Salud , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Prevención Primaria/métodos , Humanos , República de Corea , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Lugar de Trabajo
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049134, 2021 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607860

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee occupational health (EOH) providers were tasked with assuming a central role in coordinating employee COVID-19 screening and clearance for duty, representing entirely novel EOH responsibilities. In a rapid qualitative needs assessment, we aimed to identify learnings from the field to support the vastly expanding role of EOH providers in a national healthcare system. METHODS: We employed rapid qualitative analysis of key informant interviews in a maximal variation sample on the parameters of job type, rural versus urban and provider gender. We interviewed 21 VHA EOH providers between July and December 2020. This sample represents 15 facilities from diverse regions of the USA (large, medium and small facilities in the Mid-Atlantic; medium sites in the South; large facilities in the West and Pacific Northwest). RESULTS: Five interdependent needs included: (1) infrastructure to support employee population management, including tools that facilitate infection control measures such as contact tracing (eg, employee-facing electronic health records and coordinated databases); (2) mechanisms for information sharing across settings (eg, VHA listserv), especially for changing policy and protocols; (3) sufficiently resourced staffing using detailing to align EOH needs with human resource capital; (4) connected and resourced local and national leaders; and (5) strategies to support healthcare worker mental health.Our identified facilitators for EOH assuming new challenging and dynamically changing roles during COVID-19 included: (A) training or access to expertise; (B) existing mechanisms for information sharing; (C) flexible and responsive staffing; and (D) leveraging other institutional expertise not previously affiliated with EOH (eg, chaplains to support bereavement). CONCLUSIONS: Our needs assessment highlights local and system level barriers and facilitators of EOH assuming expanded roles during COVID-19. Integrating changes both within and across systems and with alignment of human capital will enable EOH preparedness for future challenges.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Laboral , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Salud de los Veteranos , Recursos Humanos
3.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 36, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593053

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The highly contagious nature of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) places physicians in South Asia at high risk of contracting the infection. Accordingly, we conducted this study to provide an updated account of physician deaths in South Asia during the COVID-19 pandemic and to analyze and compare the different characteristics associated with physician mortality amongst the countries of the region. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study by using published news reports on the websites of news agencies from 9 selected countries in South Asia. Our study included only those physicians and doctors who died after contracting COVID-19 from their respective workplaces. All available data about the country of origin, type of, sex, age, medical or surgical specialty, and date of death were included. RESULTS: The total number of physician deaths reported due to COVID-19 in our study was 170, with half (87/170, 51%) of the deaths reported from Iran. Male physician deaths were reported to be 145 (145/170 = 85%). Internal Medicine (58.43%) was the most severely affected sub-specialty. The highest physician mortality rate in the general population recorded in Afghanistan (27/1000 deaths). General physicians from India [OR = 11.00(95% CI = 1.06-114.08), p = 0.045] and public sector medical practitioners from Pakistan [aOR = 4.52 (95% CI = 1.18-17.33), p = 0.028] were showing significant mortality when compared with other regions in multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSION: An increased number of physician deaths, owing to COVID-19, has been shown in South Asia. This could be due to decreased personal protective equipment and the poor health care management systems of the countries in the region to combat the pandemic. Future studies should provide detailed information of characteristics associated with physician mortalities along with the main complications arising due to the virus.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Mortalidad , Enfermedades Profesionales/mortalidad , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Afganistán/epidemiología , Anciano , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Bután/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Islas del Oceano Índico/epidemiología , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/virología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Sri Lanka/epidemiología
4.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624947

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the occupational health status of radiation workers at an international airport, and to provide basis and reference for relevant competent authorities to conduct scientific and effective occupational health monitoring. Methods: From July to August 2019, 246 radiation workers at an international airport were selected as the research subjects (observation group) , and their occupational health examination data were collected. At the same time, 210 radiation workers from a medical institution were selected as the control group. The occupational health examination results of the two groups were compared. And the differences in occupational health examination results of airport radiation workers among difference service age were analyzed. Results: Compared with the control group, the detection rates of ocular lens opacity (1.63%, 4/246) and abnormal blood glucose (4.07%, 10/246) in the observation group were lower, the detection rates of abnormal skin (11.79%, 29/246) , abnormal B-ultrasound of liver, gallbladder and spleen (75.61%, 186/246) and abnormal chest X-ray (5.28%, 13/246) were higher (P<0.05) . There were significant differences in the abnormal detection rates of skin, blood glucose, B-ultrasound of liver, gallbladder and spleen among airport radiation workers with different service age (P<0.05) . Abnormal chromosome of peripheral blood lymphocytes, abnormal chest X-ray were mainly distributed in the service age of ≥20 years. The abnormal rate of B-ultrasound of liver, gallbladder and spleen was higher in different working age groups. Conclusion: Long term low-dose irradiation will have a certain impact on the occupational health of airport radiation workers. The occupational health monitoring of relevant personnel should be strengthened to protect their occupational health.


Asunto(s)
Cristalino , Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Adulto , Aeropuertos , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Adulto Joven
5.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 183-192, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604987

RESUMEN

This narrative review examines current academic literature on the mental health of Filipino seafarers working internationally, including the mental health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Framed within a rights-based approach, it aims to identify and analyse emerging themes on Filipino seafarers' mental health literature to understand what these studies potentially mean for the improvement of seafarers' education on mental health. Based on a broad selection criteria, 28 eligible papers demonstrate collectively three key findings: firstly, there is paucity in published research on seafarers' mental health; secondly, the majority of published studies are associated with a recent piracy crisis, where a significant number of mariners were attacked, taken as hostages, or killed; thirdly, three key areas emerged under which research on Filipino seafarers' mental health can be organized: the medical repatriation of seafarers, system of care for the mental health of seafarers including the diagnostic standards used, and seafarers' experiences and conceptions of mental health including the mental health effects of COVID-19. Though the bulk of the current understanding of the mental health problems is associated with piracy, several risk factors for which the quality of quantitative and qualitative evidence are patchy. The few sources of primary data to date lack focus on mental health needs which makes it difficult to grasp the extent of the problem. Developing policies and programmes for the promotion of mental health through mental health education among seafarers is important for a couple of reasons. Seafaring remains a dangerous and socially isolating occupation where work-related accidents are likely and will be potentially traumatic to mariners. Research on occupational stressors is increasingly providing evidence of their contributions to poor mental health outcomes among seafarers. Thus, mental health education of seafarers in the context of their work is important for proactive training and development.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Salud Mental/educación , Medicina Naval/métodos , Crimen/psicología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Salud Laboral , Estrés Laboral , Filipinas/etnología , Navíos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0249143, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473726

RESUMEN

Pork processing plants were apparent hotspots for SARS-CoV2 in the spring of 2020. As a result, the swine industry was confronted with a major occupational health, financial, and animal welfare crisis. The objective of this work was to describe the epidemiological situation within processing plants, develop mathematical models to simulate transmission in these plants, and test the effectiveness of routine PCR screening at minimizing SARS-CoV2 circulation. Cumulative incidence of clinical (PCR-confirmed) disease plateaued at ~2.5% to 25% across the three plants studied here. For larger outbreaks, antibody prevalence was approximately 30% to 40%. Secondly, we developed a mathematical model that accounts for asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic, and background "community" transmission. By calibrating this model to observed epidemiological data, we estimated the initial reproduction number (R) of the virus. Across plants, R generally ranged between 2 and 4 during the initial phase, but subsequently declined to ~1 after two to three weeks, most likely as a result of implementation/compliance with biosecurity measures in combination with population immunity. Using the calibrated model to simulate a range of possible scenarios, we show that the effectiveness of routine PCR-screening at minimizing disease spread was far more influenced by testing frequency than by delays in results, R, or background community transmission rates. Testing every three days generally averted about 25% to 40% of clinical cases across a range of assumptions, while testing every 14 days typically averted 7 to 13% of clinical cases. However, the absolute number of additional clinical cases expected and averted was influenced by whether there was residual immunity from a previous peak (i.e., routine testing is implemented after the workforce had experienced an initial outbreak). In contrast, when using PCR-screening to prevent outbreaks or in the early stages of an outbreak, even frequent testing may not prevent a large outbreak within the workforce. This research helps to identify protocols that minimize risk to occupational safety and health and support continuity of business for U.S. processing plants. While the model was calibrated to meat processing plants, the structure of the model and insights about testing are generalizable to other settings where large number of people work in close proximity.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Carne de Cerdo , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/virología , Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Porcinos
7.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12273, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520073

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how many workplace COVID-19 preventive measures were maintained during repeated outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate a longitudinal change of implementation of workplace preventive measures responding to COVID-19 in Japan. METHODS: An online longitudinal study was conducted using a cohort of full-time employees in Japan, starting in March 2020 (T1), with follow-up surveys in May (T2), August (T3), and November (T4) 2020. A repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the difference among the four surveys in the mean number of 23 predetermined items of the measures implemented. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 800 employees. The mean number of the implemented measures increased from T1 to T2, but did not change from T2 to T3, then decreased from T3 to T4. The number of workplace preventive measures significantly increased from T1 to T2 for 21 items (P < .001), and significantly decreased from T3 to T4 for 14 items (P < .001 to P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: While the preventive measures responding to COVID-19 in the workplace were well-implemented during the earlier phase of the outbreak, they seem to have been relaxed after a huge outbreak (T3 to T4: August to November 2020). Workplaces should be encouraged to continue the preventive measures over repeated outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Implementación de Plan de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Japón , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/virología , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
8.
F1000Res ; 10: 285, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457241

RESUMEN

Background: There have been many studies conducted on succession, which can be considered as the most important issue in family businesses. However, most of these previous studies have focused only on the early stage of succession, uncovering the role of the predecessor and the successor. Only a few studies have made efforts to examine the total lifecycle of succession. The purpose of this study is to explore the process of the transition in successors' behavior and mindset while managing long-lived small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises throughout the lifecycle of succession. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six successors of small and medium-sized manufacturing companies who are more than half a century old. Their answers were analyzed using the Modified-GTA method to construct a hypothetical model. Results: In total, 46 concepts, four categories, 17 subcategories, and one core category were generated. An analysis result diagram using all concepts and categories was formed. From the observation of this diagram, the successors gained confidence in management through the dilemma between autonomy and constraint in the early stage of succession, which was found in previous research. Following the initial stage, the successors responded to the crisis caused by market constraints and created autonomous strategies in their businesses. Conclusions: By experiencing repetitive crises, the successors tend to acquire new perspectives toward the naturally occurring crises. This change of premise by the successors is considered as the process of double-loop learning. Relationships inside and outside the company influence the generation of this viewpoint. From a long-term perspective, a sense of unity with employees, stable employment, and the pursuit of enjoyment constitute the successors' own values in this model.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Comercio , Japón , Investigación Cualitativa
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 962, 2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521407

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The need for home care workers (HCWs) is rapidly growing in Norway due to the increasingly growing elderly population. HCWs are exposed to a number of occupational hazards and physically demanding work tasks. Musculoskeletal disorders, stress, exhaustion, high sick leave rates and a high probability of being granted a disability pension are common challenges. This qualitative study explored the views of HCWs on how working conditions affect their safety, health, and wellbeing. METHODS: A descriptive and explorative design was utilised using semi-structured individual interviews with eight HCWs from three home care units in a middle-sized Norwegian city. Interviews were conducted in the Norwegian language, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. The data was analysed by systematic text condensation. Key data quotes were translated into English by the authors. RESULTS: HCWs reported that meaningful work-related interactions and relationships contributed to their improved wellbeing. Challenging interactions, such as verbal violence by consumers, were deemed stressful. The unpredictable work conditions HCWs encounter in users' homes contributed to their exposure to environmental hazards and unhealthy physical workloads. This was the case, although the employer promoted ergonomic work practices such as ergonomic body mechanics when mobilising and handling of clients, using safe patient handling equipment. HCWs perceived high level of individual responsibility for complying with company safety policies and practices, representing a health barrier for some. Organisational frameworks created unhealthy work conditions by shift work, time pressure and staffing challenges. Performing tasks in accordance with HCWs professional skills and identity was perceived as health-promoting. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that unpredictable working conditions at users' home can adversely affect the safety, health, and wellbeing of HCWs. The interaction between the unpredictable environment at users' homes, HCWs' perceived high level of individual responsibility for complying with company safety policies and practices, and staffing challenges due to sickness-related absences upon the workplace creates tense work conditions with a negative influence on HCWs health.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Auxiliares de Salud a Domicilio , Salud Laboral , Anciano , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Lugar de Trabajo
10.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(10): 475-477, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519699

RESUMEN

The safety of our patients and our workforce is paramount to elevating the health and wellness of the global communities we serve. The health and well-being of our frontline staff directly influences the environment of care, and it is our job as healthcare leaders to address workplace bullying, incivility, and lateral and horizontal violence. From patient to provider violence, to peer-peer bullying, these acts of incivility erode at the core of the care environment and impact an organization's culture of safety, influence nursing engagement scores, negatively impact patient outcomes, and decrease overall retention. Magnet® organizations help to elevate the practice of nursing and ensure world-class interprofessional care. Therefore, the Commission on Magnet has included new language in the 2023 Magnet Application Manual in the Organizational Overview (OO7), which directly addresses the organization's structure and processes aimed at addressing workplace violence, bullying, and incivility.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar/prevención & control , Salud Laboral/normas , Cultura Organizacional , Violencia Laboral/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Liderazgo , Habilidades Sociales
11.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(10): 484-487, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550102

RESUMEN

Despite the well-documented need for nurse-focused efforts on health and wellness, too few healthcare organizations have made a meaningful impact on this issue. Nurse health should be integrated into the strategic and operational workings of the organization. Environments of health and wellness require attention, accountability, action, and accessibility. Although individual choice is the starting point, true success will be achieved when nurse health is a nonnegotiable outcome consistent with quality, safety, finance, and patient experience.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/normas , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/organización & administración , Grupo de Enfermería/organización & administración , Salud Laboral/normas , Estrés Laboral/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Humanos , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 103, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512839

RESUMEN

Introduction: information on occupational injuries to health care workers (HCWs) in Africa is limited. We sought to determine the prevalence of occupational injuries among HCWs at a Ghanaian hospital, determine the most common types of injuries, and assess HCWs' knowledge regarding occupational safety. Methods: we interviewed 246 HCWs at a government hospital regarding occupational injuries during the prior year. The sample included: nurses (77.6%), physicians (9.3%), laboratory staff (5.7%), and non-clinical staff (6.9%). Results: the 12-month prevalence of occupational injury was 29.7%. Incidence was 1.63 injuries per person-year. Leading mechanisms were needlesticks (35.4% of injuries), cuts from sharp objects (34.6%), hit by object (25.2%), and violence (24.4%). Most (62.2%) respondents had training in occupational safety. Most reported adherence to safety practices, including properly disposing sharps (86.6%) and using personal protective equipment (85.8%). However, there were gaps in knowledge. Few HCWs knew the officer in-charge for post-exposure prophylaxis (5.3%) or that there was a hospital occupational safety unit (26.4%). Many (20.8%) reported difficulty in seeking care for their injury. On multivariable analysis, correlates of injury included stress at work (aOR 2.68; 95% CI 1.26, 5.71) and being a laboratory worker (aOR 3.26; 95% CI 1.02, 10.50). Conclusion: occupational injuries to HCWs were unacceptably frequent. There is, however, a solid foundation to build on. Most HCWs had training in occupational safety and many reported adherence to safety practices. Health care workers need to be better informed of existing resources. Care for injuries needs to be improved, such as by increasing capacity for post-exposure prophylaxis.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/epidemiología , Accidentes de Trabajo/prevención & control , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Incidencia , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/prevención & control , Profilaxis Posexposición/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
14.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(9): 920-927, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585544

RESUMEN

<b>Background and Objective:</b> COVID-19 is a fast-spreading worldwide pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. The World Health Organization recommended wearing face masks. Masks have become an urgent necessity throughout the pandemic, the study's goal was to track the impact of wearing masks on immunological responses. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> This study was conducted on 40 healthy people who were working in health care at Nineveh Governorate Hospitals from September-December, 2020. They wore face masks at work for more than 8 months for an average of 6 hrs a day. The control sample included 40 healthy individuals, who wore masks for very short periods. All samples underwent immunological and physiological tests to research the effects of wearing masks for extended periods within these parameters. <b>Results:</b> The results showed a significant decrease in total White Blood Count and the absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and phagocytic activity. However, there was a significant increase in the absolute number of eosinophils in participants compared with the control. The results also suggested there were no significant differences in IgE, haemoglobin concentration and blood O<sub>2 </sub>saturation in participants who wore masks for more than 6 hrs compared to the control group. The results showed a significant increase in pulse rate in participants who wore masks for more than 6 hrs compared to the control group. The results also showed a strong correlation coefficient between the time of wearing masks and some immunological, haematological parameters. <b>Conclusion:</b> Wearing masks for long periods alters immunological parameters that initiate the immune response, making the body weaker in its resistance to infectious agents.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Exposición por Inhalación/prevención & control , Leucocitos/inmunología , Máscaras , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Fagocitos/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , COVID-19/transmisión , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Exposición por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Recuento de Leucocitos , Masculino , Máscaras/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Salud Laboral , Oxígeno/sangre , Personal de Hospital , Fagocitosis , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Sante Publique ; 33(2): 245-253, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553869

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prevention is one of the main priorities for the « Santé de Défense 2019-2022 » strategy. In the current climate where the application of preventive measures is a daily challenge, it is necessary, in conjunction with the target cohort, to develop and agree occupational health policies. OBJECTIVE: Having analyzed several papers outlining techniques to generate a co-developed strategy, we created a participation-based process which could be applied to the crew of a French Navy vessel. The main objective was for the crew to implement the health strategies as outlined in a co-developed policy. RESULTS: The study highlighted precipitating factors of health within the target group (lack of empathetic management, family separation, workplace stress) for which potential solutions were discussed. CONCLUSION: This paper puts forward solutions to remedy the problems encountered in creating a co-developed strategy, as well as pathways for the implementation of participative processes.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Estrés Laboral , Estudios de Cohortes , Agencias Gubernamentales , Política de Salud , Humanos , Estrés Laboral/prevención & control
16.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 341-348, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483193

RESUMEN

This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Promoción de la Salud/historia , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/historia , Salud Laboral/historia , Medicina del Trabajo/historia , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Riesgo
17.
Work ; 70(1): 311-319, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511474

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Work is a determinant of employee health, and the same conditions that contribute to an illness do not favour return to work; consequently, they hinder job retention, other employees can become ill and new leaves are generated. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the nursing technicians work in intensive and semi-intensive care units (ICUs and SICUs) and discuss the influence of organisational and relational factors on return to work and job retention. This study also discusses the contributions of activity ergonomics to these processes. METHOD: Qualitative case study based on ergonomic work analysis (EWA). Data were collected using documentary analyses, and global, systematic, and participant observations involving nursing technicians working in ICUs and SICUs. RESULTS: Task planning and the staff size adjustment to respond to the work demands of these units were ineffective in real-world situations and were aggravated by cases of absenteeism, medical leave, and employees returning to work. CONCLUSIONS: Work structure limits return to work and job retention. An EWA based on the activities developed by professionals is a valid tool for understanding working processes by applying transforming actions to real-world work situations.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Reinserción al Trabajo , Absentismo , Ergonomía , Humanos , Rehabilitación Vocacional
18.
Work ; 70(1): 147-166, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511521

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Occupational safety risk management is a systemic process capable of promoting technical engineering solutions, considering a wide range of predictable, unexpected and subjective factors related to accident occurrences. In Brazil, the behavior of managers in relation to risk management tends to be reactive, and facilitates access to information for crucial practical and academic purposes when it comes to changing the attitude of managers, so that their actions become increasingly more proactive. OBJECTIVE: To identify, classify, analyze, and discuss the existing literature related to the topic, produced from 2008 to 2020, besides contributing to a broader understanding of risk management in occupational safety. METHODS: We did a systematic literature mapping. The research process was documented starting by the planning stage. Afterwards, the focus was on research conduction and information synthesis. RESULTS: Knowledge systematization and stratification about OHS risk management through various perspectives to identify, analyze and manage risks in the workplace. Were identified 37 tools for identifying and analyzing risks, management-related practices and future research trends. CONCLUSIONS: The set of tools and management practices identified can be used as a support for decision making in the selection process of tools and practices to reduce risks and improve occupational safety. Also, the results can help target future research.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Brasil , Humanos , Gestión de Riesgos , Lugar de Trabajo
20.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 256-261, set. 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1291319

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Analisar os acidentes de trabalho ocorridos em uma maternidade pública de referência para o nordeste brasileiro. Método: Estudo transversal realizado com dados de registros de 102 profissionais acidentados em uma maternidade pública de referência. Realizou-se análise estatística descritiva e aplicou-se o teste exato de Fisher. Resultados: O estudo apontou maior prevalência anual de acidentes de trabalho no ano de 2017 (2,44%), com predominância do sexo feminino (75,5%) e trabalhadores com 1 a 5 anos de tempo de serviço (32%). A categoria profissional mais acometida foi a de Técnico (a) de Enfermagem (38,6%); sendo mãos/dedos como as partes do corpo mais afetadas (53,6%) e os perfuro cortantes como os agentes causadores mais mencionados (48,5%). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se a necessidade de maior investimento nas ações de educação permanente em relação à notificação e às medidas preventivas com vistas à diminuição da ocorrência dos agravos relacionados ao trabalho. (AU)


Objective: Work accidents occurred in a public reference maternity hospital were analyzed. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out with data from 102 injured professionals in a public reference maternity hospital. Descriptive statistical analysis and Fisher's exact test were performed. Results: The study pointed out the highest annual prevalence of occupational accidents in 2017 (2.44%), with a predominance of females (75.5%) and workers with 1 to 5 years of service (32%). The most affected professional was the Nursing Technician (38.6%); hands / fingers were found to be the most affected body parts (53.6%) and sharp perforations as the most commonly found causative agents (48.5%). Conclusion: There was a need for greater investment in continuing education actions in relation to notification and preventive measures with a view to reducing the occurrence of work-related injuries. (AU)


Objetivo: Se analizaron los accidentes de trabajo ocurridos en una maternidad pública de referencia. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado con datos de 102 profesionales lesionados en una maternidad pública de referencia. Se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo y la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados: El estudio señaló la mayor prevalencia anual de accidentes laborales en 2017 (2,44%), con predominio de mujeres (75,5%) y trabajadores con 1 a 5 años de servicio (32%). El profesional más afectado fue el Técnico de Enfermería (38,6%); Se encontró que las manos / dedos eran las partes del cuerpo más afectadas (53.6%) y las perforaciones agudas como los agentes causales más comúnmente encontrados (48.5%). Conclusión: Era necesaria una mayor inversión en acciones de educación continua en relación con la notificación y las medidas preventivas con el fin de reducir la aparición de lesiones relacionadas con el trabajo. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , Salud Laboral , Servicios Básicos de Salud , Maternidades
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...