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1.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3274, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491123

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the occurrence of leave of absence due to depression among workers. METHOD: census, descriptive-analytical study, with retrospective collection. Population composed of 2,267 workers on leave due to depression with data from the Unified Benefits Information System. The independent variables were: sex, age group, income; county, origin, number of leaves of absence and type of benefit. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used and the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were applied. The variables that presented a value of p≤0.20 were submitted to logistic regression. RESULTS: there was a predominance of females, age ≥50 years, from the capital, with income of one to two minimum wages, urban origin and single removal. Single leaves of absence occurred mainly due to a mild depressive episode and the benefit granted to the significant majority was social security sickness benefit. Among those who were on leave of absence more than once, the main cause was recurrent depressive disorder, a current mild episode and, in terms of benefit, social security sickness benefit. There was a statistical association between total time and absence from work. In logistic regression, it was found that the time ≥60 days, was 3.1 times longer in recurrent depressive disorder. CONCLUSION: there were an expressive quantitative number of absences due to depression, in which it was observed, especially, that the absence time remained long.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003081, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231360

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Temporary labor migration is an increasingly important mode of migration that generates substantial remittance flows, but raises important concerns for migrant well-being. The migration and health literature has seen a growing call for longitudinal, binational surveys that compare migrants to relevant non-migrant counterfactual groups in the sending country, in order to answer the basic question "Is migration good for health?" This study compares the health of male international migrants, internal migrants, and non-migrants using a unique representative panel survey of the Matlab subdistrict of Bangladesh. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 5,072 respondents born 1958-1992 were interviewed in 1996-1997, and reinterviewed in 2012-2014. Extensive migrant follow-up yielded a 92% reinterview rate. We explored health and income outcomes for respondents who at the time of the follow-up interview were current international migrants (n = 790), returned international migrants (n = 209), internal migrants (n = 1,260), and non-migrants (n = 2,037). Compared to non-migrants, current international migrants were younger (mean 32.9 years versus 35.8 years), had more schooling (7.6 years versus 5.8 years), and were more likely to have an international migrant father (9.7% versus 4.0%) or brother (49.1% versus 30.3%). We estimated multivariate ordinary least squares and logistic regression models controlling for a wide range of control variables measured as far back as 1982. Results show that current international migrants had substantially better health status on factors that likely relate to self-selection such as grip strength and self-rated health. Current international migrants had no excess risk of injury in the past 12 months compared to non-migrants (adjusted mean risk = 6.0% versus 9.3%, p = 0.084). Compared to non-migrants, current international migrants had roughly twice the risk of overweight/obesity (adjusted mean risk = 51.7% versus 23.3%, p < 0.001), obesity (6.9% versus 3.4%, p = 0.012), and stage 1 or higher hypertension (13.0% versus 7.0%, p = 0.014). Compared to internal migrants, current international migrants had significantly higher levels of overweight/obesity (adjusted mean risk = 51.7% versus 37.7%, p < 0.001). Current international migrants showed above average levels of depressive symptoms on a 12-item standardized short-form Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (+0.220 SD, 95% CI 0.098-0.342), significantly higher than internal migrants (-0.028 SD, 95% CI -0.111, 0.055; p < 0.001). Depressive symptoms differed significantly from those reported by non-migrants when restricting to items on negative emotions (international migrant score = 0.254 SD, non-migrant score = 0.056 SD, p = 0.004). Key limitations include the descriptive nature of the analysis, the use of both in-person and phone survey data for international migrants, the long recall period for occupational and mental health risk measures, and the coverage of a single out-migration area of origin. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that international migrants had comparable or lower injury and mortality risks compared to respondents remaining in Bangladesh, due in part to the high risks present in Bangladesh. International migrants also showed higher levels of self-rated health and physical strength, reflective of positive self-selection into migration. They had substantially higher risks of overweight/obesity, hypertension, and depression. Negative health impacts may reflect the effects of both harsh migration conditions and assimilation into host population conditions. Our results suggest the need for bilateral cooperation to improve the health of guest workers.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
5.
J Bras Pneumol ; 46(1): e20180385, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967272

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoking, as well as its association with sociodemographic factors, alcohol consumption, and stress levels, among industrial workers in Brazil. METHODS: This was a nationwide survey, conducted in 24 capitals in Brazil through the application of a pre-tested questionnaire. The response to the question "What is your smoking status?" was the outcome variable. To determine the associations, we performed Poisson regression analyses in which the inputs were blocks of variables: block 1 (age and marital status); block 2 (level of education and gross family income); block 3 (geographic region); and block 4 (alcohol consumption and stress level). All analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 47,328 workers ≥ 18 years of age, of whom 14,577 (30.8%) were women. The prevalence of smoking was 13.0% (15.2% in men and 7.9% in women). Advancing age, alcohol consumption, and a high stress level were positively associated with smoking. A lower risk of smoking was associated with being married, having a higher level of education, and living in the northeastern region of the country (versus the southern region). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of smoking was greater in men than in women. Alcohol consumption and high stress levels appear to promote smoking.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 75(2): 98-111, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896344

RESUMEN

We used a representative sample of the working population of Korea to compare the occupational health problems of employees and self-employed individuals who performed different types of work. The Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 was used to compare the working conditions and occupational safety and health (OSH) issues of employees and self-employed individuals performing different types of work. Relative to paid employees, self-employed individuals were older, more likely to perceive their health as bad, and had less education, longer working hours, more exposure to workplace ergonomic hazards, more musculoskeletal problems, and poorer mental well-being. Relative to those performing "mental work" or "emotional work", individuals performing "physical work" were more vulnerable to OSH problems. In conclusion, self-employed individuals in the sample were more vulnerable to OSH problems.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Empleo/clasificación , Empleo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
7.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(2): 92-102, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583973

RESUMEN

Background: The demand for home-based health care support providers (HB providers) is growing as the locus of care shifts to private homes. However, industry representative data of these workers are limited. Methods: Washington Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (WA BRFSS) data from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed to compare HB providers (n = 385) with health care support occupations not based in the home, non-HB providers (n = 229), and all other occupations (n = 32,011). Findings: More HB providers were overweight (4.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [3.3%, 5.2%]) than non-HB providers and all other occupations. Significantly more HB providers had arthritis (33.2%, 95% CI = [27.0%, 39.4%]) and diabetes (9.4%, 95% CI = [5.7%, 13.2%]) than non-HB providers. Nearly twice as many HB providers currently smoked (31.3%, 95% CI = [24.2%, 38.4%]) than non-HB providers. Significantly more HB providers reported serious mental illness (6.8%, 95% CI = [2.8%, 10.7%]) than all other occupations (2.2%). Conclusion/Application to Practice: It is imperative to maintain good health in this home-based health care population as these workers are aging and their professional time becomes limited.


Asunto(s)
Técnicos Medios en Salud , Estado de Salud , Auxiliares de Salud a Domicilio , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/epidemiología , Washingtón/epidemiología
8.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 75(2): 112-126, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862268

RESUMEN

The goal of this article was to prioritize the practical solutions for vibrational health risk reduction of truck drivers during mining operation using the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. Mining trucks require special consideration because of their specific suspension system, large size, payload capacity, and off-road conditions of mining. In most cases, it is not easy for decision makers to compute verbal and linguistic variables, whose values are expressed in linguistic terms. These uncertainties and ambiguities are well interpreted by using fuzzy set theory. In this study, the MCDM methods were used under fuzzy environment. As a result, seat suspension maintenance was offered as the best solution to attenuate the vibrations and decrease the injuries related to the WBV exposure. The driver training, haul road construction and maintenance, lighting and visibility improvement and work organization were found as the other solutions, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Minería , Vehículos a Motor , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Vibración , Lógica Difusa
9.
Appl Ergon ; 83: 103000, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751753

RESUMEN

For parents working in the transportation industry, atypical schedules are often a daily puzzle. Schedule planning systems allowing workers to choose shifts may affect job strenuousness and work-family balance (WFB) for both female and male workers. How could ergonomic interventions related to the implementation of those systems better consider gender dynamics regarding WFB strategies, and minimize inequities among workers? This article presents a joint analysis of two independent case studies related to ergonomic interventions in transport companies in Canada and Switzerland. Direct observation and semi-structured interviews shed light on the characteristics of schedule planning systems and their interaction with men's and women's WFB strategies. Issues related to each step of the planning process (shift construction, schedule choice, day-to-day schedule management) are discussed to inform interventions aimed at facilitating WFB, and ultimately gender equity, in atypical schedule contexts.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Familiares , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Capacidad de Trabajo , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado/psicología , Adulto , Canadá , Ergonomía , Femenino , Humanos , Perfil Laboral , Masculino , Ocupaciones , Suiza , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817497

RESUMEN

Temporal patterns in occupational safety and health can shed light on the efficiency of safety measures companies adopt and identify when workers are prone to occupational accidents. We analyzed these patterns to identify the effects of factors such as the share of salvage logging, experience, age, daytime, weekday, and more on the number of occupational accidents at Forests of the Slovak Republic (FSR). We analyzed a database of 2963 occupational accidents and 443 occupational illnesses suffered by FSR employees and contractors. We then analyzed a subset of said database, containing 401 accident records coded according to European Statistics at Work manual. We used regression and correlation analyses and generalized linear models to test the relationship between the accident frequency and volume of harvested timber and volume of salvage logging. We used logistic regression, chi2 tests, and Cramér's V statistic to test when accidents occur within shifts, weeks, and months. We found the volume of harvested timber significantly affects the frequency of severe and fatal accidents of contractors (R 0.81; p < 0.05), whereas, for employees, the relationship was insignificant. Over time, the number of accidents and incidence rate decreased, and inexperienced or older workers were the most prone to accidents.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultura Forestal/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Eslovaquia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 3476490, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814837

RESUMEN

Background: In this era of Information Communication Technology, a high-quality working environment is essential to the occupants. Providing quantity rather the quality of work environments is very common in most of the least developed countries, including Tanzania. Existing research asserts that poor indoor environmental quality such as lighting has a detrimental effect on human health, and in case of the office working population, it also affects their work performance. This study aims to analyze the effects of the lighting quality on working efficiency of workers in Tanzania. Methods: Four representative offices from the administration building at Mbeya University of Science and Technology were investigated from June to September 2018. The customized questionnaire survey tool was administered to the randomly selected occupants to survey their perceptions about the quality of lighting in their workplace and its influence on their health and work efficiency. Physical observation and illuminance distribution measurements were also conducted. Results: The statistical analysis indicates that the majority of the occupants are less satisfied with the lighting quality in their working environment, and some respondents reported that it significantly affected their work efficiency and wellbeing. The average desk illuminance and uniformity level were found to be below the recommended values of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) and the International Commission on lighting (CIE). Conclusion: Despite the suggested improvement measures, this research emphasizes that poorly articulated work environment can adversely affect the productivity and work efficiency of the workers. The workers in such condition are also exposed to occupational diseases. Thus, providing a healthy work environment should be a fundamental right of the workers.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia , Iluminación/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Iluminación/normas , Masculino , Satisfacción Personal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tanzanía , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
12.
J Safety Res ; 71: 231-241, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862034

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Construction workers face a work environment of high risk and mental stress. Psychological capital (PsyCap) could influence employee's mental health and work performance. It would be helpful to determine whether PsyCap affects worker safety behavior. However, few studies empirically examined the impacts of the sub-dimensions of PsyCap on the safety behavior in construction settings, reducing the potential practicability of PsyCap to improve workplace safety performance. Thus, this study tested the relationship between sub-dimensions of PsyCap (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, optimism) and safety behaviors (safety compliance, safety participation), while the mediating role of communication competence was also explored. METHOD: Data were collected from 655 construction workers in China using a psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ). The theoretical model were tested with confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques. RESULTS: Results show that: (a) the self-efficacy dimension of PsyCap positively affected safety compliance and safety participation, while the resilience dimension positively impacted safety participation; (b) the hope dimension was not directly related to safety behaviors, while the optimism dimension negatively associated with safety participation; and (c) communication competence mediated the relationships between the hope and optimism dimensions of PsyCap and safety participation. CONCLUSIONS: A multidimensional perspective on PsyCap should be taken while examining its effects on safety behavior and the individual communication competence helps to enhance construction safety. Findings of this study shed lights on safety behavior promotion practices based on the multidimensional model. Initiating flexible psychological capital training and intervention, and strengthening communication skills of construction employees are suggested to improve safety performance in the construction industry.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Industria de la Construcción/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , China , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Competencia Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
J Safety Res ; 71: 273-284, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862039

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Construction incidents occur due to system failures, not due to a single factor such as unsafe behavior or condition. Therefore, construction safety should be investigated using a systematic view capable of illustrating the complex nature of incidents. Construction projects are also often behind their planned schedule and suffer from various pressures caused by contractual deadlines or clients. Previous studies demonstrated that such pressures negatively affect safety performance; however, the process of how production pressure influences safety performance is not fully investigated. METHOD: The present research aimed to understand the feedback mechanism of how production pressure interactively affects safety performance and safety-related managerial components in a construction project. Ground theory method (GTM) is used to create a conceptual causal loop diagram that shows the relationship between incident rate and other variables such as labor hour, actual and planned progress, safety climate, rework, and safety training. Moreover, a power plant construction project was used as a case study to practically investigate the conceptual model; a case study is employed to build a System Dynamics (SD) model. The simulation model was then validated using behavior reproduction and sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The results of the inequality statistics show that the simulation model can be used to forecast trends in the incident rate.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Centrales Eléctricas , Administración de la Seguridad/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 907, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779613

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Home-bound patients in New York State requiring long-term care services have seen significant changes to their benefits due to turmoil in the Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) market. While there has been research conducted regarding the effect of MLTC challenges on beneficiaries, the impact of MLTC regulatory changes on home health aides has not been explored. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with formal caregivers, defined as paid home health aides (HHAs) (n = 13) caring for patients in a home-based primary care program in the New York City metropolitan area. HHAs were asked about their satisfaction with the home based primary care program, their own job satisfaction, and whether HHA restrictions affect their work in any way. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. RESULTS: Two main themes emerged: (1) Pay, benefits and hours worked and (2) Concerns about patient well-being afterhours. HHAs are working more hours than they are compensated for, experience wage stagnation and loss of benefits, and experience stress related to leaving frail clients alone after their shifts end. CONCLUSIONS: HHAs experience significant job-related stress when caring for frail elderly patients at home, which may have implications for both patient care and HHA turnover. As government bodies contemplate new policy directions for long-term care programs which rely on HHAs the impact of these changes on this vulnerable workforce must be considered.


Asunto(s)
Auxiliares de Salud a Domicilio/economía , Auxiliares de Salud a Domicilio/psicología , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Admisión y Programación de Personal/economía , Salarios y Beneficios , Carga de Trabajo/psicología , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio/economía , Humanos , Carga de Trabajo/economía
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 728, 2019 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694711

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the predisposing factors influencing occupational injuries among frontline construction workers in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 634 frontline construction workers in Kumasi metropolis of Ghana using a structured questionnaire. The study was conducted from December 2016 to June 2017 using a household-based approach. The respondents were selected through a two-stage sampling approach. A multivariate logistics regression model was employed to examine the association between risk factors and injury. Data was analyzed employing descriptive and inferential statistics with STATA version 14. RESULTS: The study found an injury prevalence of 57.91% among the workers. Open Wounds (37.29%) and fractures (6.78%) were the common and least injuries recorded respectively. The proximal factors (age, sex of worker, income) and distal factors (e.g. work structure, trade specialization, working hours, job/task location, and monthly off days) were risk factors for occupational injuries among frontline construction workers. The study recommends that policymakers and occupational health experts should incorporate the proximal and distal factors in the design of injury prevention as well as management strategies.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Industria de la Construcción , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 654, 2019 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604448

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Accidental occupational injuries to health care workers (HCWs) continue to have a significant problem in the healthcare system. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess prevalence of needle sticks and sharp injury and associated factors among health care workers working in Central Zone Tigray northern Ethiopia. RESULT: The prevalence of needle stick and sharp injury in the past 12 months preceding the study and entire job were 25.9% and 38.5% respectively. Nearly one-third (31%) of the injuries occurred in emergency unit and 122 (71.3%) of the materials caused injury were used on patients. Practice of needle recap, ever used cigarette in last 12 months, training, work hours > 40 per week, job dissatisfaction and work experience less than 5 years were found factors significantly associated with needle stick and sharp injury for health care workers. The magnitude of Needle stick and sharp injury is high in the study area. Policy makers should formulate strategies to improve the working condition for healthcare workers and increase their adherence to universal precautions.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones por Pinchazo de Aguja/epidemiología , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/epidemiología , Personal de Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Comorbilidad , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Laboral/normas , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Precauciones Universales/métodos , Precauciones Universales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223595, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634347

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study examined the association between perceived organizational justice (i.e., procedural justice and interactional justice) and reporting of illness to one's company (illness reporting) among Japanese employees with chronic diseases. METHODS: This online cross-sectional survey included 1,134 employees (aged 18-65 years) who required workplace support to combine work with disease treatment. Participants were classified into tertiles of perceived organizational justice (low, moderate, and high). Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine sex differences in the associations between perceived justice and illness reporting. RESULTS: Males reporting perceived high levels of procedural and interactional justice had significantly higher odds of illness reporting than those with perceived low levels of procedural (odds ratio [OR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47-4.66) and interactional justice (OR 4.34, 95% CI: 2.28-8.27). Females with perceived high levels of interactional justice had significantly higher odds of illness reporting than those with perceived low levels of interactional justice (OR 1.74, 95% CI: 1.08-2.80). There was no significant association between procedural justice and illness reporting among females. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that high perceived organizational justice is positively associated with illness reporting among Japanese employees who require workplace support to combine work and disease treatment.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Cultura Organizacional , Justicia Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Adulto Joven
18.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(4): 159-173, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586381

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The palm oil industry is the largest contributor to global production of oils and fats. Indonesia and Malaysia are the largest producers of palm oil. More than a million workers are employed in this industry, yet there is a lack of information on their occupational health and safety. OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers. METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers. RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides. CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.


Asunto(s)
Industria de Alimentos , Exposición Profesional , Salud Laboral , Aceite de Palma , Enfermedades de los Trabajadores Agrícolas/epidemiología , Camerún/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Industria de Alimentos/normas , Industria de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Malasia/epidemiología , Mianmar/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceite de Palma/efectos adversos , Papúa Nueva Guinea/epidemiología , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Aceites Vegetales/efectos adversos
19.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 6793090, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662767

RESUMEN

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is well known as the most common musculoskeletal disorder with the lifetime prevalence of eighty percent. Worldwide, 37% of low back pain was attributable to occupational risk factors. Truck driving is one among the jobs causing occupational LBP. Even though these drivers in Ethiopia run the high risk of occupational injuries and illnesses like drivers elsewhere, the evidence that shows the magnitude and factors that contribute to LBP is a significant shortcoming. Objective: To assess the magnitude and contributing factors of low back pain among long-distance truck drivers at Modjo Dry Port, Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among systematically selected 422 long-distance truck drivers at Modjo Dry Port, Ethiopia, from February to March 2018. Data were collected through face-to-face individual interview using a structured questionnaire adapted from the standardized Nordic questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. The data were entered using EPI-DATA version 4.2.0.0 and cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software for windows. Binary logistic regression was computed to determine the association using crude and adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals. Independent variables with a P value less than 0.05 in the multivariable logistic regression model were considered as significant. Results: Of 400 truck drivers interviewed, the prevalence of LBP was found to be 65%. The study also found smoking cigarette (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI (1.25-4.01), and P=0.007), physical inactivity (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI (1.28-3.51), and P=0.003), chronic diseases other than LBP (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI (1.32-3.61), and P=0.002), frequent lifting or carrying heavy objects (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI (1.75-5.22), and P ≤ 0.001), perceived improper sitting posture while driving (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI (1.35-3.60), and P=0.002), and perceived job stress (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI (1.20-3.57), and P=0.009) were contributing factors of low back pain. Conclusion: This finding shows the public health importance of low back pain among long-distance truck drivers in Ethiopia. Individual factors largely accounted for the development of low back pain; hence, orientation on these modifiable risk factors and regular follow-up on safety procedures should be considered to mitigate the problem.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019025, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623427

RESUMEN

The development of underground workspaces is a strategic effort towards healthy urban growth in cities with ever-increasing land scarcity. Despite the growth in underground workspaces, there is limited information regarding the impact of this environment on workers' health. The Health Effects of Underground Workspaces (HEUW) study is a cohort study that was set up to examine the health effects of working in underground workspaces. In this paper, we describe the rationale for the study, study design, data collection, and baseline characteristics of participants. The HEUW study recruited 464 participants at baseline, of whom 424 (91.4%) were followed-up at 3 months and 334 (72.0%) at 12 months from baseline. We used standardized and validated questionnaires to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history, family history of chronic diseases, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, chronotype, psychological distress, occupational factors, and comfort levels with indoor environmental quality parameters. Clinical and anthropometric parameters including blood pressure, spirometry, height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were also measured. Biochemical tests of participants' blood and urine samples were conducted to measure levels of glucose, lipids, and melatonin. We also conducted objective measurements of individuals' workplace environment, assessing air quality, light intensity, temperature, thermal comfort, and bacterial and fungal counts. The findings this study will help to identify modifiable lifestyle and environmental parameters that are negatively affecting workers' health. The findings may be used to guide the development of more health-promoting workspaces that attempt to negate any potential deleterious health effects from working in underground workspaces.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos de Investigación , Singapur , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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