Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 70.512
Filtrar
1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0188, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394844

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Introduction Research on the relationship between physical exercise and psychological stress, psychological barriers, and other negative psychological indicators has begun to turn to the relationship with positive psychological indicators, especially personal satisfaction. These tools from positive psychology may be useful for analyzing the subjective effects of physical exercise on college students' perceptions. Objective To verify the impact of physical exercise on college students' physical quality and personal satisfaction. Methods An exposition of the connotation of subjective well-being in college students and the internal relationship between physical exercise and college students' subjective well-being is given, and analyzes the impact of physical exercise on college students' subjective well-being and its psychological mechanism. Results as an important social group, college students are in a critical period of life, and their quality of life and mental health deserve attention. The influence of exercise on physical and mental health has become a consensus. Conclusion Physical exercise can reduce not only stress attacks but also promote the development of mental health and personal satisfaction in college students. Level of Evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução A pesquisa sobre a relação entre exercício físico e estresse psicológico, barreiras psicológicas e outros indicadores psicológicos negativos começou a se voltar para a relação com os indicadores psicológicos positivos, especialmente a satisfação pessoal. Essas ferramentas da psicologia positiva podem ser úteis para analisar os efeitos subjetivos do exercício físico sobre a percepção dos estudantes universitários. Objetivo Verificar o impacto do exercício físico na qualidade física dos estudantes universitários e de sua satisfação pessoal. Métodos É feita uma exposição da conotação do bem-estar subjetivo nos estudantes universitários e a relação interna entre o exercício físico e o bem-estar subjetivo dos estudantes universitários, e analisa o impacto do exercício físico no bem-estar subjetivo dos estudantes universitários e seu mecanismo psicológico. Resultados como um grupo social importante, os estudantes universitários estão em um período crítico de vida, e sua qualidade de vida e saúde mental merecem atenção. A influência do exercício físico sobre a saúde física e mental tornou-se um consenso. Conclusão O exercício físico pode não apenas reduzir os ataques de estresse, mas também promover o desenvolvimento da saúde mental e satisfação pessoal dos estudantes universitários. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción La investigación sobre la relación entre el ejercicio físico y el estrés psicológico, las barreras psicológicas y otros indicadores psicológicos negativos ha comenzado a dirigirse a la relación con los indicadores psicológicos positivos, especialmente la satisfacción personal. Estas herramientas de la psicología positiva pueden ser útiles para analizar los efectos subjetivos del ejercicio físico en las percepciones de los estudiantes universitarios. Objetivo Verificar el impacto del ejercicio físico en la calidad física y la satisfacción personal de los estudiantes universitarios. Métodos Se hace una exposición de la connotación del bienestar subjetivo en los estudiantes universitarios y la relación interna entre el ejercicio físico y el bienestar subjetivo de los estudiantes universitarios, y se analiza el impacto del ejercicio físico en el bienestar subjetivo de los estudiantes universitarios y su mecanismo psicológico. Resultados como grupo social importante, los estudiantes universitarios se encuentran en un período crítico de la vida, y su calidad de vida y salud mental merecen atención. La influencia del ejercicio físico en la salud física y mental se ha convertido en un consenso. Conclusión El ejercicio físico no sólo puede reducir los ataques de estrés, sino también promover el desarrollo de la salud mental y la satisfacción personal en los estudiantes universitarios. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Satisfacción Personal , Calidad de Vida , Estudiantes/psicología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Estrés Psicológico , Universidades , Salud Mental , Salud del Estudiante , Emociones
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0155, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394830

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Introduction: China's covid-19 epidemic is under control. Universities and schools across the country have resumed physical education classes, but the mental health knowledge of college students in the aftermath of the covid-19 outbreak has not been investigated. Objective: To study college students' mental health and sports-related habits after the covid-19 outbreak. Methods: This study comprehensively used literature materials, expert interviews, mathematical statistics, and other methods to study the sports-related attitudes and health awareness of college students before and after the outbreak of the new epidemic, examining the health knowledge domain of college students. Results: In the survey dimensions related to students' sports knowledge, the highest mean score was for "emotional control" at 3.48, followed by "participation motivation" at 3.41 and "participation attitude" at 3.35. The scores of sports participation attitude, motivation, and sports emotion for males were equal and higher than in females, where the measures of emotional factors and motivation to participate reached significant levels. After the epidemic, the mean scores for students' participation attitude, sports emotion, and motivation to participate in sports exceeded the theoretical mean. Conclusion: After the health awareness and prevention work in the community and school network, university students' sports attitudes and awareness improved significantly compared to before the Covid-19 outbreak. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: A epidemia de covid-19 em China encontra-se sob controle. Faculdades, escolas primárias e secundárias em todo o país retomaram as aulas de educação física, porém o conhecimento sobre a saúde mental dos estudantes universitários no estágio posterior do surto da Covid-19 não foi investigado. Objetivo: Estudar a saúde mental e os hábitos relacionados ao esporte nos universitários depois da epidemia da Covid-19. Métodos: Este estudo utilizou de forma abrangente materiais de literatura, entrevistas de especialistas, estatísticas matemáticas e outros métodos para estudar especificamente as atitudes relacionadas ao esporte e a conscientização na saúde dos estudantes universitários antes e depois do surto da nova epidemia, examinando o domínio do conhecimento em saúde dos estudantes universitários. Resultados: Nas dimensões da pesquisa relacionadas ao conhecimento esportivo dos alunos, a maior pontuação média foi de "controle emocional" como 3,48, seguida por "motivação de participação" como 3,41 e "atitude participativa" como 3,35. As pontuações de atitude de participação esportiva, motivação e emoção esportiva para os homens foram iguais e maior do que nas mulheres, onde as medidas de fator emocional e motivação para participar atingiram níveis significativos. Após a epidemia, as médias de atitude de participação dos alunos, emoção esportiva e motivação para participar do esporte superaram a média teórica. Conclusão: Após o trabalho de conscientização em saúde e prevenção, na rede comunitária e escolar, a atitude esportiva e a conscientização dos universitários foram significativamente aprimoradas em relação aos antecedentes ao surto de Covid-19. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: La epidemia de covid-19 en China está bajo control. Los colegios y las escuelas primarias y secundarias de todo el país han reanudado las clases de educación física, pero no se ha investigado el conocimiento sobre la salud mental de los estudiantes universitarios en la última etapa del brote de covid-19. Objetivo: Estudiar la salud mental y los hábitos relacionados con el deporte en los estudiantes universitarios tras el brote de covid-19. Métodos: Este estudio utilizó de forma exhaustiva materiales bibliográficos, entrevistas a expertos, estadísticas matemáticas y otros métodos para estudiar específicamente las actitudes relacionadas con el deporte y el conocimiento de la salud de los estudiantes universitarios antes y después del estallido de la nueva epidemia, examinando el dominio del conocimiento de la salud de los estudiantes universitarios. Resultados: En las dimensiones de la encuesta relacionadas con los conocimientos deportivos de los estudiantes, la puntuación media más alta correspondió al "control emocional" con un 3,48, seguido de la "motivación para la participación" con un 3,41 y la "actitud para la participación" con un 3,35. Las puntuaciones de la actitud de participación deportiva, la motivación y la emoción deportiva de los varones fueron iguales y superiores a las de las mujeres, donde las medidas del factor emocional y la motivación para participar alcanzaron niveles significativos. Después de la epidemia, las puntuaciones medias de la actitud de participación, la emoción deportiva y la motivación para participar en el deporte de los alumnos superaron la media teórica. Conclusión: Tras el trabajo de concienciación y prevención sanitaria en la comunidad y la red escolar, la actitud y la conciencia deportiva de los estudiantes universitarios mejoraron significativamente en comparación con las anteriores al brote de Covid-19. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Deportes , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saludable , COVID-19/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , COVID-19/psicología
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e239237, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1399762

RESUMEN

Aim: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported depressive symptoms in undergraduate and graduate dental students. Methods: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was applied, and only the depression domain was verified. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioral, and COVID-19 pandemic-related fear variables. Academic performance was assessed based on academic records, ranging from 0 (worst possible grade) to 10 (best possible grade). Respondents included 408 regularly enrolled dental students. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the association between at least moderate depressive symptoms and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of at least moderate depression was 40.5% among undergraduate students and 26% among graduate students. The prevalence of fear and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic was 96.1% among undergraduate students and 93.5% among graduate students. In the final multivariate analysis, being female (prevalence ratio [PR]:2.01; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.36­2.96) was associated with a higher PR for depression. Conversely, no exposure to smoking (PR:0.54; 95%CI:0.36­0.82) and a final academic performance average ≥7.0 (PR:0.56; 95%CI:0.41­0.76) was associated with a lower PR for depression. Finally, among graduate students, a non-heterosexual orientation was associated with a higher PR for depression (PR:6.70; 95%CI:2.21­20.29). Conclusion: Higher rates of depression symptoms were observed in female undergraduates, students with lower academic performance and smoking exposure, and graduate dental students with a non-heterosexual orientation


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Estudiantes de Odontología , Tabaquismo , Salud Mental , Depresión/epidemiología , Rendimiento Académico
4.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107504, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174424

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The volatile and 24/7 nature of the cryptocurrency market allows traders to engage in speculative trading patterns closely resembling gambling. Its potential for harm and financial loss warrant investigation from a public health perspective. Therefore, we summarized the emerging literature on cryptocurrency trading and its link to problematic gambling and other mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. We also examined demographic or psychological factors associated with cryptocurrency trading. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for published, original studies investigating associations with cryptocurrency trading behavior. We also conducted supplementary searches using Google Scholar. RESULTS: Eight papers were included after eligibility screening. Our scoping review revealed associations between problem gambling symptoms and cryptocurrency trading engagement and intensity. Furthermore, we found cryptocurrency traders share similar demographic and personality characteristics with share-traders and problem gamblers. Studies on cryptocurrency trading and mental health produced mixed results. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our scoping review indicates a likely relationship between problem gambling and cryptocurrency trading. Findings also suggest overlap with high-risk stock traders, with similarities in gambling behaviors, demographics, and personality traits. These findings justify further research into problem cryptocurrency trading behaviors and their potential for harm, especially concerning mental health. To assess what behaviors are problematic, future research should also look to explore differences between long-term investors and short-term traders of cryptocurrency.


Asunto(s)
Juego de Azar , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Juego de Azar/psicología , Humanos , Salud Mental
5.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 32(1): 107-114, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410897

RESUMEN

Research has led to the development of hundreds of evidence-based prevention interventions, most of which are school-based prevention programs. Most primary care clinicians and child/adolescent behavioral health clinicians are unfamiliar with and/or lack training in evidence-based prevention interventions. However, most clinicians in these settings routinely screen children for developmental delays and skills deficits that increase the risk of developing substance abuse and a broad range of mental health and behavior problems by adolescence. It is hoped that the broader use of these practical evidence-based prevention tools may expand the prevention workforce to address the current youth mental health crisis.


Asunto(s)
Problema de Conducta , Psiquiatría , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Salud del Adolescente , Familia , Salud Mental
6.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 32(1): 115-126, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410898

RESUMEN

Adolescent cannabis use is a modifiable health behavior with potential adverse developmental, cognitive, psychological, and health effects. Over the last 2 decades, work to promote implementation of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment has improved screening, use of validated screening tools, and preventive messaging. Current intervention strategies for cannabis use are associated with modest, short-term effects, and referral to treatment is limited by availability of resources for adolescent substance use. This article provides an update on the evidence base for screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment, and the current state of implementation focused on management of cannabis use disorder.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Salud Mental , Derivación y Consulta , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Atención Primaria de Salud
7.
Health Care Manage Rev ; 48(1): 42-51, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713572

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of psychological capital on the relationship between physical violence and mental health issues of nurses and personal care assistants (PCAs) working in aged care using the job demands-resources theory. METHODOLOGY: Data were collected from 254 nurses and PCAs of the Australian Nursing Midwifery Federation located in Victoria, Australia. The study takes a quantitative approach and tests the hypotheses through regression analyses. FINDINGS: The results indicate that experiencing physical violence increases levels of stress, depression, and anxiety. This, in turn, increases nurses' and PCAs' intention to leave. However, increased psychological capital can assist nurses and PCAs in dealing with physical violence. RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS: The study acknowledges that physical violence is a factor in nurses' intention to leave. The significant finding is that psychological capital plays a protective role in ameliorating the negative impact of physical violence on individual well-being and intentions to leave. We note, however, that this is a cross-section study, and more longitudinal research needs to be undertaken. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: There are clear implications for managers to create a supportive organization that cultivates hope, self-efficacy, and resilience, thereby increasing psychological capital. Leadership development programs could build a supportive foundation for nurses to seek support and build resilience. Job construction should be focused on protecting nurses from risk by utilizing manageable workloads to limit stress, depression, and anxiety. ORIGINALITY: Our study extends research on retention of these skilled and important health care workers in a demanding environment that has largely been absent from the literature. Specifically, physical violence is often considered part of nursing work, but its impact on mental health, well-being, and intention to leave are underexplored in this sector, as well as the effectiveness of specific measures that bolster the negative impact of physical violence on nurses.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Reorganización del Personal , Humanos , Anciano , Abuso Físico , Salud Mental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Australia
8.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 41-46, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273679

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To understand the mental health status of adolescents in China and its influencing factors. METHODS: The stratified cluster sampling method was used to evaluate the mental health status of 5633 adolescents using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the overall mean score of SCL-90 and the mean score of each subscale among adolescents in gender, grade, family, and region. The mean score of the interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety subscales of the adolescents with rural household registration was higher than that of the urban household registration. Except for hostility and phobic anxiety subscales, there was a significant difference between junior high school and senior high school students in the remaining subscales. There were significant differences between only children and non-only children in the obsessive-compulsive symptoms and phobic anxiety subscales. The mean scores of depression, phobic anxiety, and other subscales of left-behind adolescents were significantly different from those of non-left-behind adolescents. Female gender (OR = 1.789), different-grade (junior high school sophomore: OR = 2.201; junior high school third grade: OR = 2.004; high school freshman: OR = 2.279; high school sophomore: OR = 2.947; high school senior: OR = 2.112), different-region (central region: OR = 1.302; southern region: OR = 1.925) and high school (OR = 1.281) adolescents had a higher risk of mental health problems, while those from two-parent families (OR = 0.68) had a lower risk. LIMITATIONS: This study is a cross-sectional study and not widely representative. CONCLUSION: Gender, grade, region, and academic period are risk factors, and a two-parent family is a protective factor for adolescents' mental health.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Salud Mental , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , China/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 217-226, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349649

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We estimate 30-day prevalence of 11 common mental disorders among a representative sample of university students in South Africa and explore disparities in student mental health across historically segregated institutions and marginalised groups. METHODS: Cross-sectional data collected in self-report surveys of students (n = 28,268) from 17 universities were weighted to adjust for differences in survey responses. Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: Prevalence estimates were highest (21.0-24.5 %) for two anxiety disorders (social anxiety disorder, PTSD) and two disruptive behavior disorders (eating disorder, ADHD). Prevalence estimates were higher for any anxiety disorder (37.1 %) and any disruptive behavior disorder (38.7 %) than for any mood disorder (16.3 %) or any substance use disorder (6.6 %). Prevalence estimates varied significantly by historical segregation status of institutions (F3 = 221.6, p < .001), with prevalence consistently highest in Historically White Institutions (HWIs). Across all institutions, risk of any disorder was lower among oldest than younger students (RR = 0.7, 95%CI = 0.7-0.8), and elevated among gender non-conforming (RR = 1.3, 95%CI = 1.1-1.4), female (RR = 1.2, 95%CI = 1.1-1.2), and sexual minority (RR = 1.2, 95%CI = 1.2-1.3) students. Black students attending HWIs had elevated risk of any disorder relative to White students. LIMITATIONS: Reliance on self-report measures together with relatively low and variable response rates across institutions limit generalizability of results. CONCLUSIONS: Modest risks associated with sociodemographic factors suggest a need to focus on mental health of female, gender nonconforming and sexual minority students at all universities along with Black students attending HWIs.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Estudiantes , Femenino , Humanos , Universidades , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales
10.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 279-289, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367496

RESUMEN

Migration is not an event, but an interactive process whereby individuals on the move make decisions in their social and political contexts. As such, one expects migrant mental health to change over time. To examine this relationship, we conducted a meta-analysis, the first to our knowledge, to identify the impact of migration phase and migration type on the prevalence of mental health in migrant populations. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, and Embase for studies published between January 1, 2010, and January 1, 2020 (Prospero ID: 192751). We included studies with international migrants reporting prevalence rates for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety. The authors extracted data from eligible studies and tabulated mental health prevalence rates, relevant migration condition (e.g., migration type or phase), and methods (e.g., sample size). Full text review resulted in n = 269 manuscripts included in the meta-analysis examining PTSD (n = 149), depression (n = 218), and anxiety (n = 104). Overall prevalence was estimated for PTSD (30.54 %, I2 = 98.94 %, Q = 10,443.6), depression (28.57 %, I2 = 99.17 %, Q = 13,844.34), and anxiety (25.30 %, I2 = 99.2 %, Q = 10,416.20). We also estimated the effect of methodological and migration factors on prevalence in PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Our findings reveal increased prevalence of mental health due to forced migration and being in the journey phase of migration, even when accounting for the influence of methods.


Asunto(s)
Migrantes , Humanos , Prevalencia , Salud Mental , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología
11.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 7-17, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pandemic-induced social distancing and stay-at-home orders, while successful in decreasing the transmission of COVID-19, could exacerbate loneliness. Few studies have examined how pandemic-related social determinants intersect to shape pandemic loneliness and its relations to mental health care in Canada. METHODS: A population-representative sample of 3772 adults from the Canadian Perspective Survey Series (CPSS-6; January 25 to 31, 2021) was analyzed. Gender-specific logistic regression was employed to investigate the association between three-item loneliness scale (UCLA-3) with socio-demographics, job precarity, health behaviours, social isolation indicators, and mental health help-seeking. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) modelling was used to identify intersecting risk factors and the most important predictor of severe loneliness (UCLA-3 score ≥ 7). RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of severe loneliness was 34.7 % in Canada, with women significantly higher than men (38.1 % vs 31.3 %, p < 0.001). Pandemic loneliness were more prevalent in female (OR = 1.53, 99 % CI: 1.26-1.85), those who were younger (OR's range 1.42-3.00), women without college degree (OR = 1.44, 99 % CI: 1.01-2.04), those living alone (OR = 1.56, 99 % CI: 1.09-2.23), immigrant men (OR = 1.79, 99 % CI: 1.23-2.60), those with small network (OR's range: 1.73-3.26), those who were absent from work due to COVID-19 related reasons (OR = 2.11, 99 % CI: 1.04-4.28), past-month binge drinkers (OR's range: 1.39-1.70) and cannabis user (OR = 1.47, 99 % CI: 1.12-1.93). The CART algorithm identifies that immigrants who experienced pandemic-triggered job insecurity were the most-at-risk group of severely loneliness. Pandemic loneliness was positively associated with formal help-seeking from mental health professionals (OR = 1.71, 99 % CI: 1.21-2.41), informal help-seeking from social circle (OR = 1.51, 99 % CI: 1.17-1.95), and unmet mental health needs (OR = 1.78, 99 % CI: 1.29-2.49). LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional data prohibits causal inferences. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic converges with loneliness epidemic in Canada. Prevention and intervention programs should target upstream social determinants of mental health, especially the intersection of migration status and COVID-19-related job precarity, to eliminate loneliness during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Soledad , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Estudios Transversales , Canadá/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo
12.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 148-160, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179778

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of research has documented the positive associations between psychological inflexibility (PI) and mental health problems (i.e., depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms) during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the documented associations have been inconsistent. This review thus aimed to quantitatively summarize primary research to gain better estimates of these associations. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in six databases and three-level meta-analytic models were used to statistically synthesize effect sizes and to examine moderators of the associations between PI and depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies yielded 63 effect sizes on associations between PI and depressive, anxiety, or stress symptoms. The results of three separate meta-analyses revealed a large and significant association between PI and depressive (r = 0.580, 95 % CI [0.549; 0.775]), anxiety (r = 0.548, 95 % CI [0.468; 0.761]), and stress symptoms (r = 0.548, 95 % CI [0.506; 0.725]). The association between PI and depressive symptoms is stronger for males than for females, and the association between PI and stress symptoms varies by type of measure that primary studies use to assess PI and stress symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Temporal or causal conclusions are not allowed due to cross-sectional nature of the associations included in meta-analyses. Clinical samples with high levels of stress were underrepresented. CONCLUSIONS: PI seems an important risk factor for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, and should therefore be targeted in interventions addressing mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Salud Mental , Estudios Transversales , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología
13.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 275-283, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191642

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To study the longitudinal impact of co-occurring mental health problems, and to identify vulnerable groups in need of mental health support during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from 681 French participants in the international COVID-19 Mental Health Study, collected at four times (05/2020-04/2021). Symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the PTSD Check List for DSM-5. We performed k-means for longitudinal data to build trajectories of adults' depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms and identify subgroups psychologically vulnerable. We then assessed whether mental health trajectories were predicted by lockdown regulations. RESULTS: A high and a low cluster of mental health scores were identified. In both groups, mental health scores varied significantly across time. Levels of all mental health scores were lowest when COVID-19-related restrictions were lifted and highest when restrictions were in place, except for PTSD. No scores returned to the previous level or the initial level of mental health (p < 0.05). Participants with high levels of symptoms were characterized by younger age (OR: 0.98, 95 % CI: 0.97-0.99), prior history of mental disorders (OR: 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.07-5.82), experience of domestic violence (OR: 10.54, 95 % CI: 1.54-20.68) and medical issues (OR: 2.16, 95 % CI: 1.14-4.03). LIMITATIONS: Pre-pandemic data were not available and the sample was recruited mainly by snowball sampling. CONCLUSION: This study revealed subtle differences in the evolution of symptom trajectories during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic, and highlighted several characteristics associated with the two clusters.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Adulto , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Depresión/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología
14.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114715, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of epidemiological studies are investigating the association between outdoor greenery and various health outcomes. However, in the case of indoor plants, although experimental studies seem relatively abundant, epidemiological studies remain scarce, and research considering the mental health effects is even more limited. Thus, we aim to identify and summarise the relevant epidemiological studies on indoor plant exposure and mental health via this scoping review, thereby presenting the current state of knowledge and research niches. METHODS: PubMed and PsycINFO were systematically searched for epidemiological studies on indoor plant exposure and mental health, including mental and behavioural disorders, quality of life, and cognitive function. The publication period was from the inception of these two databases to 22nd June 2022. We extracted information on exposure to indoor plants and mental health-related outcomes from the relevant studies. RESULTS: The systematic search yielded 1186 unique results. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in this scoping review. All included studies were Europe-based cross-sectional studies on mental and behavioural disorders. One study was conducted in 2015 and investigated the office environment, whereas the other five were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and focused on the home environment. Despite considerable heterogeneity in outcome assessments and indoor plant exposure metrics, all six studies generally reported beneficial associations between having indoor plants and mental health, such as reducing stress, depressive symptoms, and negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological evidence on exposure to indoor plants and mental health is currently limited. In general, favourable effects of indoor plants are supported, although most relevant studies were conducted in the context of COVID-19. Before conducting more studies to explore the associations, data collection methods must be refined with more elaborate designs that allow for the measurement of more comprehensive metrics of indoor plants. REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework, osf.io/5xr6b.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Humanos , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Epidemiológicos
15.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 78: 101807, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435549

RESUMEN

Recently, there has been an increased interest in the role of death anxiety in a broad range of mental health disorders. It has been argued that the fear of death may be a transdiagnostic variable contributing to the development and maintenance of many chronic mental health problems. Further, it has been suggested that death anxiety may be responsible for relapse and the emergence of new disorders in patients that have received successful treatment for earlier conditions in their lives. Given this, the purpose of the present selective review is to: (1) explore contemporary theoretical accounts of the role of death anxiety in a broad range of human behaviours; (2) examine evidence for death anxiety as a key variable in mental health disorders; (3) examine evidence on the treatment of death anxiety in both non-clinical and clinical populations; (4) describe the limitations of the current literature, and; (5) provide a detailed description of the critical future directions for this field.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad , Salud Mental , Humanos , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología
16.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 144: 108899, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270196

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and co-occurring mental disorders (COD) within forensic psychiatric care often suffer poor treatment outcomes and high rates of criminal recidivism, substance use, and psychiatric problems. This study aimed to describe the conditions for, and mental health care staff's experiences with, implementing integrated SUD-focused clinical guidelines, including assessment and treatment for patients with COD at a high-security forensic mental health services (FMHS) facility in Sweden. METHODS: Study staff conducted nineteen semi-structured interviews with health care staff experienced in administering the new SUD assessment and treatment. The study conducted a thematic analysis to describe the health care staff's experiences with these guidelines and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Most participants reported appreciation for the implementation of clinical guidelines with an SUD focus, an area they considered to have previously been neglected, but also noted the need for more practical guidance in the administration of the assessments. Participants reported the dual roles of caregiver and warden as difficult to reconcile and a similar, hindering division was also present in the health care staff's attitudes toward SUD. Participants' reports also described an imbalance prior to the implementation, whereby SUD was rarely assessed but treatment was still initiated. One year after the implementation, an imbalance still existed, but in reverse: SUD was more frequently assessed, but treatment was difficult to initiate. CONCLUSIONS: Despite indications of some ambivalence among staff regarding the necessity of the assessment and treatment guidelines, many participants considered it helpful to have a structured way to assess and treat SUD in this patient group. The imbalance between frequent assessment and infrequent treatment may have been due to difficulties transitioning patients across the "gap" between assessment and treatment. To bridge this gap, mental health services should make efforts to increase patients' insight concerning their SUD, flexibility in the administration of treatment, and the motivational skills of the health care staff working with this patient group. Participants considered important for enhancing treatment quality a shared knowledge base regarding SUD, and increased collaboration between different professions and between in- and outpatient services.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Suecia , Psiquiatría Forense , Salud Mental , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Investigación Cualitativa
17.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 48(1): 113-120, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810199

RESUMEN

Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is a ubiquitous property of the nervous system that allows neurons to communicate and change their connections as a function of past experiences. Through reweighting of synaptic strengths, the nervous system can remodel itself, giving rise to durable memories that create the biological basis for mental function. In healthy individuals, synaptic plasticity undergoes characteristic developmental and aging trajectories. Dysfunctional plasticity, in turn, underlies a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, schizophrenia, addiction, and posttraumatic stress disorder. From a mechanistic standpoint, synaptic plasticity spans the gamut of spatial and temporal scales, from microseconds to the lifespan, from microns to the entire nervous system. With the numbers and strengths of synapses changing on such wide scales, there is an important need to develop measurement techniques with complimentary sensitivities and a growing number of approaches are now being harnessed for this purpose. Through hemodynamic measures, structural and tracer imaging, and noninvasive neuromodulation, it is possible to image structural and functional changes that underlie synaptic plasticity and associated behavioral learning. Here we review the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the historical and future trends in techniques that allow imaging of synaptic changes that accompany psychiatric disorders, highlighting emerging therapeutics and the challenges and opportunities accompanying this burgeoning area of study.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Plasticidad Neuronal , Humanos , Plasticidad Neuronal/fisiología , Sinapsis/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología
18.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP466-NP508, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435767

RESUMEN

There is growing recognition that females engage in harmful sexual behaviour that is similar in severity and type to males. Existing research, however, suggests that there is a bias towards leniency in judicial systems for female sexual offenders (FSOs) in comparison to male sexual offenders (MSOs). Specifically, FSOs receive shorter sentences than do MSOs and are less likely to be sentenced to prison. The majority of research examining disparity in sentence outcomes for FSOs have been analysed through a quantitative lens. Qualitative methodology is also needed to understand any subjective differences in the way that judges perceive case-relevant factors and whether these perceptions differ as a function of the offender's gender. The present study is a qualitative study that examined judges' perceptions and descriptions of FSO compared to MSO in 10 matched cases of sexual offending. The study found that although there were many similarities in how judges perceived FSO compared to MSO, there were also unique differences that could explain more lenient sentences for FSOs (i.e. the vulnerability, poor mental health and adverse backgrounds of FSOs). Other unique differences found were that judges' perception of FSOs behaviour was described as depraved and cruel, whereas MSOs similar behaviour was not described in such an emotive way. The present study provides additional insight into the reasons for a bias towards leniency for FSOs. In particular, it points towards judicial focus on particular personal circumstances that are seen as relevant in sentencing FSOs but not for MSOs.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Delitos Sexuales , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Criminales/psicología , Prisiones , Salud Mental , Conducta Sexual
19.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1141-NP1162, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445607

RESUMEN

Research indicates substantial overlap between child abuse and neglect (CAN), exposure to domestic violence and sibling abuse, with multiple victimisation experiences conferring greater risk for adverse mental health outcomes than does exposure to a single subtype. The application of latent class analysis (LCA) to child maltreatment has gained momentum, but it remains the case that few studies have incorporated a comprehensive range of subtypes, meaning that real-life patterns in victimisation experiences cannot be accurately modelled. Based on self-report data from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 2813) of 10-17 year olds in the United Kingdom, the current study used LCA to model constellations among nine types of maltreatment in the home (physical, emotional and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect; exposure to physical and verbal domestic violence, or a drug-related threat; and sibling violence). A four-class solution comprising of a low victimisation class (59.3% of participants), an emotional abuse and neglect class (19.0%), a high verbal domestic violence class (10.5%) and a maltreatment and domestic violence class (11.2%) provided the best fit for the data. Associations with sociodemographic variables were examined, revealing differences in the composition of the classes. Compared to the low victimisation class, participants in the verbal domestic violence class, emotional abuse and neglect class and especially the maltreatment and domestic violence class, reported higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and an increased likelihood of non-suicidal self-injury, suicide ideation and suicide attempt. The findings carry important implications for understanding patterns of child maltreatment, and the implications for preventative strategies and support services are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia Doméstica , Exposición a la Violencia , Niño , Humanos , Salud Mental , Hermanos , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología
20.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 16-27, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272461

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the perinatal period, women's perceived quality of life (QOL) may be altered due to physiological, psychological, and bodily changes, as well as changes in family functioning. OBJECTIVES: to explore in a sample of women from the general population, the associations between physical and mental QOL at 1 year post-partum and i) pregnancy social support, demographic, socioeconomic, medical and child health-related factors, paternal and maternal psychological characteristics at 2 months and 1 year post-partum, ii) antenatal preventive measures (early prenatal interview/antenatal classes). METHODS: We used data from the "French Longitudinal Study since Childhood" (ELFE), a representative cohort of children and their parents followed from birth to adulthood. Data were collected from mothers in the maternity ward, at 2 months and 1-year post-partum. QOL was assessed using the SF12 physical (PCS-12) and mental (MCS-12) subscales. RESULTS: Women with both low PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores were more likely to have high maternal age and to experience psychological difficulties during pregnancy. They also had more frequent PNDS, quarrels with insults within the couple, low sleep time at 2 months postpartum, and more frequently received psychological, social and child caregiver support, and were more often housewives or students at 1-year post-partum. Others factors are specific for low PCS-12 or MCS-12. There was no association with antenatal preventive measure and QOL at 1-year post-partum. CONCLUSION: Factors influencing maternal QOL are multiple and multidimensional and can mostly be identified during the ante or early postnatal period. A graduated and coordinated preventive and curative pathway would improve women's health. An ecosystemic approach to pregnancy and the perinatal period could help preventing the negative effects of environment on mothers and thus infants during the "1000-day period".


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Lactante , Niño , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Madres/psicología , Parto
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...