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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 12-19, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229022

RESUMEN

La pandemia del COVID-19 ha llevado a los países a adoptar severas y prolongadas medidas que —junto con el alto número de contagios y muertes y la continua información negativa— ha afectado la salud mental de las personas. Este estudio analiza el impacto de la crisis sanitaria del COVID-19 en España explorando el rol moderador de la eficacia percibida de las medidas de contención en la relación que establece la percepción del riesgo del COVID-19 con el estrés y la depresión. Un total de 478 adultos residentes en España (un 66.9% mujeres; Medad = 36.30, DT = 15.32) completaron un cuestionario con escalas concebidas para medir el riesgo percibido del COVID-19, la eficacia percibida de las medidas de protección, el estrés y la depresión entre el 16 de mayo y el 6 de junio de 2021. Los resultados confirmaron el rol moderador de la eficacia percibida, la cual actuó como un factor protector del estrés y la depresión al disminuir el impacto negativo que la percepción de riesgo del COVID-19 tiene en ambas variables relacionadas con el distrés mental. La percepción que tienen los individuos sobre la efectividad de las medidas de protección parece ser un factor protector relevante en relación con la salud mental durante una pandemia. Se subraya la relevancia de intervenciones psicológicas y de políticas gubernamentales que mejoren la comunicación positiva del riesgo y la información adecuada sobre la eficacia de las medidas de protección.(AU)


The pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 led countries to adopt harsh and prolonged (over time) measures that—along with the high number of infections and deaths and continuous negative information—have affected the mental health of individuals. In this study, the impact on mental health of the COVID-19 health crisis in Spain was explored through the perceived efficacy of pandemic containment measures as a moderator of the relationship that COVID-19 perceived risk establishes with stress and depression. A questionnaire composed of scales conceived to measure COVID-19 perceived risk, perceived efficacy of COVID-19 prevention measures, stress, and depression was completed by 478 adults living in Spain (66.9% females, Mage= 36.30, SD= 15.32) between May 16, 2021, and June 6, 2021. The results confirmed the moderating role of per-ceived efficacy. Perceived efficacy acted as a protective factor for stress and depression by decreasing the negative impact that perceived risk had on both variables related to mentaldistress. Also, the perception that par-ticipants had about the effectiveness of prevention measures appeared to be a relevant protective factor regarding mental health during the pandem-ic. This study highlights the relevance of psychological interventions and government policies that improve positive risk communication and pro-vide adequate information regarding the effectiveness of health-prevention measures.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , /prevención & control , Salud Mental , Estrés Psicológico , Depresión , Medidas de Seguridad , /psicología , España , Psicología , Psicología Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 20-30, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229023

RESUMEN

Antecedentes y objetivos: Aunque se consideraba que los jóvenes estaban menos expuestos a contraer una forma severa de la infección, los efectos que ellos más resintieron fueron los psicosociales. El presente artículo se propone comprobar el papel mediador de los afectos negativos y de las estrategias evasivas, primero en la relación entre el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el estrés percibido, y luego entre la amenaza percibida y el estrés. Diseño: Se utilizó un diseño transversal. Métodos: Se empleó una muestra de 669 estudiantes de grado (18 - 28 años) durante la cuarta oleada de coronavirus, cuando la variante delta era la dominante. Resultados: Se observaron asociaciones positivas entre el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el estrés percibido (r = .485; p<.001), por un lado, y entre la amenaza percibida y el estrés (r = .283; p< .001), por otro lado. Los datos estadísticos demuestran que los afectos negativos y las estrategias evasivas actúan como mediadores seriales (efecto indirecto = .3349, 95% CI, [.2858; .3852] / (efecto indirecto = .2072, 95% CI, [.1515; .2624]). Consecuentemente, el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 (β = .137; 95% CI [.0019; .0045]) y la amenaza percibida (β = .069; 95% CI [.0007; .0046]) aumentan el estrés no sólo de manera directa, sino también indirecta, intensificando los afectos negativos. Esto genera una propensión hacia el uso específico de estrategias evasivas de afrontamiento. Conclusiones: El estudio subraya algunos mecanismos explicativos en cuanto a las relaciones entre variables que afectan la salud mental durante la pandemia COVID-19.(AU)


Background and objectives:Although young adults were considered to face a lower risk of severe coronavirus infection, they were at higher risk for adverse psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to test the me-diating roles of negative affect and avoidant coping, firstly in the relation-ship between COVID-19 impact and perceived stress, and then in the rela-tionship between perceived coronavirus threat and perceived stress. Design:Cross-sectional design. Methods: We conducted the study on a sample of 669 university students (aged between 18-28), during the critical fourth wave, when the delta variant was the dominant strain. Results: The results indicate significant positive associations between the impact of COVID-19 and perceived stress (r = .485; p<.001), and between perceived corona-virus threat and perceived stress (r= .283; p<.001). Our findings demon-strate that negative affect and avoidant coping serially mediate these rela-tionships (total indirect effect = .3349, 95% CI, [.2858; .3852] / (total indi-rect effect = .2072, 95% CI, [.1515; .2624]). Thus, the impact of COVID-19 (β= .137; 95% CI [.0019; .0045]) and perceived coronavirus threat (β= .069; 95% CI [.0007; .0046]) induce an increase in stress not only directly, but also indirectly, through amplified negative affect, which in turn in-creases the specific-oriented use of avoidant coping strategies. Conclusions:Our results highlighted some new explanatory relationships between varia-bles that affect mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Estrés Psicológico , /psicología , Impacto Psicosocial , Salud Mental , Salud del Estudiante , Rumanía , Psicología , Psicología Social , /epidemiología , Estudios Transversales
3.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 31-37, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229024

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: The Dark Future Scale (DFS) is a self-report instrument which assesses the tendency to think about the future with anxiety, fear, and uncertainty. Although it has been applied in different populations, instrumental studies are scarce, and there is no validated Spanish version. The aim was therefore to develop a Spanish version of the scale (DFS-S) and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of young adults. Method: Participants were 1,019 individuals aged from 18 to 24 years. They completed the DFS-S and the IPIP-BFM-20. Validity evidence based on the internal structure, including measurement invariance across gender, as well as on relationships with personality traits was obtained. Reliability and gender differences in DFS-S scores were also examined. Results: Results supported a single-factor structure, χ2(5) = 10.79, CFI = .999, RMSEA = .034, SRMR = .016, that was invariant across gender. Reliability of test scores was satisfactory (ω = .92). In the correlation analysis, future anxiety showed a strong positive correlation with neuroticism (.42) and a moderate negative correlation with extraversion (-.25). Females scored higher than males on future anxiety. Conclusions: The DFS-S has satisfactory psychometric properties and it is an adequate tool for measuring future anxiety among young adults.(AU)


Antecedentes/Objetivo: La Dark Future Scale (DFS) evalúa la ten-dencia a pensar en el futuro con ansiedad, miedo e incertidumbre. Aunque ha sido usadaen diferentes poblaciones, los estudios instrumentales son es-casos y no hay una versión adaptada al español. El objetivo del estudio fue adaptarla al español (DFS-S) y analizar sus propiedades psicométricas en una muestra de adultos jóvenes. Método:Participaron 1.019 jóvenes entre 18 y 24 años. Completaron la DFS-S y el IPIP-BFM-20. Se analizan evidencias de validez basadas en la estructura interna, incluyendo la invarianza de me-dida según el género, y basadas en las relaciones con rasgos de personali-dad, así como análisis de la fiabilidad y de las diferencias de género. Resulta-dos:Los resultados apoyaron una estructura de un solo factor, χ2(5) = 10.79, CFI = .999, RMSEA = .034, SRMR = .016, con invarianza respecto al gé-nero, y con coeficiente de fiabilidad satisfactorio (ω= .92). Se encontró co-rrelación positiva fuerte entre ansiedad futura y neuroticismo (.42) y una correlación negativa moderada con extraversión (-.25). Las puntuaciones en ansiedad futura fueron mayores en las mujeres. Conclusiones:Los resultados muestran propiedades psicométricas satisfactorias delaDFS-S, siendo un instrumento adecuado para medir la ansiedad futura en adultos jóvenes.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Escala de Ansiedad ante Pruebas , Psicometría , Incertidumbre , Miedo , España , Salud Mental , Ansiedad , Psicología , Psicología Social
4.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 69-75, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229028

RESUMEN

Para frenar la propagación del COVID-19, el gobierno español aplicó medidas restrictivas, como el cierre escolar. Aunque los efectos de la pandemia en el bienestar emocional de los niños han sido estudiados, faltan estudios que examinen la adaptación escolar tras la pandemia y el papel que la infección ha tenido en el proceso de adaptación. El objetivo es analizar la relación entre los eventos estresantes relacionados con la escuela y la adaptación escolar después del confinamiento, incluyendo la ansiedad como mediadora. Los participantes fueron 219 padres de niños y adolescentes españoles de entre 3 y 18 años que completaron encuestas sobre la ansiedad de sus hijos (Spanish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale), los eventos estresantes vividos relacionados con la escuela (Stressful Eventos relacionados con el Inventario de Pandemia), y la adaptación escolar (Escala de Ajuste de los Niños después del Cierre Escolar de la Pandemia). Los resultados mostraron mayor prevalencia en el evento estresante distancia social (87%). Tener COVID-19 y sufrir acoso escolar se relacionó directamente con una mayor ansiedad. Los niños que disminuyeron el contacto social y sufrieron acoso escolar mostraron peor adaptación escolar, siendo la ansiedad un mediador indirecto. Los hallazgos destacan la importancia de supervisar la adaptación escolar y promover estrategias para prevenir problemas emocionales en jóvenes expuestos a situaciones estresantes.(AU)


Aiming to mitigate the COVID-19 spread, the government of Spain applied restrictive measures, like schools’ closure. Although the ef-fects of the pandemic on children's emotional well-being have been stud-ied, there is a lack of studies examining school adjustment following the pandemic and the role that the infection has played in the adjustment pro-cess. The objective is to analyze the relationship between stressful events related to school experienced by children and their adjustment to school after the home confinement, including anxiety as a mediator variable. Par-ticipants were the parentsof 219 Spanish children and adolescents aged 3 and 18 years who completed a survey about their children’s anxiety (Span-ish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale), the stress-ful events experienced related to school (Stressful Events related to Pan-demic Inventory), and the adjustment to school (Adjustment of Children after Pandemic School Closure Scale). Results showed that social distance was the most reported stressful event (87%). Having COVID-19 and expe-riencing bullying were directly related to a high level of anxiety. Children ́s who decreased social contact and experienced bullying showed a worse ad-justment to school. Anxiety was an indirect mediator of this relationship. Findings highlight the importance of supervising school adaptation and promoting strategies to prevent emotional problems when the youths are exposed to stressful situations.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , /psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Salud del Estudiante , Estrés Psicológico , Instituciones Académicas , Ansiedad , /epidemiología , Psicología , Salud Mental , Psicología Social , Ajuste Social , Psicología Educacional
5.
Pap. psicol ; 45(1): 19-25, Ene-Abr, 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229712

RESUMEN

El uso clínico del mindfulness adaptado a la psicosis ha sido rechazado por algunos profesionales de la Salud Mental debido a prejuicios y falta de información. Sin embargo, la evidencia actual ha demostrado que las Intervenciones Basadas en Mindfulness (MBI) son seguras y tienen numerosos beneficios en los trastornos del espectro psicótico. Las MBI son adaptables a diferentes contextos y situaciones clínicas, incluido el deterioro cognitivo, y aunque no constituye su objetivo principal, pueden facilitar la reducción de la sintomatología negativa en la psicosis. Las MBI permiten a las personas con psicosis enfrentar las experiencias alucinatorias desde una perspectiva diferente, fomentando la flexibilidad, la regulación emocional y la aceptación. Es importante adaptar las intervenciones a las características de la psicosis, así como distinguir entre los diferentes tipos de prácticas, para aplicarlas de manera diferencial según la sintomatología específica y las características de la persona.(AU)


The clinical use of psychosis-adapted mindfulness has been rejected by some mental health professionals due to biases and lack of information. However, current evidence has demonstrated the safety and numerous benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in psychotic spectrum disorders. MBIs are adaptable to diverse clinical contexts and situations, including cognitive impairment, and although it is not their primary objective, they can facilitate the reduction of negative symptomatology in psychosis. MBIs enable individuals with psychosis toapproach hallucinatory experiences from an alternative perspective, fostering flexibility, emotional regulation, and acceptance. It is crucial to tailor interventions to the characteristics of the psychosis, as well as to differentiate between the various types of practices, in order to apply them differentially depending on the specific symptoms and characteristics of the individual.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Atención Plena , Trastornos Psicóticos , Alucinaciones , Salud Mental , Psicología , Disfunción Cognitiva
6.
Pap. psicol ; 45(1): 34-38, Ene-Abr, 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229714

RESUMEN

Se discute la validez de la memoria disociativa en contextos forenses y las causas de las llamadas “guerras de la memoria”. Conceptos erróneos entre la psicología clínica y la psicología forense, una definición deficiente de la amnesia y las dificultades inherentes en el estudio de recuerdos traumáticos contribuyen a la persistencia de esta controversia. Particularmente en el campo de la psicología forense, el debate podría atribuirse a la falta de consenso sobre la evidencia científica. Los psicólogos necesitan establecer una base empírica para comprender mejor los mecanismos de la memoria involucrados en recordar y olvidar recuerdos traumáticos. Se esboza el Modelo de Accesibilidad Continua de la Memoria para explicar la recuperación de los diferentes grados de accesibilidad a los recuerdos autobiográficos basados en diferentes factores.(AU)


The validity of dissociative memory in forensic contexts and the causes of the so-called “memory wars” arediscussed. Misconceptions between clinical and forensic psychology, a deficient definition of amnesia, and the difficulties inherent in studying traumatic memories contribute to the persistence of this controversy. Particularly in the field of forensic psychology, the debate could be attributed to the lack of consensus on scientific evidence. Psychologists need to establish an empirical foundation to understand better the mechanisms of memory involved in remembering and forgetting traumatic memories. The Continuous Accessibility Model of Memory is outlined to explain the retrieval of the different degrees of accessibility to autobiographical memories based on different factors.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Amnesia , Salud Mental , Psicología Forense , Recuerdo Mental , Psicología , Víctimas de Crimen
7.
Pap. psicol ; 45(1): 48-55, Ene-Abr, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229716

RESUMEN

Borderline personality (BPD) features and intimate partner violence (IPV) have been seen associated, focusing the research specially into perpetrators. The achievement of this systematic review is to analyze this relation in both victims and perpetrators, using 17 scientific articles published between 2017 and 2021 from different data bases. Most studies were focused on perpetrators, in which both men and women were equally represented as perpetrators. Instead, studies about victims were focused on women. Throughout this review, different factors observed in people with BPD traits who are victims or perpetrators of IPV are mentioned, finding particularities in each profile. These findings allow increase knowledge about the relationship between BPD and IPV, promoting a greater understanding that impacts positively on clinical intervention in this population.(AU)


Los rasgos límites de personalidad (TLP) se han visto asociados a violencia en la pareja, con investigaciones centradas especialmente en quienes la ejercen. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática es analizar esta relación tanto en víctimas como en perpetradores, utilizando 17 artículos científicos publicados entre 2017 y 2021 en distintas bases de datos. Los estudios analizados se centraron mayoritariamente en perpetradores, encontrándose tanto hombres como mujeres igualmente representadas. En cambio, los estudios sobre víctimas atendían por lo general a mujeres. A lo largo de esta revisión, se mencionan distintos factores observados en personas que presentan rasgos TLP y ejercen o son víctimas de violencia de pareja, encontrando particularidades en cada perfil. Este trabajo permite incrementar el conocimiento sobre la relación existente entre TLP y violencia de pareja, fomentando una mayor comprensión que repercuta positivamente en la intervención clínica de esta población.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Salud Mental , Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia de Pareja , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe , Psicología , Psiquiatría
8.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100416], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230355

RESUMEN

Background: Experiences of childhood psychological maltreatment have been found to be associated with various mental health outcomes, and this association persists into adulthood.Objective: This study investigated whether some types of psychological maltreatment are more harmful than others; whether the harms associated with different types of psychological maltreatment are generalized or specific to particular domains of psychopathology; and whether the associations vary by gender. Method: Participants (N = 544, 63.9 % mother as primary caregiver) were Chinese adults from various regions in China. Participants completed measures of childhood psychological maltreatment experiences perpetrated by their primary caregiver and the mental health outcomes of depression, anxiety, anger, physical aggression, and hostility. The data were analyzed in a hierarchical model in which depression and anxiety were defined as indicators of an internalizing factor, while anger, physical aggression, and hostility were defined as indicators of an externalizing factor. Internalizing and externalizing then defined a higher-order general psychopathology factor. The results suggested equivalent harms of psychological abuse and psychological neglect. Further, the associations between psychological maltreatment and mental health were not unique to specific symptom domains but showed broadband associations with general psychopathology. Results: These findings suggest that trans-diagnostic interventions may be the most effective approach for addressing the mental health impacts of psychological maltreatment. Conclusion: Childhood psychological maltreatment may pose a broadband risk for any and all forms of psychopathology.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Depresión , Ansiedad , Hostilidad , China , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental , Psicopatología
9.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100415], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230356

RESUMEN

Purpose: An increasing number of studies support the beneficial relationship between physical activity and stress coping in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, there has been limited understanding of the variables that may influence the nature of this relationship. Therefore, based on the social-cognitive framework and previous research, we aimed to examine the association between the habitual physical activity of people with MS and their coping effectiveness. Furthermore, we sought to determine the extent to which self-efficacy acts as a mediator in this relationship, considering the level of disability as a moderator variable. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 351 people with MS participated. The participants were asked to complete several assessment tools, including the Mini-COPE Inventory for Measurement—Coping with Stress, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Additionally, a neurologist assessed the severity of the disease using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Information on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants was collected via a self-report survey. Two moderated mediation analyses were conducted as part of the study. Results: The study findings indicated a positive correlation between engagement in physical activity and self-efficacy among participants with high and medium disability levels. This, in turn, demonstrated a positive association with effective stress-coping strategies and a negative association with ineffective coping methods. In particular, a significant relationship was observed between involvement in physical activity and self-efficacy in participants with high disability, while it was not statistically significant in participants with low disability.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Ejercicio Físico , Esclerosis Múltiple/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Salud de la Persona con Discapacidad , Deportes para Personas con Discapacidad , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental , Esclerosis Múltiple/terapia , Estrés Psicológico/terapia
10.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100418], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230357

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: The aim was to investigate the extent and longitudinal determinants of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in cancer survivors. Methods: A sample of 1316 cancer survivors with various cancer types was examined using the EORTC QLQ-FA12 to assess fatigue, the EORTC QLQ-C30 pain items to assess pain and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) to assess emotional distress two years after diagnosis (t0). Additionally, patients rated how well they felt informed about fatigue at t0. PTG was assessed with the 21-item PTG-Inventory four years after diagnosis (t1) comprising the five subdimensions appreciation of life, relation to others, personal strengths, new possibilities and spiritual change. Results: Regarding the extent of PTG, most positive developments were experienced in the PTG subdimension appreciation of life whereas the subdimension spiritual change was the least pronounced domain. Fatigue, pain and emotional distress were longitudinal but non-linear predictors of long-term PTG. Additionally, poor informedness about fatigue was associated with less PTG. Conclusions: PTG can be perceived even years after a traumatic cancer event and is longitudinally associated with common cancer side effects like fatigue, emotional distress and pain. Further research into the role of individuals' informedness contributing to PTG is needed.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Crecimiento Psicológico Postraumático , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Fatiga , Dimensión del Dolor , Ansiedad/psicología , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Psicooncología
11.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100419], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230358

RESUMEN

Background: Attentional bias toward infant faces is associated with parental sensitivity and supports the infant-caregiver attachment relationship, ultimately fostering child health outcomes. However, experience-related determinants of parents' attentional bias to infant faces have been poorly investigated. We examined attentional bias to infant versus adult faces in a sample of same-sex mothers (N = 76), and whether it varied depending on maternal involvement in childcare and the perceived quality of past experiences of care. Method: A Go/no-Go attentional task was used to compare the effects of infant and adult faces in retaining attention. Maternal involvement in childcare was measured using items addressing nurturing behaviors. Memories of past experiences of care were collected using the short-form version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection scale. Results: Results confirmed that infant faces induced greater attentional bias compared to adult faces. More involved mothers were more biased, in terms of attention, to infant versus adult faces. Attentional bias to infant versus adult faces increased as mothers felt more rejected by their own fathers during childhood. Discussion: Our findings suggested that attentional bias to infant faces might be associated with past experiences of care and direct commitment in childcare in same-sex mothers. Robust and accurate empirical findings on same-sex parent families are essential to inform social policies supporting these families’ well being.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Sesgo Atencional , Conducta Materna/psicología , Cuidado del Niño , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental
12.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100424], Ene-Mar, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Español, Portugués, Francés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230365

RESUMEN

Objective: This review aimed to summarize longitudinal research about the interplay between sleep, mental health, and positive well-being in adolescents. Method: Multiple search strategies were applied until 28th January 2023 to identify relevant research published in peer-reviewed journal articles or available grey literature. A final set of 63 studies were included in the systematic review and 42 in the meta-analysis. Results: Results highlighted that long sleep duration, good sleep quality, and low insomnia symptoms were bidirectionally related to lower internalizing (Sleep T1 → Internalizing symptoms T2: r = -.20, p < .001; Internalizing symptoms T1 → Sleep T2: r = -.21, p < .001) and externalizing (Sleep T1 → Externalizing symptoms T2: r = -.15, p < .001; Externalizing symptoms T1→ Sleep T2: r = -.17, p < .001) symptoms, and to higher levels of psychological well-being (Sleep T1 → Psychological well-being T2: r = .15, p < .001; Psychological well-being T1 → Sleep T2: r = .15, p < .05). Moreover, good sleep was positively related to higher subjective well-being at a later time point (r = .18, p < .001). Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest a bidirectional relation between different aspects of sleep, mental health, and positive well-being.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Psicología del Adolescente , Sueño , Salud Mental , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Salud del Adolescente , Psicología , Psicología Clínica , Estudios Longitudinales
13.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100425], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230367

RESUMEN

Background: Executive Function (EF) is a potential mechanism linking physical activity (PA) and mental health. However, evidence regarding the association between free-living PA and EF is limited with mixed results. Across two studies, we examined associations between accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and facets of EF in different age groups (Study 1) and at different times of day (Study 2). Method: In Study 1, we tested the association between MVPA and verbal fluency across seven days in 285 participants (children, adults, older adults). In Study 2, we tested between- and within-person associations between MVPA and working memory (afternoon, evening, next morning) across three 18-day bursts in 64 preadolescents. Results: Study 1 showed no association between MVPA and verbal fluency overall, but there was an interaction by age group: a positive association was evident in older adults only. In Study 2, we observed a positive between-person association between MVPA and subsequent afternoon and next morning working memory, but not within-person. In the evening, MVPA was not related to working memory. Conclusions: The association between free-living PA and EF differs between age groups and times of day. Future research should consider these factors when examining the association and its role for mental health.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Cognición , Ejercicio Físico , Salud Mental , Psicología , Psicología Clínica , Neurología
14.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100429], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230369

RESUMEN

Individuals recovering from COVID-19 often present with persistent symptoms, particularly exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Put simply, the Wasserman gear system describes the interdependence of heart, lungs, and musculature as determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness. Based on this system, recent findings indicate a contribution of peripheral, cardiovascular, and lung diffusion limitations to persistent symptoms of exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness. The autonomic nervous system as an organ system involved in the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness, has received only little attention as of yet. Hence, our article discusses contribution of the autonomic nervous system through four potential pathways, namely alterations in (1) cerebral hemodynamics, (2) afferent and efferent signaling, (3) central hypersensitivity, and (4) appraisal and engagement in physical activity. These pathways are summarized in a psycho-pathophysiological model. Consequently, this article encourages a shift in perspective by examining the state of the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, the periphery, and auxiliary, the autonomic nervous system as potential underlying mechanisms for exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with post-COVID-19.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Sistema Nervioso Central , Ejercicio Físico , Síndromes Paraneoplásicos del Sistema Nervioso , /complicaciones , Enfermedad Cardiopulmonar , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Neurología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso , Salud Mental , /epidemiología
15.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100436], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230375

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: The effects of lifestyle interventions on physical and mental health in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are promising, but its underlying mechanisms remain unsolved. This study aims to examine changes in health-related outcomes after a lifestyle intervention, distinguishing between direct and indirect effects. Method: We applied network intervention analysis on data from the 18-month cohort Multidisciplinary Lifestyle enhancing Treatment for Inpatients with SMI (MULTI) study in 106 subjects (62% male, mean age=54.7 (SD=10.8)) that evaluated changes in actigraphy-measured physical activity, metabolic health, psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and medication use after MULTI (n=65) compared to treatment as usual (n=41). Results: MULTI is directly connected to decreased negative symptoms and psychotropic medication dosage, and improved physical activity and psychosocial functioning, suggesting a unique and direct association between MULTI and the different outcome domains. Secondly, we identified associations between outcomes within the same domain (e.g., metabolic health) and between the domains (e.g., metabolic health and social functioning), suggesting potential indirect effects of MULTI. Conclusions: This novel network approach shows that MULTI has direct and indirect associations with various health-related outcomes. These insights contribute to the development of effective treatment strategies in people with severe mental illness.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Calidad de Vida , Ejercicio Físico , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Mentales , Actigrafía , Psicología Clínica , Psiquiatría , Estudios de Cohortes , Salud Mental , Estilo de Vida
16.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100437], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230378

RESUMEN

Background: Schizophrenia often occurs in youth, and psychosis risk syndrome (PRS) occurs before the onset of psychosis. Assessing the neuropsychological abnormalities of PRS individuals can help in early identification and active intervention of mental illness. Auditory P300 amplitude defect is an important manifestation of attention processing abnormality in PRS, but it is still unclear whether there are abnormalities in the attention processing of rhythmic compound tone stimuli in PRS individuals, and whether the P300 amplitude induced by these stimuli is specific to PRS individuals and related to their clinical outcomes. Methods: In total, 226 participants, including 122 patients with PRS, 51 patients with emotional disorders (ED), and 53 healthy controls (HC) were assessed. Baseline electroencephalography was recorded during the compound tone oddball task. The event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by rhythmic compound tone stimuli of two frequencies (20-Hz, 40-Hz) were measured. Almost all patients with PRS were followed up for 12 months and reclassified into four groups: PRS-conversion, PRS-symptomatic, PRS-emotional disorder, and PRS-complete remission. The differences in baseline ERPs were compared among the clinical outcome groups. Results: Regardless of the stimulation frequency, the average P300 amplitude were significantly higher in patients with PRS than in those with ED (p = 0.003, d = 0.48) and in HC (p = 0.002, d = 0.44) group. The average P300 amplitude of PRS-conversion group was significantly higher than that of the PRS-complete remission (p = 0.016, d = 0.72) and HC group (p = 0.001, d = 0.76), and the average P300 amplitude of PRS-symptomatic group was significantly higher than that of the HC group (p = 0.006, d = 0.48)...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Esquizofrenia , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental , Trastornos Mentales , Trastornos Psicóticos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Electroencefalografía
18.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100441], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230381

RESUMEN

In the context of body image and mental health, transgender individuals face distinctive challenges stemming from the complexities of their gender identity journey, societal expectations, and body norms. However, the existing line of research on this topic remains limited. This study explores the complex relationship in transgender individuals between body objectification, body weight dissatisfaction, and eating concerns. A sample of 154 individuals (77 transgenders paired with 77 cisgenders) was recruited via LGBTQ+ groups’ mailing lists. Participants completed various questionnaires assessing body image, eating psychopathology, depression, and body objectification. Propensity score matching was performed with different variables: age, current BMI, years of education, current self-identified gender, and sexual orientation. The results revealed that transgender individuals experienced higher levels of body objectification, body weight dissatisfaction, and eating concerns compared to their cisgender counterparts. Additionally, age emerged as a protective factor, as older transgender individuals demonstrated improved body acceptance and self-esteem. Logistic regression analyzes indicated that bulimic behaviors, depressive symptoms, and appearance control beliefs were specific factors significantly associated with being transgender. Our findings highlight the unique challenges faced by transgender individuals in navigating their gender identity and body image, underscoring the importance of targeted interventions and support systems.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Personas Transgénero , Identidad de Género , Autoimagen , Imagen Corporal , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental , Peso Corporal
19.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100443], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230382

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: (1) Examine the role of exercise intensity on mental health symptoms in a community-based sample of older adults. (2) Explore the moderating role of genetic variation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) on the effects of exercise on mental health symptoms. Method: This study is a secondary analysis of a three-arm randomized controlled trial, comparing the effects of 6 months of high-intensity aerobic training vs. moderate-intensity aerobic training vs. a no-contact control group on mental health symptoms assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and APOE ε4 carrier status were explored as genetic moderators of exercise effects on mental health symptoms. Results: The exercise intervention did not influence mental health symptoms. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism did not moderate intervention effects on mental health symptoms. APOE ε4 carrier status moderated the effect of intervention group on perceived stress over 6 months, such that APOE ε4 carriers, but not non-carriers, in the high-intensity aerobic training group showed a decline in perceived stress over 6 months. Conclusions: APOE ε4 carrier status may modify the benefits of high-intensity exercise on perceived stress such that APOE ε4 carriers show a greater decline in stress as a result of exercise relative to non-APOE ε4 carriers.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Mental , /psicología , Cognición , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Ansiedad , Estrés Psicológico , Psiquiatría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ejercicio Físico
20.
Recurso de Internet en Español | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-49562

RESUMEN

La caja de herramientas para el abordaje integral del uso de sustancias psicoactivas, es un espacio dedicado a aquellas personas que de manera personal han estado o están expuestos al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas (SPA), igualmente, se dirige aquellas personas de la comunidad, familias, colegios, universidades, barrios y grupos sociales que requieran de herramientas prácticas que aporten a la mitigación y prevención de consumo de SPA en su círculo social.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Factores Sociológicos , Atención a la Salud , Salud Mental , Drogas Ilícitas
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