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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 112-119, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Horses are one of the potential reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants that could be transferred to human subjects. OBJECTIVE: To describe the AMR patterns of major bacteria isolated from diseased horses in France. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. METHODS: Data collected between 2012 and 2016 by RESAPATH, the French national surveillance network for AMR, were analysed. Only antimicrobials relevant in veterinary and human medicine for the isolated bacteria were considered. Mono- and multidrug resistance were calculated. The resistance proportions of major equine diseases were assessed and compared. Where data permitted, resistance trends were investigated using nonlinear analysis (generalised additive models). RESULTS: A total of 12,695 antibiograms were analysed. The five most frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pantoea spp. and Klebsiella spp. The highest proportions of resistance to gentamicin were found for S. aureus (22.1%) and Pseudomonas spp. (26.9%). Klebsiella spp. and E. coli had the highest proportions of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.5 and 26.2%, respectively). Proportions of resistance to tetracycline were among the highest for all the bacteria considered. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was below 10% for all Enterobacteriaceae. The highest proportions of multidrug resistance (22.5%) were found among S. aureus isolates, which is worrying given their zoonotic potential. From 2012 to 2016, resistance proportions decreased in Pseudomonas spp. isolates, but remained the same for S. aureus. For Streptococcus spp. and E. coli, resistance proportions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole increased. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Since antibiograms are not systematic analyses, any selection bias could impact the results. CONCLUSIONS: Such studies are essential to estimate the magnitude of the potential threat of AMR to public health, to design efficient control strategies and to measure their effectiveness. These findings may also guide the initial empirical treatment of horse diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Enfermedades de los Caballos/microbiología , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Francia/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Caballos , Salud Pública , Estudios Retrospectivos
2.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103280, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500706

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases in humans, including febrile gastroenteritis and systemic infections that has a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. This pathogen may cause massive outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated food products, which highlight its importance in public health. In the last decade, L. monocytogenes has emerged as a foodborne pathogen of major importance in Chile. A previous work showed that in Chile during 2008 and 2009, L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified in food and clinical strains. Here we report the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 2008 to 2017 in the country. Our results indicate that serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b continue to be the most commonly found in food products. In addition, we identify persistent and widespread PFGE subtypes. This study reports ten years of epidemiological surveillance ofL. monocytogenes in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Variación Genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidad , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Epidemiología Molecular , Salud Pública , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Factores de Virulencia/genética
3.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 18(1): e0022757, 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020986

RESUMEN

Resumo Trata-se de ensaio sobre o constructo 'inédito viável', de Paulo Freire, com objetivo de explorar suas potencialidades na saúde coletiva. Foram analisadas 38 obras do autor, das quais nove abordavam o inédito viável, permitindo reconhecer significados subjacentes ao constructo. Foram explorados três eixos para a compreensão: condições e contextos de emergência dos inéditos viáveis; exemplos; e sentidos de inéditos viáveis. A emergência dos inéditos viáveis resulta de complexo processo pedagógico, que vai do estranhamento da realidade à percepção crítica dos sujeitos envolvidos, a qual propicia a construção dos inéditos viáveis, como etapa que antecede a ação. Embora algumas obras analisadas citem exemplos de inéditos viáveis, estes não foram elucidativos na apreensão de possíveis significados do inédito viável. Com base nas ideias da obra freireana de práxis, projeto, futuridade, sonho, utopia e esperança, a compreensão do inédito viável ancorou-se no sentido de projeto coletivo. Propõe-se uma pedagogia aplicada à saúde coletiva que incorpore o 'inédito viável' como possibilidade de transcender o adestramento técnico, baseado, exclusivamente, em conteúdos informativos, investindo, também, nas capacidades de indignação e denúncia e na construção de projetos coletivos.


Abstract This essay is about Paulo Freire's "untested feasibility" construct, and it aims to explore its potentialities in collective health. A total of 38 works by the author were analyzed, nine of which discuss untested feasibility, which enables the recognition of the construct's underlying meanings. Three core ideas were explored for this understanding: the conditions and contexts of emergency of the untested feasibilities; examples; and the meanings of the untested feasibilities. The emergence of untested feasibilities results from a complex pedagogical process, which goes from the defamiliarization regarding reality to the critical perception of the subjects involved, which contributes to the development of untested feasibilities, as a step that precedes action. Even though some of the analyzed works mention examples of untested feasibilities, those were not clarifying regarding the understanding of the possible meanings of untested feasibility. Based on the ideas contained in Freire's works regarding praxis, project, futurity, dream, utopia and hope, the comprehension of untested feasibility was based on the sense of collective project. We propose a pedagogy applied to collective health that incorporates "untested feasibility" as a possibility of transcending the technical training, which is based exclusively on informational contents, also investing in the capacities of indignation and denunciation and in the development of collective projects.


Resumen Este es un ensayo sobre lo "inédito viable" de Paulo Freire, con el objetivo de explorar su potencial en la salud colectiva. Se analizaron un total de 38 obras del autor, nueve de las cuales se referían a lo inédito viable, permitiendo el reconocimiento de significados subyacentes de la construcción. Se exploraron tres ejes para la comprensión: condiciones y contextos de emergencia de los inéditos viables; ejemplos; y significados de inéditos viables. La aparición de los inéditos viables es el resultado de un complejo proceso pedagógico, que va desde la extrañeza de la realidad hasta la percepción crítica de los sujetos involucrados, lo que permite la construcción de inéditos viables, como paso previo a la acción. Aunque algunas de las obras analizadas citan ejemplos de inéditos viables, éstos no fueron explicativos a la hora de captar posibles significados de lo inédito viable. A partir de las ideas de la obra freireana de praxis, proyecto, futuro, sueño, utopía y esperanza, la comprensión de lo viable inédito se ancló en el sentido de proyecto colectivo. Se propone una pedagogía aplicada a la salud colectiva que incorpora lo "inédito viable" como posibilidad de trascender la formación técnica, basada exclusivamente en contenidos informativos, invirtiendo también en las capacidades de indignación y denuncia y en la construcción de proyectos colectivos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud Pública , Ensayos
4.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047809

RESUMEN

Objetivo: caracterizar a produção científica acerca da violência contra mulher e suas repercussões sociais, em periódicos online no âmbito da saúde, publicados no período de 2011 a 2016. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada através das bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Bases de Dados de Enfermagem (BDENF). Resultados: a análise dos 15 artigos evidenciou a caracterização da violência, a atuação e percepção dos profissionais de saúde acerca da violência e do aborto legal, destacando a relevância de estudar a violência e suas repercussões sociais, com o objetivo de proporcionar uma melhor assistência. Conclusão: conclui-se que fortalecer às políticas de erradicação da violência contra a mulher, oferecer uma rede de apoio multiprofissional eficiente e a intensificar as políticas de conscientização são imprescindíveis a nossa sociedade


Objective: to characterize the scientific production about violence against women and its social repercussions in online health journals published in the period from 2011 to 2016. Method: this is an integrative review of the literature, carried out through databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (MEDLINE), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Nursing Databases (BDENF). Results: the analysis of the 15 articles showed the characterization of violence, the performance and perception of health professionals about violence and legal abortion, highlighting the relevance of studying violence and its social repercussions, in order to provide better care. Conclusion: it is concluded that strengthening policies to eradicate violence against women, providing an efficient multiprofessional support network, and intensifying awareness-raising policies are essential to our society


Objetivo: caracterizar la producción científica acerca de la violencia contra la mujer y sus repercusiones sociales, en periódicos online en el ámbito de la salud, publicados en el período de 2011 a 2016. Método: se trata de una revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada a través de las bases de datos (MEDLINE), Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS), Bases de Datos de Enfermería (BDENF). Resultados: el análisis de los 15 artículos evidenció la caracterización de la violencia, la actuación y percepción de los profesionales de salud acerca de la violencia y del aborto legal, destacando la relevancia de estudiar la violencia y sus repercusiones sociales, con el objetivo de proporcionar una mejor asistencia. Conclusión: se concluye que fortalecer a las políticas de erradicación de la violencia contra la mujer, ofrecer una red de apoyo multiprofesional eficiente intensificar las políticas de concientización son imprescindibles para nuestra sociedad


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Delitos Sexuales , Sistema Único de Salud , Violencia Doméstica , Violencia contra la Mujer , Salud Pública , Aborto Legal , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Promoción de la Salud
7.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(10): 1126-1131, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883244

RESUMEN

AIM: Modern clinical caries management involves early stage caries diagnosis and should fit with dental health policy. The objective of this study was to achieve early caries detection in enamel and dentine with a laser-based system (DIAGNOdent™ pen) first and secondary with a new fluorescence intra-oral camera (Soprolife®). A visual inspection with a loupe was used as control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following the consolidated standards of reporting trials recommendations, 628 occlusal fissures were included for analysis. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of both devices varied depending on the cutoff threshold of the caries score, and the ROC curve showed higher values for the Soprolife® than for DIAGNOdent™ pen. The values of the area under the curve decreased from 0.81 (Soprolife® in daylight) to 0.79 (Soprolife® in fluorescent mode) and 0.67 for DIAGNOdent™ pen. DIAGNOdent™ pen reproducibility (intra and inter-investigator) showed a wide dispersion, with many values scattered beyond the confidence limits (±2 SD), and the weighted kappa coefficient, which was quite low (0.58), confirmed this tendency. CONCLUSION: Caries prevalence in terms of public health policy is of interest and caries detection increased significantly when using an fluorescence-based intra-oral camera. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The clinical significance of these findings is that fluorescence could help improve caries diagnosis, reduce clinical misinterpretations, and finally benefit the patients. How to cite this article: Terrer E, Slimani A, Giraudeau N, et al. Performance of Fluorescence-based Systems in Early Caries Detection: A Public Health Issue. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019;20(10):1126-1132.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Salud Pública , Esmalte Dental , Dentina , Fluorescencia , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
8.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 944-956, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850901

RESUMEN

The incidence of infectious waterborne disease in Canada continues to be a public health issue and can be associated with the source of drinking water. Millions of Canadians relying on unregulated private well water are at increased risk of disease. This study examined relationships between well and owner characteristics and the frequency of microbial testing of private wells in two southern-Ontario counties. Using multi-level logistic regression models, testing frequency (i.e., at least once per year vs. less) was modeled, as both self-reported and laboratory-validated, for associations with owner and well characteristics. For the self-reported outcome, a previous adverse test result significantly increased the odds of being classified as a frequent tester, and owners with a well-head more than 16 inches (40.6 cm) above the ground were at significantly higher odds of being classified as frequent testers compared to those with well-heads less than 16 inches above the ground and those below ground level. For the model based on the laboratory-validated outcome, the odds of an owner being a frequent tester significantly varied with the length of occupancy and the occurrence of a previous adverse result. The absence of associations between other well characteristics and testing frequency suggests that well safety education could benefit these communities.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/microbiología , Microbiología del Agua/normas , Pozos de Agua , Agua Potable/normas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Ontario , Salud Pública , Política Pública , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
9.
Br Dent J ; 227(11): 941, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844196
10.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(6): 685-692, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847613

RESUMEN

Introduction: Governments need to do far more to help curb the emergence and transmission of antibiotic resistance and help protect the efficacy of any new antibiotics that come to the market. Industry is an important stakeholder that must be brought on-board such efforts given its influence on the direction and scale of antibiotic sales. Financial incentives supporting industry R&D of novel antibiotics should structurally remove the drivers of superfluous sales and encourage access to newer antibiotics where infections are otherwise resistant to treatment. Indeed, the use of public money provides an important opportunity to prioritize these public health goals within market structures such that we both adequately reward industry for their efforts and prolong antibiotic efficacy for as long as possible.Areas covered: This work discusses possible financial 'pull' incentives that fully delink the reward paid to the developer from unit sales, examining their primary advantages and limitations.Expert opinion: Pharmaceutical companies need to be rewarded generously for their efforts to develop new, badly needed antibiotics. But the current marketplace does not provide a sustained financial lure and its reliance on unit-sales for profitability jeopardizes the efficacy of antibiotics both new and old. Fully delinked models can make antibiotic R&D more financially appealing and create a market environment that is far less threatening to public health.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/economía , Comercio/economía , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/economía , Humanos , Salud Pública/economía , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto/economía
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(19): 433, 2019 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851646

RESUMEN

This year's Healthy and Safe Swimming Week theme, "Pool Chemistry for Healthy and Safe Swimming," focuses on preventing pool chemical injuries. Pool chemicals prevent the spread of germs that cause illnesses and disease outbreaks; however, these same chemicals can cause injuries if mishandled. Each year, an estimated 3,000-5,000 emergency department visits caused by pool chemical injuries (e.g., poisonings from inhalation or ingestion of pool chemicals and dermatitis or conjunctivitis from pool chemical splashes) occur in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Seguridad , Piscinas , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Humanos
12.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(6): 336-343, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184653

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Conocer el grado el interés de los residentes en áreas formativas transversales de Enfermería Familiar y Comunitaria (EFyC) al inicio de su formación. Valorar el desarrollo de actividades comunitarias en los centros de salud y determinar el grado de satisfacción de los residentes con la formación recibida y actividades realizadas. Método: Se presenta una experiencia sobre metodología docente en salud pública y comunitaria en los residentes de EFyC desde el 2014 hasta el 2017. La formación se dividió en 3módulos formativos de 21h y se completó con 2actividades de campo: un programa de Educación para la Salud (EpS) y un mapeo de activos en la zona básica de salud (ZBS). Se cumplimentó un cuestionario de satisfacción del curso y de las actividades realizadas. Resultado: Durante este período se formaron 27 residentes. El 86,9% consideró la formación en atención comunitaria como muy necesaria. Se realizaron 26 programas de EpS y 17 mapeos de activos de sus ZBS. Con respecto a la satisfacción de la formación, se obtuvo una media global de 4,5 ± 0,1 sobre 5. Conclusiones: Los resultados evidencian un alto grado de interés en atención comunitaria, así como una valoración muy alta sobre las actividades realizadas y la formación recibida. La formación en salud comunitaria durante el período de residencia es un elemento esencial para integrar estas competencias en el rol profesional. Resulta imprescindible la dedicación por parte de las Unidades Docentes en el impulso en esta competencia, capacitando a los residentes en la integración del abordaje biopsicosocial, la orientación comunitaria y el trabajo en equipo en Atención Primaria


Objective: To determine the interest of nursing residents in the training areas of Family and Community Nursing (EFyC) at the beginning of their training, to evaluate community activities in health centres and to determine satisfaction with the training received and activities carried out. Method: We present the experience of training in the public and community health competencies of EFyC Nursing from 2014 to 2017 in a multiprofessional teaching unit. The training was divided into 3 theoretical modules. The training was completed with 2 activities: the design and development of a health education programme and an asset mapping in the basic health area. A questionnaire was completed on satisfaction with the course and the activities carried out. Result: During this period, 27 residents received training. As part of the training process, 26 health education programmes and 17 asset mappings were conducted in accredited health centres. The areas of intervention addressed were: lifestyles, life transitions and health problems. The overall satisfaction with the course was 4.5 ±.1 out of 5. Conclusions: The results show a high degree of interest in this area, as well as high evaluation of the activities carried out and the training received. Training in community health and health education during the period of residence is essential to include these competencies in the professional role. The dedication and involvement of the multiprofessional teaching units is essential in the development of these competences, training the residents through the integration of a biopsychosocial approach, community health and teamwork in primary care


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Enfermería en Salud Comunitaria/educación , Enfermería de la Familia/educación , Educación en Enfermería/tendencias , Enfermeras Especialistas/educación , Salud Pública/educación , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Datos , Internado no Médico/métodos , Internado no Médico/organización & administración
13.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(6): 365-369, nov.-dic. 2019.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184657

RESUMEN

El/la enfermero/a de familia y comunitaria es el profesional que a través de una mirada integral y holística asume la misión de acompañar a las personas desde su nacimiento hasta la muerte para desarrollar su potencial de salud, promocionando los diferentes entornos familiares, laborales y sociales para facilitar dicho desarrollo. A lo largo de la historia, diversos organismos de ámbito internacional, europeo y nacional, han ido regulando la figura de estos profesionales de enfermería de familia y comunitaria, hasta la fecha actual, donde existe normativa que regula de pleno derecho sus funciones, atribuciones y desempeño profesional. El personal de enfermería de familia y comunitaria puede dar respuestas a las necesidades de una población cambiante, y que asume nuevas responsabilidades en la gestión y la investigación. Sus amplias competencias básicas y avanzadas recogidas en un riguroso programa formativo suponen una mejora para el sistema sanitario, la profesión enfermera y la ciudadanía y la comunidad en la que vive. Aún existen muchos retos para que cada Consejería de Salud de cada comunidad haga posible que esta especialidad desarrolle todo su potencial de mejora de los cuidados


It is the mission of the Community and Family Nurse through an integral and holistic approach to accompany people from cradle to death in developing their health potential, and promote different family, work and social environments to facilitate this development. Throughout history, various international, European and national organizations have regulated the figure of the Community and Family Nurse, and now their functions, powers and professional performance are fully regulated. The Community and Family Nurse can respond to the needs of a changing population and take on new responsibilities in management and research. Their extensive basic and advanced skills gathered under a rigorous training programme, benefit the health system, the nursing profession, citizenry and its communities. Many challenges remain for the Health Departments of each Autonomous Region to make it possible for this specialty to develop its full potential for improving care


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Enfermería en Salud Comunitaria/tendencias , Enfermería de la Familia/tendencias , Atención Primaria de Salud , Enfermería Primaria/organización & administración , Enfermería Primaria/tendencias , Enfermería Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Salud Pública , Sistemas de Salud/tendencias
14.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 854-862, out.-dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047588

RESUMEN

A avaliação do estado nutricional dos idosos possibilita uma intervenção adequada, a fim de evitar ou minimizar agravos à saúde que comprometam a capacidade funcional dessas pessoas. Nessa perspectiva, o trabalho apresentado neste artigo teve como objetivo verificar o estado nutricional e hábitos alimentares da população idosa do estado do Piauí. Foram utilizados dados de acesso público disponíveis no SISVAN Web referentes à avaliação nutricional realizada nos anos de 2014 a 2018. Observou-se aumento da prevalência de sobrepeso naquela população e uma diminuição do número de pessoas com baixo peso. Quando avaliados por sexo, as mulheres apresentaram maiores percentuais de excesso de peso em todos aqueles anos. O perfil do consumo alimentar mostrou que a maioria dos idosos consome alimentos in natura como frutas, verduras e feijão, e que, entre os que participaram da amostra, poucos fizeram uso de alimentos ultraprocessados. Por fim, cabe ressaltar a importância da avaliação do quadro de saúde da população como forma de subsídio para o planejamento de ações de saúde, dessa forma alocando melhor os recursos e possibilitando uma atuação eficaz dos que trabalham na área da saúde.


The evaluation of the nutritional status of the elderly allows the appropriate nutritional intervention avoiding or minimizing health problems that cause damage on their functional capacity. From this perspective, the study presented in this article aimed to verify the nutritional status and eating habits of the elderly population of the state of Piauí, Brazil. We used public access data available in the SISVAN Web regarding the nutritional evaluation carried out from 2014 to 2018. The data revealed an increase in the prevalence of overweight in that population and a reduction of the number of elderly with low weight. When evaluated by sex, women presented higher percentages of overweight in all those years. The food consumption profile showed that the majority of the eldery population consumes fresh foods such as fruits, vegetables and beans and only a few of participants of the sample consumed ultra-processed foods. Finally, the importance of the evaluation of the health of the population as a form of incentive to plan health actions is highlighted, so that the resources can be more competently allocated and the health care workers can act efficiently and effectively.


La evaluación del estado nutricional de las personas mayores permite una intervención nutricional adecuada evitando o minimizando los problemas de salud que comprometen su capacidad funcional. Desde esta perspectiva, el estudio presentado en este artículo tuvo como objetivo verificar el estado nutricional y los hábitos alimenticios de la población anciana del estado de Piauí, Brasil. Utilizamos los datos de acceso público disponibles en el SISVAN Web con respecto a la evaluación nutricional realizada desde los años 2014 hasta 2018. Se observó un aumento en la prevalencia del sobrepeso en laquella población y una disminución en el número de personas que tenían bajo peso. Cuando fueron evaluados por sexo, las mujeres presentaron porcentajes más altos de sobrepeso en todos aquellos años. El perfil del consumo de alimentos mostró que la mayoría de los ancianos consumía alimentos frescos como frutas, verduras y frijol, y pocos participantes de la muestra habían consumido alimentos ultraprocesados. Por fin, debe ser destacada la importancia de la evaluación de la salud de la población como una forma de incentivo para la planificación de acciones de salud, asignando así mejores recursos y posibilitando una actuación de los trabajadores de la salud eficiente y eficaz.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Vigilancia Nutricional , Envejecimiento , Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Consumo de Alimentos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estado Nutricional , Estudios Retrospectivos , Desnutrición , Sobrepeso , Obesidad
15.
ABCS health sci ; 44(3): 195-202, 20 dez 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047753

RESUMEN

A acumulação de animais é considerada um fenômeno complexo que, apesar de já ser reconhecido no universo acadêmico, ainda é de difícil solução para a gestão da saúde. Os estudos a respeito de acumulação, principalmente de animais, são incipientes no Brasil. Este artigo de revisão da literatura tem por objetivo alertar a respeito desta complexa morbidade, cada vez mais comum às aglomerações urbanas, indicando ações de promoção e de vigilância em saúde que permitam garantir a saúde dos animais, do acumulador e da coletividade a qual ele pertença. Sugere-se que uma nova abordagem em relação ao distúrbio de acumulação de animais possa combater a pouca visibilidade - inclusive acadêmica - demonstrada na revisão da literatura, ampliando o investimento em intervenções específicas que possam explicitar esse importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil.


Animal accumulation is considered a complex phenomenon that, although recognized in the academic universe, is still difficult to solve for health management. Studies on accumulation, mainly of animals, are incipient in Brazil. This literature review article aims to warn about this complex morbidity, which is increasingly common to urban agglomerations, indicating health promotion and surveillance actions to ensure the health of animals, the accumulator and the community to which it belongs. It is suggested that a new approach to animal accumulation disorder may counteract the poor - including academic - visibility demonstrated in the literature review, increasing investment in specific interventions that may explain this important public health problem in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Mascotas , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Trastorno de Acumulación , Salud Pública
16.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 764-785, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682356

RESUMEN

Contemporary public health literature contains an increasing emphasis on the commercial determinants of health including the influence of unhealthy food, beverage and tobacco industries on government harm prevention policy agendas and global sustainable development goals. Effective capture by the industries of the crucial legislative process associated with the harm prevention initiatives would have a detrimental impact on public health. This article proposes a qualitative multi-spectrum prototype legislative capture test with broad application to a range of industries and jurisdictions at all levels of government where legislative capture may be suspected. It is predicated on a finding of significant encroachment of the public interest (PI) by special interest groups and reciprocating beneficial conduct between the lawmakers and the group. The test is populated from a critical case study of key New South Wales (NSW) alcohol industry statutory amendments within a doctrinal and social inquiry/power framework. It relies upon parliamentary records and secondary data to analyse critically the 2015 "fit for purpose" (FFP) reforms to NSW alcohol supply laws and their consistency with the PI and other constitutional safeguards. It aligns the reforms with other research relating to the magnitude of alcohol and gambling industry political donations and the operation of the alcohol outlet post reform approval process. The application of the test to the case study finds that the 2015 FFP amendments are indicative of legislative capture and associated clientele corruption - critical new considerations in the commercial determination of health. It also identifies the commodification of the PI.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Juego de Azar , Política de Salud , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur , Salud Pública/economía , Industria del Tabaco
17.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019038, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715685

RESUMEN

The 2019 hepatitis A outbreak has become increasingly prevalent among adults in Korea and is the largest outbreak since that in 2009-2010. The incidence in the current outbreak is highest among adults aged 35-44 years, corresponding to the peak incidence among those aged 25-34 years 10 years ago. This may indicate a cohort effect in the corresponding age group. Causes of these repeated outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea are low level of immunity among adults, Korean food culture that consumes raw seafood such as salted clam and inadequate public health system. Among countermeasures, along with general infectious disease control measures including control of the infectious agent, infection spread, and host, urgent actions are needed to review the vaccination policy and establish an adequate public health system.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Hepatitis A/epidemiología , Hepatitis A/prevención & control , Adulto , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Vacunas contra la Hepatitis A/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Salud Pública , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
18.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(5): 349-357, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736041

RESUMEN

At a national and international level, governments have advanced all-hazards readiness and implemented disaster management systems within multiple industries, services, and sectors. This scope included public health agencies and healthcare providers, whose roles evolved in purpose and expectation within their respective communities, but their core mission remained unchanged. Real-world emergencies and disasters routinely challenge hospitals and affirm that healthcare providers must be prepared to provide, sustain, and expand critical services during times of crisis. This study reviews emergency management (EM) and disaster preparedness programing specifically within hospitals and healthcare systems to assess overall effectiveness. Analysis includes a review of existing program administration literature and regulatory and accreditation agency standards. Initial findings suggest ongoing efforts are needed nationwide to improve hospital EM capabilities and enhance the resiliency of American healthcare infrastructure. Identified gaps include limitations of pertinent research, inconsistent program evaluation metrics and processes, and hindering perceptions of profession role and purpose. Recommendations are provided to refine the traditional hospital EM profession and advance overall program administration competencies, as well as considerations for future research opportunities.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Desastres , Urgencias Médicas , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/organización & administración , Competencia Profesional , Personal de Salud , Hospitales , Humanos , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos
19.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(5): 403-432, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736046

RESUMEN

The increasing impacts of disasters, caused by more frequent extreme events coupled with the growth of adverse anthropogenic activities, has raised the importance of fostering more resilient communities. Measuring resilience is a vital step in the process of building and strengthening a community's resilience as it helps with identifying the priorities and monitoring the progress. The objective of the current research is to catalog variables proposed in the literature as measures of households' resilience to disasters. Searching the literature through content analysis and applying three selection criteria resulted in a list of 149 variables. These criteria required the variables to be influential on disaster resilience of households, to be quantitatively measurable, and to be obtainable from publicly available data sources. Additionally, a selection of resilience and vulnerability assessment models suggested in the literature were reviewed to highlight the importance of resilience variables in addressing their planned objectives. The variables were classified into five categories titled demographic, socioeconomic, infrastructural, environmental, and institutional. Further analysis of the variables led to identification of the most prevalent variables and commonalities among the categories, aimed to provide a more integrated approach toward resilience planning. This research can serve as an initial yet relatively extensive inventory for selecting variables that are deemed to be influential on households' resilience to extreme events. Further, quantifying a community's resilience using resilience variables can help with identifying and prioritizing the resilience needs, monitoring the progress, and justifying the costs of resilience programs.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Resiliencia Psicológica , Planificación en Desastres , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Salud Pública
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 208, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692729

RESUMEN

The Mozambican Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (Moz-FELTP) is a two-year, competency-based post-graduate training and service program designed to build sustainable public health capacity in applied epidemiology. Despite the efforts, Moz-FELTP residents have historically difficulty to publishing their work for a variety of reasons that includes language barriers, lack of writing skills and motivation, limited budgetary support and lack of effective mentorship. This outline the need for different approaches to continuous improving the publication, such scientific writing mentorship for non-English FELTP residents.


Asunto(s)
Epidemiología/educación , Lenguaje , Edición/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación/educación , Educación Basada en Competencias , Humanos , Laboratorios , Mentores , Mozambique , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública
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