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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 640205, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485211

RESUMEN

The rapid evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emergency involved Italy as the first European country. Meanwhile, China was the only other country to experience the emergency scenario, implementing public health recommendations and raising concerns about the mental health of the population. The Italian National Institute of Health [Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS)] reviewed relevant scientific literature in mental health to evaluate the best clinical practices and established the collaboration with the WHO, World Psychiatry Association, and China to support the public health system in a phase of acute emergency. This process permitted the definition of organizational and practical-operational Italian guidelines for the protection of the well-being of healthcare workers. These guidelines have been extensively disseminated within the Italian territory for maximum stakeholder utilization.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
2.
mBio ; 12(4): e0114021, 2021 08 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465019

RESUMEN

The recent emergence of multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant concern for public health worldwide. New variants have been classified either as variants of concern (VOCs) or variants of interest (VOIs) by the CDC (USA) and WHO. The VOCs include lineages such as B.1.1.7 (20I/501Y.V1 variant), P.1 (20J/501Y.V3 variant), B.1.351 (20H/501Y.V2 variant), and B.1.617.2. In contrast, the VOI category includes B.1.525, B.1.526, P.2, and B.1.427/B.1.429. The WHO provided the alert for last two variants (P.2 and B.1.427/B.1.429) and labeled them for further monitoring. As per the WHO, these variants can be reclassified due to their status at a particular time. At the same time, the CDC (USA) has marked these two variants as VOIs up through today. This article analyzes the evolutionary patterns of all these emerging variants, as well as their geographical distributions and transmission patterns, including the circulating frequency, entropy diversity, and mutational event diversity throughout the genomes of all SARS-CoV-2 lineages. The transmission pattern was observed highest in the B.1.1.7 lineage. Our frequency evaluation found that this lineage achieved 100% frequency in early October 2020. We also critically evaluated the above emerging variants mutational landscape and significant spike protein mutations (E484K, K417T/N, N501Y, and D614G) impacting public health. Finally, the effectiveness of vaccines against newly SARS-CoV-2 variants was also analyzed. IMPORTANCE Irrespective of the aggressive vaccination drive, the newly emerging multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants are causing havoc in several countries. As per the CDC (USA) and WHO, the VOCs include the B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.351, and B.1.617.2 lineages, while the VOIs include the B.1.525, B.1.526, P.2, and B.1.427/B.1.429 lineages. This study analyzed the evolutionary patterns, geographical distributions and transmission patterns, circulating frequency, entropy diversity, and mutational event diversity throughout the genome of significant SARS-CoV-2 lineages. A higher transmission pattern was observed for the B.1.1.7 variant. The study also evaluated the mutational landscape and important spike protein mutations (E484K, K417T/N, N501Y, and D614G) of all of the above variants. Finally, a survey was performed on the efficacy of vaccines against these variants from the previously published literature. The results presented in this article will help design future countrywide pandemic planning strategies for the emerging variants, next-generation vaccine development using alternative wild-type antigens and significant viral antigens, and immediate planning for ongoing vaccination programs worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Evolución Biológica , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/patología , Evolución Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Salud Pública , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6658070, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485525

RESUMEN

In light of the devastation caused by COVID-19, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and vaccine research and development (R&D) have been occupying a prominent position in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). Most countries, international organizations, and charitable organizations have been engaged in the R&D of COVID-19 vaccines to ensure timely affordability and accessibility to all countries. Concomitantly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides some provisions and enforcements regarding copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications, and industrial designs. Given these safeguards, it is considered that intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become major barriers to the affordability and accessibility of vaccines/medicines/technology, particularly to the developing/least developed countries. Realizing the gravity of the pandemic impact, as well as its huge population and size, India has elevated this issue in its global health diplomacy by submitting a joint proposal with South Africa to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for a temporary waiver of IPRs to ensure timely affordability and accessibility of COVID-19 medical products to all countries. However, the issue of the temporary waive off had become a geopolitical issue. Countries that used to claim per se as strong advocates of human rights, egalitarianism, and healthy democracy have opposed this proposal. In this contrasting milieu, this paper is aimed at examining how the TRIPS has become a barrier for developing countries' development and distribution of vaccines/technology; secondly, how India strategizes its role in the WTO in pursuant of its global health diplomacy? We conclude that the IPRs regime should not become a barrier to the accessibility/affordability of essential drugs and vaccines. To ensure access, India needs to get more engaged in GHD with all the involved global stakeholders to get strong support for their joint proposal. The developed countries that rejected/resisted the proposal can rethink their full support.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , Diplomacia/métodos , Industria Farmacéutica/métodos , Salud Global , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Derechos Humanos/métodos , Humanos , India , Salud Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1632, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Public health campaigns aim to promote awareness, increase knowledge, and encourage a target population to adopt desirable attitudes and behaviors. Assessing their reach from a multidimensional perspective through information technology can facilitate the development of more effective campaigns in public health response. METHODS: We scrutinized seven data sources from different perspectives to assess a health campaign launched in Brazil named "Syphilis No!". This campaign is part of an Agenda for strategic actions to reduce syphilis in Brazil which includes dissemination of educommunication materials to remind people of the importance of syphilis prevention, emphasizing "test, treat and cure" concept. We developed a multidimensional analysis framework and implemented an information system to process the data from a time series perspective, and assessed the effects over time, both before and after the campaign. We descriptively analyzed data related to the campaign, including e-news, search engine activity, online courses, serological tests, medication distribution and case notification rates. FINDINGS: Regarding search engine activity, we observed the highest volume of search during the first week of campaigns in 2018 (between November 25th and December 7th). Nevertheless, analyzing this data in a trend plot revealed sustained growth until the end of 2019. From March 2018, the amount of e-news posts related to syphilis in Brazil, indexed by Google, followed an increasing slope, with a record peak in October 2019. In addition, data showed that 12 new online courses related to syphilis disease were available on the AVASUS Platform Learning Management System (LMS), to support efforts to promote lifelong learning for health professionals, teachers, and students. These courses reached more than 22,000 students between February 2019 and September 2020. Serological test data showed that the number of tests carried out in 2019 were 375·18% more than in 2015, even accounting for population growth. Finally, starting from the middle of 2018, the syphilis case notification rates followed a decreasing curve. INTERPRETATION: From this perspective, the "Syphilis No!" Project was a positive influence, inducing policy to fight syphilis in Brazil by supporting the implementation of a testing, treatment, and cure agenda (#TesteTrateCure). Certainly, this inference was made by analyzing multidimensional aspects and because, prior to 2018, the country had largely neglected this disease, with no records of communication actions during that period.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Sífilis , Brasil/epidemiología , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública , Sífilis/epidemiología , Sífilis/prevención & control
5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00271020, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495097

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the degree of implementation of the response to the emergency of microcephaly associated with Zika virus in Pernambuco State, Brazil. This was a normative evaluative study conducted in the initial epicenter of the public health emergency of international concern, from October 2015 to July 2017. A logical model was produced for the intervention under analysis, with the components of Management, Surveillance, and Care in the dimensions of structure, process, and result, based on technical publications and institutional guidelines, in addition to a corresponding log frame of indicators for assessment. Data were collected through a questionnaire, direct observation, and consultation of official documents. The results showed partial implementation (74.9%) of the response to the microcephaly emergency by the Pernambuco State Health Department, with the process dimension reaching 75% of the expected level and the structure dimension, 74.5%. Surveillance was the only component that was assessed as implemented (81%), although with a shortage of regional and laboratory investments, while Management (74.2%) and Care (68.8%) were partially implemented, with insufficiencies in items related to human resources and physical structure, planning, and evaluation. In conclusion, the response to the public health emergency of international concern involving microcephaly associated with the Zika virus was assessed as partially implemented, with different levels between the intervention´s components, especially surveillance when compared to management and care. The shortcomings signal the need for investments to deal with future public health emergencies, with a view towards more timely and adequate interventions.


Asunto(s)
Microcefalia , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Brasil/epidemiología , Urgencias Médicas , Humanos , Microcefalia/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
6.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 30-43, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465408

RESUMEN

Federal medical stations (FMS) and alternative care sites are used to provide surge capability and capacity for short-term inpatients with healthcare needs that cannot be accommodated or provided for in a general shelter or general acute care facilities. In March and April 2020, an FMS was deployed to support the management of the COVID-19 pandemic in the 'hotspot' of Santa Clara County, CA. This paper describes how the flexibility of the incident command system allowed for the positions of situation unit leader and liaison officer to be combined at the FMS, supporting the effectiveness and efficiency of the FMS through comprehensive situational awareness, information-sharing and collaboration. This method of combining closely related roles is not suitable for all healthcare emergencies, but as this paper demonstrates, it is well worth considering in circumstances where competences and capacity align.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Planificación en Desastres , Humanos , Pandemias , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 326-336, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468584

RESUMEN

Short administration periods of a health ministry can jeopardize the implementation and effectiveness of state policies due to changes in management orientation, altering the natural learning process, or other factors. The aim of this article was to determine and compare the tenure length of the ministry of health in Peru, describe its characteristics and discuss its relationship with public health achievements. Between 1935 and 2021, the average tenure was of 13,7 months and the median was 11 months, the longest was found to be 67 months, by Constantino Carvallo, and the shortest was one day, by Javier Correa. The length of ministerial tenure in Peru has a wide range of variation (1 day up to 67 months), it is shorter compared to that of other countries and is decreasing since 2016. Although longer tenures would not be sufficient to guarantee health achievements, it might contribute to the sustainability of health-related actions and have a positive effect on long-term policies.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Perú
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3459-3466, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468642

RESUMEN

The Brazilian Amazon is far from being a homogeneous area. There are various forms of occupation and livelihood in the area that have in common a daily life deeply marked by interaction with the natural environment. Highlighting some elements of Boaventura de Souza Santos' social theory, this paper discusses how the problem of a linear timeline and the dominant scale in hegemonic thinking has served to leave the Amazonian territories outside the scope of inclusion in public health planning. It further points out that in order to engender 'post-abyssal' thinking in the SUS for the region inevitably requires the redefinition of the economic role of the region and an inclusive social development framework with the Brazilian Amazon, and not irrespective of it. Lastly, the possibility that the local SUS should be based on a three-pronged approach, not exclusively urban-centered, which considers its territorial extension, population density and the ways in which access to health services takes place.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Gobierno , Salud Pública , Brasil , Humanos , Cambio Social , Teoría Social
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3481-3492, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468644

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to discuss strategic challenges in complex health organizations sustained by an analysis in a Medical Genetics Center at a National Health Research Institute in Brazil. METHOD: Démarche Stratégique adapted for use with research institutes, including the policy formulation function. The study used institution's databases and workshops with key actors between Dec/2014 and Jun/2015. RESULTS: Were defined the segments: clinical diagnosis, lysosomal diseases, osteogenesis imperfecta, genetic counseling, cytogenetics, biochemistry, and genomics. The findings reveal that the segments are aligned with the Institute's mission when it comes to referral care, although investment is required in strategic areas. The clinical diagnosis, lysosomal diseases, and genomics segments stood out in the scientific output portfolio. The findings show that progress needs to be made with policy implementation and planning to improve access to new technologies, together with investment in training and development, and the strengthening of coordination and collaboration between research institutes and referral services and between the wider healthcare network and research, care, and teaching. The inclusion of the policy formulation dimension was essential to highlight the unique role medical genetics plays in Brazil's public health system and the importance of developing action plans in the field of public health.


Asunto(s)
Genética Médica , Salud Pública , Academias e Institutos , Brasil , Programas de Gobierno , Política de Salud , Humanos
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3517-3525, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468647

RESUMEN

Google algorithms record trends in interest on topics relevant to public health. WEB searches were analyzed (2014-2019) to identify patterns linked to prostate cancer. Relative Search Volumes (RSV) were analyzed by Google Trends on "prostate cancer" (PC), "prostate examination" (PE) and "PSA"; 260-week time series; Brazil region; Health category; Trend lines (degree 2 polynomials) to identify patterns; Averages compared by ANOVA; Sudden increase in November searches; Searches on PC greatly surpass PE and PSA; Stable annual PC averages; Discreet reduction in PE; Marked increase in PSA. In campaign months: Discreet increase in PC; stability in PE; Marked increase in PSA. "Blue November" campaigns encourage early identification of prostate cancer, although interest is seen to be focused on the disease per se with a lack of interest in diagnosis throughout the year. Differences in relation to "Pink October" are discussed - tenuous relation to educational level on prevention habits and the influence of celebrities. The conclusion drawn is that RSV analysis might be useful in tracking trends in prostate cancer screening to provide input for campaign developers.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Motor de Búsqueda
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3581-3588, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468653

RESUMEN

This article analyses methodological possibilities of ethnomusicology in the field of public health, starting from an experience that triangulated ethnomusicological theories with discourse analysis (DA). After an introduction to applied ethnomusicology, it is followed by a description of methodological aspects of the experience in question. Subsequently, the conduction of the ethnomusicological step and the triangulation process was described. Results show that the musical systems are situated in power structures, influencing the construction of subjectivities. Applied ethnomusicology emerges, therefore, as a possibility for analyzing the structures on which the music is rooted in. From a research on the relations between forró and the perception of young people's perception about sexual violence, ethnomusicology presented itself as a theoretical possibility for the study of violent social performances and about the effects of music in identity building, besides providing elements for the confrontation of violence inside the cultural system itself. Its triangulation with DA contributes for an ethnographic-discursive research, as possibility of analysis of social practices.


Asunto(s)
Música , Delitos Sexuales , Adolescente , Antropología Cultural , Humanos , Salud Pública , Violencia
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3753-3764, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468669

RESUMEN

This work, extracted from the doctoral research of the author, aims to discuss, from the reports of socio-educational system professionals, the access to State politics and programs performed by youth in conflict with the law attending to socio-educational system. In this research, 14 professionals who work in periphery regions, at the South Zone of São Paulo were interviewed, using the methodological proposal of "narrative policies". From the reports, we can see ambiguities of proposals and state interventions, configuring the "double discipline" of State, evidencing the insufficiency and the disinvestment in social security and social assistance policies, meanwhile occurs the production of an apparatus of repressive measures. We discuss the theme related to the field of public health and the importance of the bonds between professionals and youth attending to socio-educational system.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Humanos , Política , Política Pública
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489329

RESUMEN

In early 2019, following the 2015-2016 severe drought, the provinces of Sofala and Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, were hit by Cyclones Idai and Kenneth, respectively. These were the deadliest and most destructive cyclones in the country's history. Currently, these two provinces host tens of thousands of vulnerable households due to the climatic catastrophes and the massive influx of displaced people associated with violent terrorist attacks plaguing Cabo Delgado. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic added a new challenge to this already critical scenario, serving as a real test for Mozambique's public health preparedness. On the planetary level, Mozambique can be viewed as a 'canary in the coal mine', harbingering to the world the synergistic effects of co-occurring anthropogenic and natural disasters. Herein, we discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated the need for an effective and comprehensive public health response in a country already deeply impacted by health problems associated with natural disasters and population displacement.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Urgencias Médicas , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , Pandemias , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 82, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466184

RESUMEN

COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. Botswana reported its first case on 30th March 2020 and as of 31st January 2021 had 21,293 cases and 46 deaths. The University of Botswana Public Health Medicine Unit has made significant contributions to the national preparedness and response to COVID-19. The program alumni and Public Health Medicine residents have and continue to provide key technical support to the Ministry of Health and Wellness across the major pillars of COVID-19. This includes key roles in national and subnational coordination and planning, surveillance, case investigations and rapid response teams, points of entry, travel and transportation, infection prevention and control and case management. The unit is thus supporting the country in achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) primary objective of limiting human-to-human transmission, optimal care of the affected and maintaining essential services during the outbreak. The Public Health Medicine Unit has played a key role in capacity building including early rapid COVID-19 training of healthcare workers across the country. Furthermore faculty members and residents are involved in several COVID-19 research projects and collaborations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/educación , Salud Pública/educación , Botswana/epidemiología , Creación de Capacidad , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Universidades
17.
Community Dent Health ; 38(3): 158-160, 2021 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473431

RESUMEN

Since the discovery of the caries preventive benefits of fluoride, it has been the cornerstone of preventive programs for children and adults. Water fluoridation, the controlled addition of a precise amount of fluoride to community water systems to the level beneficial for dental health, is one of the most effective and safe means to deliver fluoride (McDonagh et al., 2000; National Health and Medical Research Council, 2017). In 1999, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) named fluoridation of drinking water as one of ten great public health achievements in the 20th Century, alongside vaccination, control of infectious diseases, a decline in death from coronary heart disease and other accomplishments (CDC, 2011). This is a remarkable recognition of the impact of dental conditions and the importance of a dental preventive program.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Fluoruración , Adulto , Niño , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Fluoruros , Humanos , Salud Pública
18.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486869

RESUMEN

The inclusion of public health and health care measures in labor functions of professional standards of medical specialists increased significance of mastering of these standards by students during specialty training, since on this depends their successful completion of primary accreditation of specialists and implementation of job descriptions in the course of daily activities. The purpose of the study was to analyze factors determining qualitative of mastering the discipline "Public health and Health Care" by students of medical educational organizations. The analytical, logical, statistical, questionnaire survey and direct ranking methods were applied. The sampling of 316 students of the Sechenov University was involved in survey using questionnaire of 17 closed questions. The study established that the determining factors effecting quality of mastering by students the discipline "Public health and Health Care" are the need to use by physicians this knowledge in the course of their daily activities; the need of students to pass profile exam; the determination of up to 40% of trainees to work as heads of structural units or professionals of health care and public health; the dedication of student; organization of educational process at the Chair; the professionalism of faculty; the application of active learning methods in classroom; organization of career guidance among students.


Asunto(s)
Médicos , Estudiantes de Medicina , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública , Estudiantes , Universidades
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256136, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Political ideologies drove public actions and health behaviors in the first year of the global pandemic. Different ideas about contagion, health behaviors, and the actions of governing bodies impacted the spread of the virus and health and life. Researchers used an immediate, mixed methods design to explore sociocultural responses to the virus and identified differences and similarities in anxiety, fear, blame, and perceptions of nation across political divides. METHODS: Researchers conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and administered over 1,000 questionnaires with people living in the United States. The team analyzed data through an exploratory and confirmatory sequential mixed methods design. RESULTS: In the first months of the pandemic interviewees cited economic inequality, untrustworthy corporations and other entities, and the federal government as threats to life and pandemic control. Participants invoked ideas about others to determine blame. Findings reveal heavy associations between lack of safety during a public health crisis and blame of "culture" and government power across the political spectrum. CONCLUSION: Data indicate anxiety across political differences related to ideas of contagion and the maleficence of a powerful elite. Findings on how people understand the nation, politics, and pandemic management contribute to understanding dimensions of health behaviors and underlying connections between anxiety and the uptake of conspiracy theories in public health. The article ends with recommendations drawn from project findings for future pandemic response.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , COVID-19 , Miedo/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Gobierno Federal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17689, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480062

RESUMEN

COVID-19, a global pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 virus, has claimed millions of lives worldwide. Amid soaring contagion due to newer strains of the virus, it is imperative to design dynamic, spatiotemporal models to contain the spread of infection during future outbreaks of the same or variants of the virus. The reliance on existing prediction and contact tracing approaches on prior knowledge of inter- or intra-zone mobility renders them impracticable. We present a spatiotemporal approach that employs a network inference approach with sliding time windows solely on the date and number of daily infection numbers of zones within a geographical region to generate temporal networks capturing the influence of each zone on another. It helps analyze the spatial interaction among the hotspot or spreader zones and highly affected zones based on the flow of network contagion traffic. We apply the proposed approach to the daily infection counts of New York State as well as the states of USA to show that it effectively measures the phase shifts in the pandemic timeline. It identifies the spreaders and affected zones at different time points and helps infer the trajectory of the pandemic spread across the country. A small set of zones periodically exhibit a very high outflow of contagion traffic over time, suggesting that they act as the key spreaders of infection. Moreover, the strong influence between the majority of non-neighbor regions suggests that the overall spread of infection is a result of the unavoidable long-distance trips by a large number of people as opposed to the shorter trips at a county level, thereby informing future mitigation measures and public policies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trazado de Contacto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , Humanos , New York/epidemiología , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
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