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2.
Public Health Nurs ; 36(2): 245-253, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488544

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to determine the feasibility of using a standardized language, the Omaha System, to describe community-level strengths. The objectives were: (a) to evaluate the feasibility of using the Omaha System at the community level to reflect community strengths and (b) to describe preliminary results of community strengths observations across international settings. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A descriptive qualitative design was used. The sample was a data set of 284 windshield surveys by nursing students in 5 countries: Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Turkey, and the United States. MEASURES: An online survey included a checklist and open-ended questions on community strengths for 11 concepts of the Omaha System Problem Classification Scheme: Income, Sanitation, Residence, Neighborhood/workplace safety, Communication with community resources, Social contact, Interpersonal relationship, Spirituality, Nutrition, Substance use, and Health care supervision. Themes were derived through content analysis of responses to the open-ended questions. RESULTS: Feasibility was demonstrated: Students were able to use the Omaha System terms and collect data on strengths. Common themes were described among the five countries. CONCLUSIONS: The Omaha System appears to be useful in documenting community-level strengths. Themes and exemplar quotes provide a first step in developing operational definitions of strengths at a more granular level.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/clasificación , Enfermería en Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/clasificación , Vocabulario Controlado , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , México , Nueva Zelanda , Noruega , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia , Estados Unidos
3.
AMA J Ethics ; 20(12): E1201-1211, 2018 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585585

RESUMEN

Resources from the American Medical Association (AMA) Archives facilitate historical consideration of how physicians' authority has been exercised in naming diseases, epidemics, and other health-related issues of national importance. Selected images emphasize physicians' roles in motivating public health initiatives through public service posters, advertisements, and minutes of the AMA House of Delegates meetings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad/clasificación , Epidemias/clasificación , Promoción de la Salud/historia , Rol del Médico/historia , Salud Pública/clasificación , Salud Pública/historia , American Medical Association , Historia de la Medicina , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2018. 39 p. il., tab., graf..
Tesis en Portugués | BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-916608

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o nível de satisfação do usuário do SUS das unidades básicas de saúde (UBS) da cidade de São José dos Campos- SP, caracterizando-o segundo questionário socioeconômico e utilizando pesquisa do tipo inquérito a partir do questionário para Avaliação da Satisfação dos Usuários com Serviços Públicos de Saúde Bucal (QASSaB). Foram entrevistadas 390 pessoas de todas as UBS que possuem atendimento odontológico da cidade de São José dos Campos, numa escolha aleatória, com erro amostral de 5%, nível de confiança de 95%, distribuição mais heterogênea. Como resultado final, observou-se uma avaliação positiva nos aspectos questionados, sendo que 89,7 % dos entrevistados consideram como sendo bom o atendimento odontológico oferecido pelo sistema. Estatisticamente, observou-se o valor final de QASSaB de 3,33, numa escala de 1 a 5, sendo um o pior resultado e 5 o melhor resultado. Houve alto percentual de satisfação com o serviço de saúde oferecido nas UBS, evidenciando a avaliação positiva do usuário sobre o atendimento, o que permite concluir que a avaliação pode estar mais relacionada à humanização nos serviços do que às características sociodemográficas da população. Espera-se que os resultados apresentados no estudo possam contribuir para práticas e políticas de saúde bucal(AU)


Abstract: The objective of this paper is to evaluate user satisfaction level at the primary health care clinics in the city of São José dos Campos, state of São Paulo. This was done using Dental Health Services Quality Questionnaire (known in Brazil as QASSaB) created specifically for the Brazilian reality and validated for use with public health patient's perception of problem resolution and quality of service provided. Three hundred and ninety patients were interviewed in all public primary health clinics in São José dos Campos providing dental and oral- health services. Interviewees were randomly selected, with a sample error of 5%, statistical confidence level of 95% and more heterogeneous distribution. We observed that all aspects of the survey were rated positively by patients. 89.7% of those surveyed evaluated the dental and oral-health services provided as good. We observed, statistically, a final result of the Dental Health Services Quality Questionnaire (known in Brazil as QASSaB) of 3.33 in a scale of 1 to 5. In this scale 1 represents the worst result and 5 the best result. The services offered at the UBS received a high satisfaction score, which demonstrates the positive evaluation of the treatment by the user. This high result allows us to conclude that the perception of quality may be more closely linked to the humanization of services than with the socio-demografics of the population (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Satisfacción del Paciente , Sistema Único de Salud/clasificación , Salud Bucal , Salud Pública/clasificación
5.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(1): 30-32, ene.-mar. 2017.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-159045

RESUMEN

La economía informal se debe diferenciar de conceptos tales como empleo informal y sector informal, cada uno con sus propias características. Existen varios tipos de trabajadores informales que se agrupan en varias categorías según su labor. Los familiares de estos trabajadores se agrupan dentro del empleo vulnerable, que no se benefician tampoco de coberturas sanitarias. El empleo informal condiciona una gran morbimortalidad que se traduce en pérdidas económicas y gran número de años de vida perdidos por discapacidad, especialmente entre poblaciones jóvenes y mujeres. Son necesarias políticas sanitarias encaminadas a disminuir las desigualdades socioeconómicas, mejorando la capacitación de profesionales sanitarios y la accesibilidad a los servicios sanitarios de estos trabajadores


Informal economy must be differentiated from concepts such as informal employment and the informal sector, each with its own characteristics. There are several types of informal workers that are grouped into several categories according to their work. The families of these workers are grouped into vulnerable job, which is also not beneficial for health coverage. Informal working conditions mean great morbidity resulting in economic losses and a large number of quality-adjusted life year, especially among young populations and women. Health policies are needed to reduce socio-economic inequalities, improve the training of health professionals and the accessibility of health services to these workers


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Salud Laboral , Economía , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Enfermedades Profesionales/complicaciones , Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Salarios y Beneficios/economía , Salud Pública/economía , Atención Primaria de Salud , Salud Laboral/clasificación , Indicadores de Morbimortalidad , Enfermedades Profesionales/clasificación , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Salarios y Beneficios/clasificación , Salud Pública/clasificación , Atención Primaria de Salud/economía
6.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 8(4): 26-33, dic. 2016. mapas, graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-159414

RESUMEN

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir y analizar la situación en España de los productos de venta ilícita, tanto medicamentos como complementos alimenticios, poniendo en conocimiento las principales acciones realizadas en los últimos meses y su contextualización a nivel mundial. Asimismo, servir de alerta sobre la magnitud del problema y la importancia del papel del farmacéutico comunitario. Se realizó una búsqueda de información tanto a nivel nacional como internacional y se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las Notas Informativas de la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS) (medicamentos ilegales, uso humano, 2015). Los productos de venta ilícita representan un problema grave para la salud pública que no ha parado de aumentar. En España, en 2015 se publicaron 20 notas donde se prohibió y retiró un total de 35 productos. Dichos productos estaban comercializados como complemento alimenticio y presentaban un principio activo en cantidad suficiente para conferirle legalmente la condición de medicamento. El 86% se dirigía a la disfunción eréctil. Para minimizar este problema, es imprescindible la colaboración internacional, siendo la última y más importante operación PANGEA VIII, en junio del 2015, implicando a 115 países. En enero del 2016 entró en vigor la Convención Medicrime, tratado internacional sobre la falsificación de productos médicos y delitos similares. Por otro lado, también es necesario concienciar a la ciudadanía y dotarla de mecanismos para identificar el riesgo potencial. Los productos adquiridos fuera de los canales legales de distribución no aseguran el cumplimiento de las normas de correcta fabricación, distribución, ni posterior conservación y carecen de la información adecuada (AU)


The objective of this article was to describe and analyze the situation of illicit products in Spain, both medicines and dietary supplements, notifying main actions taken in recent months and their worldwide contextualization. Also serve as a warning about the magnitude of the problem and the importance of the role of the community pharmacist. Searches of information were looked at a national and international level. A descriptive analysis of the Information Notes published by the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS, Illegal Drugs, Human Use, 2015) was also conducted. Illicit sale products constitute a major problem for public health that has not stopped increasing. Specifically, in Spain, 20 Notes were published in 2015. These included the prohibition and withdrawal of a total of 35 products. Marketed as dietary supplement, they contained an active ingredient enough to be legally considered as a medicine. 86% were aimed at treating erectile dysfunction. It is essential international collaboration to minimize this issue. The last and most important operation was PANGEA VIII in June 2015, which involved 115 countries. In January 2016, the «Medicrime Convention» entered into force, an international agreement on counterfeiting of medical products and similar crimes. In addition, it is necessary to raise awareness and provide the citizens with mechanisms to identify potential risks inherent to the illicit sale products. Products purchased outside the permitted distribution channels do not ensure compliance with good manufacturing practice, distribution or subsequent storage, and they lack of adequate information (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropiados/clasificación , Farmacias/clasificación , Suplementos Dietéticos/clasificación , Salud Pública/métodos , Disfunción Eréctil/diagnóstico , Anfetaminas/efectos adversos , Personal de Salud , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropiados/normas , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropiados , Suplementos Dietéticos/toxicidad , Salud Pública/clasificación , España/etnología , Disfunción Eréctil/complicaciones , Anfetaminas/análisis , Internet
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 225: 1062-3, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27332484

RESUMEN

Capturing strengths at the community level offers an emergent perspective to a strength-based approach for population health. The Omaha System standardized terminology has been found feasible to describe individual strengths in patient care planning. This study depicts results of using the Omaha System to capture strengths at the community level. Descriptive statistics and visualization were used to examine patterns of strengths and signs/symptoms by Omaha System Problem concept based on the secondary data analysis from 118 student-generated community assessments. Results suggest that it is feasible to use the Omaha System as a method classifying strengths and problems at the community level. The relationship between strengths and signs/symptoms is consistent with the pattern observed at the individual-level. Utilizing a strength-based model may provide robust information about community strengths leading to new approaches to population health management in support of community wellbeing.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública/clasificación , Vocabulario Controlado , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Salud Poblacional
8.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 64 Suppl 2: S43-54, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040561

RESUMEN

Public health research differs from clinical epidemiological research in that its focus is primarily on the population level social and structural determinants of individual health and the interventions that might ameliorate them, rather than having a primary focus on individual-level risks. It is typically concerned with the proximal and distal causes of health problems, and their location within complex systems, more than with single exposures. Thus, epidemiological terms and concepts may have very different implications when used in the context of population health. This paper considers some key differences in relation to terms like 'population', 'baseline', 'control group' 'outcome' and 'adverse effects'. Even the concept of an 'intervention' often needs careful handling. The paper concludes that there is a need for an expanded, and more realistic use of these terms in the population health intervention research context.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/clasificación , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Diseño de Investigaciones Epidemiológicas , Salud Pública , Terminología como Asunto , Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/clasificación , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/organización & administración , Humanos , Salud Pública/clasificación , Salud Pública/métodos
9.
Sante Publique ; 28 Suppl 1: S89-100, 2016 06 08.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155799

RESUMEN

With the arrival of triple combination therapy in 1996-1997, HIV infection, considered up until then to be a life-threatening condition, changed statuses within the realm of public health actions Progressively likened to a "chronic illness", the discourse on HIV prevention targeting people living with HIV (PLHIV) began to evolve. A review of the scientific literature and the journals of four national HIV associations published between 1990 and 2010 shows that physical activities, previously discouraged because considered to be dangerous, have become increasingly presented as a means of improving quality of life and are increasingly recommended for PLHIV. This article studies this reconfiguration of the discourse on HIV prevention, as well as its effects on the discourse conveyed by HIV associations. The article shows how the new classification of HIV as a "chronic illness", on the basis of scientific expertise, has led to a modified discourse on prevention, including the recommendation of regular and controlled physical activity. This new orientation has contributed to the restructuring of HIV associations which relay this discourse and modify their organization and services, increasingly offering access to physical activities. However, this raises the question of the effects of this new representation of physical activities, as there has been little conside-ration of the difficulties encountered by PLHIV to respond to these repeated encouragements to modify their lifestyles in order to be "good" chronically ill patients. .


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Infecciones por VIH , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/clasificación , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/rehabilitación , Enfermedad Crónica/clasificación , Infecciones por VIH/clasificación , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/rehabilitación , Promoción de la Salud/clasificación , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Humanos , Salud Pública/clasificación , Salud Pública/métodos , Calidad de Vida , Grupos de Autoayuda/organización & administración
10.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 83(5): 297-303, nov. 2015. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-145401

RESUMEN

Introducción: El objetivo del estudio es conocer si tener padres obesos influye en la adherencia y el éxito del tratamiento frente a la obesidad en la consulta de endocrinología infantil de un hospital. Material y métodos: Estudio analítico, prospectivo y longitudinal en obesos de 4-14 años. En ellos se determinó el IMC inicial y 6 meses después de que recibieran pautas higiénico-dietéticas saludables. Se consideró éxito significativo la disminución de 0,5 DE del IMC y adherencia que los pacientes acudieran a la revisión semestral. Se calculó el IMC de los padres para identificar a los obesos. Se utilizó el test de la χ2 para comparar las variables cualitativas y el test de la t de Student para las variables cuantitativas (significativo: p<0,05). Resultados: Cien niños (52 varones), edad media ± DE: 9,9±2,7 años, IMC 28,1±4,5kg/m2 y Z-score del IMC 3,11 ± 0,98 (el 85% tenía un Z-score del IMC > 3). Eran obesos 41 padres y 38 madres (el 59% tenía uno o los 2 padres obesos). No se adhirieron al tratamiento 25. La adherencia era peor si los 2 padres eran obesos, OR 3,65 (1,3-10,5) (p = 0,01) y era mejor si la madre no era obesa, aunque el padre lo fuera (p=0,01). El tratamiento tuvo éxito significativo en 40 pacientes. Si la madre era la única obesa en la familia la posibilidad de no tener éxito era mayor, OR 5,6 (1,4-22,4) (p<0,01). Conclusiones: Un alto porcentaje de niños con obesidad severa tienen padres obesos. La madre tiene gran influencia en la adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento frente a la obesidad del hijo muy obeso (AU)


Introduction: Parental obesity is a risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to determine if parental obesity influences the adherence and success of obesity treatment in a hospital paediatric endocrinology clinic. Material and methods: An analytical, prospective, longitudinal study was conducted on obese children aged 4-14. An initial body mass index (BMI), and again at 6 months after receiving health, hygiene and dietary recommendations. Success was considered as a decrease of 0.5 in the BMI Z-score, and adherence to attending the 6-month review. Parental BMI was determined to identify overweight. The χ2 test was used for qualitative variables and the T-Student test for quantitative (significance, p<<.05). Results: The study included 100 children (52 male), 9.9±2.7 years old, BMI 28.1± 4.5kg/m2 and BMI Z-Score 3.11±0.98. (85% had a BMI Z-score>3). More than half (59%) of the children had one or both parents obese (41 fathers and 37 mothers were obese). Treatment was not adhered to by 25 children. Adherence was worse if both parents were obese OR 3.65 (1.3 to 10.5) (P<=.01) and adherence was better if the mother was not obese, although the father was (P=.01). The treatment had significant success in 40 patients. If the mother was the only obese one in the family, the possibility of treatment failure was greater OR 5.6 (1.4 to 22.4)(P<.01). Conclusions: A high percentage of children with severe obesity have obese parents. The mother has an important influence on adherence and response to treatment for the severely obese child (AU)


Asunto(s)
Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/congénito , Obesidad Pediátrica/genética , Endocrinología , Endocrinología/métodos , Dieta/clasificación , Terapéutica/clasificación , Terapéutica/métodos , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública , Antropometría/métodos , Obesidad Pediátrica/metabolismo , Endocrinología/normas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Dieta , Terapéutica/normas , Terapéutica , Salud Pública/clasificación , Salud Pública/educación , Antropometría/instrumentación , España/etnología
11.
Arch. esp. urol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(5): 482-492, jun. 2015. tab, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-139832

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Estudiar la relación de coste-efectividad e impacto presupuestario de una pauta de quimiohipertermia (QHT) neoadyuvante en pacientes con cáncer vesical no musculo invasivo (NMI) comparándolo con un tratamiento estándar de BCG y aplicando valores de recidiva y progresión basadas en tablas de riesgo internacionalmente aceptadas. Métodos: Para ello, se diseñó un modelo desde la perspectiva de un sistema público de salud tras un seguimiento de 3 años para comparar los costes de aplicar quimiohipertermia neoadyuvante a los pacientes del ensayo clínico (8 instilaciones semanales de 80 mg Mitomicina C recirculando a 43 ºC durante 1 hora previas a la realización de una resección transuretral del tumor vesical) con los costes de tratar a 15 pacientes con el mismo perfil de riesgo con el tratamiento estándar adyuvante de BCG (grupo control). Se incluyeron los costes reales disponibles correspondientes a fármacos y desechables y los publicados relativos a la resección transuretral (RTU) de vejiga, biopsia fría y riesgo de recidiva tumoral. Se descartaron del modelo los costes de pruebas diagnósticas y de seguimiento por no variar entre ambos grupos. Resultados: El modelo construido con datos de costes reales y publicados establece una diferencia favorable para el tratamiento neoadyuvante con quimiohipertermia en términos de coste a 3 años con un ahorro mínimo global de 10.300€ y de 687€ por paciente, todo ello con una mejora de la efectividad del tratamiento. Estos valores pueden pasar a 25.960€ de ahorro mínimo y 1.731€ de ahorro por paciente, si se asume un cambio de protocolo después de la neoadyuvancia que utilice la biopsia fría para comprobar el resultado. De los 15 pacientes pretratados con quimiohipertermia, 11 de riesgo alto y 4 de riesgo medio, 9 han respondido de forma completa (ausencia de tumor residual) y 6 de forma parcial (reducción del tumor). El número de recurrencias esperadas se ha reducido de 8 a 2 y de progresiones de 3 a 0. Conclusiones: El tratamiento neoadyuvante con quimiohipertermia constituye una estrategia terapéutica coste-efectiva (AU)


Objectives: To study the relationship between cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact the application of a neoadjuvant chemo-hyperthermia treatment on 15 patients with NMI multi-recurrent bladder cancer and/or whose risk of recurrence and progression is medium-high, compared with the standard neoadjuvant BCG treatment, has had on the Hospital Comarcal de Monforte de Lemos (Lugo). Methods: A model was designed from an SNS perspective with a temporary horizon of three years to compare the costs of applying neoadjuvant chemohyperthermia on the patients of the clinical test (8 instillations weekly of 80 mg Mitomycin C recirculating at 43° C for an hour prior to carrying out a transurethral resection of the bladder tumor) with the costs of treating 15 patients with the same risk profile with the standard adjuvant treatment of BCG (control group). The effective available costs corresponding to drugs, disposables and those relative to TURBT, cold biopsy and tumor relapse were included. The costs of diagnostic tests and followup were discarded from the model because they did not vary between groups. Results: The model built with effective and published cost data establishes a favourable difference in favour of the neoadjuvant treatment with chemo hyperthermia in terms of 3 year costs with a minimum global savings of 10,300€ and 687€ per patient, together with an improvement in the effectiveness of the treatment. These values could reach a minimum savings of 25,960€ and 1,731€ per patient, if a change in protocol is made after the neoadjuvant treatment, which uses the cold biopsy to check the results. Of the 15 patients pre-treated with chemo-hyperthermia, 11 high-risk and 4 medium-risk, 9 have responded completely (absence of residual tumor) and 6 partially (shrinking of the tumor). The number of expected relapses has been reduced from 8 to 2 and progression from 3 to 0. Conclusions: The neoadjuvant treatment with chemo hyperthermia constitutes a cost-effective therapeutic strategy (AU)


Asunto(s)
Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/radioterapia , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/administración & dosificación , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/metabolismo , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública , Costos de Hospital/organización & administración , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/provisión & distribución , Salud Pública/clasificación , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Costos de Hospital/ética
12.
Av. diabetol ; 31(3): 128-135, mayo-jun. 2015. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-140308

RESUMEN

Objetivos: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es un problema de salud pública de primer orden que preocupa a gestores, a profesionales sanitarios y a la sociedad en su conjunto. Contar con un paciente con DM2 más activo y responsable con su salud se perfila como una de las soluciones. Por ello la importancia de impulsar un debate multidisciplinar que aporte ideas y soluciones que contribuyan a conseguir un paciente con DM2 involucrado en su salud. En este artículo se presentan una serie de recomendaciones consensuadas por el Grupo Paciente Activo y Diabetes (PAyDInet). Material y métodos: Se constituyó el grupo de trabajo PAyDInet, en el que participaron diferentes agentes del sistema. Siguiendo la técnica de grupo nominal, se identificaron y priorizaron las barreras, los elementos facilitadores así como iniciativas concretas que fomenten una actitud preventiva y de autocuidado en el paciente con DM2. Resultados: El grupo llegó a un consenso sobre las 3 barreras, 3 elementos facilitadores y 3 iniciativas clave en la consecución de un paciente con DM2 más activo en el manejo de su enfermedad. La configuración actual del sistema sanitario, la necesidad de mejorar la coordinación interprofesional y el desarrollo de la educación diabetológica estructurada constituyen los puntos esenciales identificados por el grupo. Conclusión: Es una necesidad ineludible seguir avanzando para situar al paciente como centro del sistema. Un paciente formado e informado en DM2 es una tarea compleja que solo se logrará con nuevas alianzas y la colaboración de todos los agentes. En cualquier caso, el debate y las recomendaciones del grupo PAyDInet aportan una buena aproximación al tema y un excelente punto de partida (AU)


Objectives: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is a public health problem of the first order of concern to managers, health professionals and society as a whole. Having a more active and responsible patient with DM2 is emerging as one of the solutions. Hence the importance of promoting a multidisciplinary discussion that provides ideas and solutions that contribute to an active and involved patient with DM2. In this article some consensual recommendations are provided by the working group called Active Patient and Diabetes(PAyDInet by its Spanish initials). Methods: PAyDInet team was established by gathering agents from different fields of the system. Following the nominal group technique, barriers, facilitators and specific initiatives to promote a preventive attitude and self-care in patients with DM2, were identified and prioritized. Results: The team reached a final consensus on 3 key barriers, 3 enablers and 3 key initiatives to achieve patients with DM2 more active in managing their disease. The configuration of the healthcare system, the need to improve interprofessional coordination, and development of structured diabetes education, are the key points identified by the group. Conclusion: It is an inescapable need to move forward to put the patient at the centre of the system. Training and informing a patient on DM2 is a complex task that can only be achieved with new partnerships and collaboration of all stakeholders. In any case, the discussion and recommendations of the group PAyDInet give us a good approach to the subject and an excellent starting point (AU)


Asunto(s)
Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Atención al Paciente/métodos , Atención al Paciente/psicología , Salud Pública/economía , Terapéutica/instrumentación , Insulina/análogos & derivados , Insuficiencia Renal/complicaciones , Anomalías Cardiovasculares/patología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patología , Atención al Paciente , Salud Pública/clasificación , Salud Pública/métodos , Terapéutica/clasificación , Terapéutica/enfermería , Insulina , Anomalías Cardiovasculares/metabolismo
13.
Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol ; 90(5): 220-232, mayo 2015. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-137695

RESUMEN

PROPÓSITO: Las tasas de la cirugía de la catarata han aumentado de forma espectacular en las últimas dos décadas. Sin embargo, las variaciones en la práctica clínica en esta cirugía no han sido estudiadas en profundidad. El objetivo de esta revisión es el análisis de dicha variabilidad, incluyendo los factores que la originan y las consecuencias sobre la calidad asistencial y la planificación sanitaria. Asimismo se resalta la importancia de reducirla y se exponen diversas estrategias que permiten su control. Hallazgos recientes: A lo largo del artículo se presentan las últimas investigaciones en las que se considera que el desarrollo y la implementación de guías de práctica clínica constituyen la mejor herramienta para estandarizar los procesos de cuidados. CONCLUSIÓN: El control del componente injustificado o no deseado de las variaciones, además de mejorar la calidad asistencial, puede suponer un importante ahorro en el gasto sanitario


PURPOSE: Cataract surgery rates have dramatically increased in the last two decades. However, clinical practice variation in cataract surgery has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this review is to analyze clinical practice variation, including the causes and consequences of this phenomenon. Then, its role in health care planning and health care quality is focused, emphasizing the importance of reducing it and providing several practical strategies to accomplish it. Recent findings: The latest researches are presented in this article. They identify the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines as the best tool to standardize care processes. CONCLUSION: Managing unwarranted or unwanted variation would improve quality of care and may lead to a significant saving in health care spending


Asunto(s)
Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Extracción de Catarata/clasificación , Extracción de Catarata/métodos , Cirugía General/clasificación , Cirugía General/métodos , Tonsilectomía/enfermería , Oftalmología/educación , Oftalmología , Salud Pública , Salud Pública/métodos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Extracción de Catarata/instrumentación , Cirugía General/instrumentación , Cirugía General , Tonsilectomía/educación , Tonsilectomía/métodos , Oftalmología/clasificación , Oftalmología/métodos , Salud Pública/clasificación , Salud Pública/instrumentación , Calidad de Vida/legislación & jurisprudencia
15.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 21(1): 69-79, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25414959

RESUMEN

The Affordable Care Act brings a renewed emphasis on the importance of public health services and those whose occupations are defined by performing the essential public health functions. The Affordable Care Act Prevention and Public Health Fund is a signal to the field that its work is important and critical to the health of the nation. Recent reports by the Institute of Medicine describe the changing dimensions of public health work in primary care integration and the need for enhanced financing of public health as investment. Gaining knowledge about the public health workforce, that is, how many workers there are and what they are doing, is of growing interest and concern for the field. Although enumeration of the public health workforce has been attempted several times by the federal government beginning as early as 1982, it was not until the year 2000 that a major effort was undertaken to obtain more complete information. Limitations that hampered Enumeration 2000 have persisted however. With implementation of the Affordable Care Act and other new ventures, key federal agencies are developing strategies to pursue a systemic and systematic enumeration and consistent taxonomy process. Included in these efforts is use of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Standard Occupational Classification system. A clear and accurate understanding of the public health workforce and its characteristics is a major challenge. A well-constructed, systematic enumeration process can add to our understanding of the nature and functions of that workforce. In addition, discussion of enumeration must include the need for a consensus within the field that leads to a consistent taxonomy for the public health occupations. This article will provide a stage-setting brief of historical actions regarding enumeration, and it will examine selected enumeration activities taking place currently. It will discuss positive and negative implications facing public health and the potential for enhancing the existing Standard Occupational Classification system to aid enumeration studies.


Asunto(s)
Ocupaciones/clasificación , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Salud Pública/clasificación , Salud Pública/métodos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 628-636, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-722284

RESUMEN

Uma busca foi realizada na literatura, visando sumarizar as pesquisas realizadas e obter informações acerca da utilização de plantas medicinais no processo de cicatrização de feridas. Utilizaram-se os descritores: Plantas Medicinais e Cicatrização de Feridas e seus equivalentes em inglês e espanhol, com o operador booleano "AND" em três bases eletrônicas de dados (PubMed, LILACS e COCHRANE). Foram selecionados 57 artigos para compor a revisão. Os resultados apontam que um total de 52 plantas medicinais e um composto de ervas foram estudados experimentalmente ou clinicamente, quanto aos seus efeitos no auxílio do processo de cicatrização, sendo que a maioria (88,5%) apresentou eficácia. Com isso, verifica-se que a utilização de plantas medicinais trata de importante alternativa no tratamento de feridas, que começa a fazer parte da atenção à saúde brasileira, o que sugere novos estudos de comprovação clínica, custos, e benefícios e a constante atualização acerca das publicações realizadas.


It was done a literature search aiming to sumarize earlier conducted researches and in order to obtain information on the use of medicinal plants in wound healing process. The descriptors used were as follows: Medicinal Plants and Wound Healing and their equivalents in English and Spanish with the Boolean operator "AND" in three electronic databases (PubMed, LILACS and COCHRANE). Fifty seven articles were chosen to compose the review. The findings from a total of fifty two medicinal plants and one herbal compound that were experimentally or clinically studied in respect to their effects in wound healing process indicate that the majority of them (eighty eight point five per cent) showed efficacy. Thus, it can be seen that the use of medicinal plants is an important alternative in wounds treatment that becomes part of Brazilian health care, suggesting further studies of clinical evidence, costs and benefits and constantly updating on produced publications.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales/efectos adversos , Cicatrización de Heridas/fisiología , Fitoterapia/instrumentación , Extractos Vegetales/efectos adversos , Salud Pública/clasificación
17.
Acad Med ; 89(4): 564-72, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24556775

RESUMEN

The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public's health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium's Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators.The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy's application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos/clasificación , Centros Comunitarios de Salud/clasificación , Indicadores de Salud , Salud Pública/clasificación , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Masculino , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/clasificación , Estados Unidos
18.
Res Synth Methods ; 5(2): 142-51, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26052653

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: When literature searching for systematic reviews, it is good practice to search widely across different information sources. Little is known about the contributions of different publication formats (e.g. journal article and book chapter) and sources, especially for studies of people's views. METHOD: Studies from four reviews spanning three public health areas (active transport, motherhood and obesity) were analysed in terms of publication formats and the information sources they were identified from. They comprised of 229 studies exploring people's perceptions, beliefs and experiences ('views studies') and were largely qualitative. RESULTS: Although most (61%) research studies were published within journals, nearly a third (29%) were published as research reports and 5% were published in books. The remainder consisted of theses, conference papers and raw datasets. Two-thirds of studies (66%) were located in a total of 19 bibliographic databases, and 15 databases provided studies that were not identified elsewhere. PubMed was a good source for all reviews. Supplementary information sources were important for identifying studies in all publication formats. CONCLUSIONS: Undertaking sensitive searches across a range of information sources is essential for locating views studies in all publication formats. We discuss some benefits and challenges of utilising different information sources.


Asunto(s)
Minería de Datos/métodos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/clasificación , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/clasificación , Informe de Investigación , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 192: 1133, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23920907

RESUMEN

This paper describes and evaluates the public health web pages classification model based on key phrase extraction and matching. Easily extendible both in terms of new classes as well as the new language this method proves to be a good solution for text classification faced with the total lack of training data. To evaluate the proposed solution we have used a small collection of public health related web pages created by a double blind manual classification. Our experiments have shown that by choosing the adequate threshold value the desired value for either precision or recall can be achieved.


Asunto(s)
Información de Salud al Consumidor/clasificación , Documentación/clasificación , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Reconocimiento de Normas Patrones Automatizadas/métodos , Salud Pública/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto , Vocabulario Controlado , Inteligencia Artificial , Informática en Salud Pública , Semántica , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Suiza
20.
Brasília; Ministério da Saúde; jul. 2013. 58 p. Livro.
No convencional en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-750395

RESUMEN

O conhecimento produzido pelas áreas técnicas do Ministérioda Saúde (MS) e por suas entidades vinculadas surge da convergênciados saberes de diversos domínios que se fundem à prática da gestãodo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Em meio a essa pluralidade deinformações, o desenvolvimento dos produtos da terminologia insere--se no Plano de Gestão do Conhecimento do Ministério da Saúde.Instituído em 2010, este Plano objetiva dar visibilidade à gestão doconhecimento institucional, garantir a comunicação interna e externa,contribuir para a melhoria dos processos de tomada de decisão noâmbito da saúde pública e fortalecer a participação social.Identificar, relacionar, gerir e oferecer acesso a esse conhecimentoé um dos desafios atuais em que se discutem aspectos da democratizaçãoe do desenvolvimento de metodologias e tecnologiasque permitam a recuperação da informação, suplantando a lógica dasintaxe e atingindo a lógica da semântica. Em relação a este últimotópico, foram desenvolvidas ações relacionadas ao setor Saúde quegarantissem o tratamento terminológico das áreas do conhecimentoenvolvidas com a saúde.No que diz respeito à gestão da informação, o Projeto Terminologiada Saúde – uma iniciativa da Secretaria-Executiva realizada pormeio da Coordenação-Geral de Documentação e Informação (CGDI)– atua no desenvolvimento dos principais instrumentos que possibilitamo alinhamento da produção literária, documental e normativa daesfera federal do SUS com as premissas da Ciência da Informação.Os produtos idealizados para contribuir para o desenvolvimento e asocialização do conhecimento do setor Saúde são: o tesauro, o siglário,o banco de tradução e os glossários temáticos que constituem oGlossário do Ministério da Saúde...


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud Pública/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto
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