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3.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46972

RESUMEN

Com temáticas que vão de insetos à vida em aldeias yanomamis, de divulgação científica a arquitetura, passando por helmintos, doença de Chagas e malária, uma variedade de arquivos de personalidades da saúde pública brasileira está agora disponível para consulta online na Base Arch, a base de dados do acervo arquivístico da Casa de Oswaldo Cruz (COC/Fiocruz). Ao consultar a Base Arch, o usuário terá acesso à descrição arquivística dos fundos e coleções, que traz informações a respeito das dimensões, suporte, área de conteúdo e estrutura dos documentos, além de orientações sobre suas condições de acesso e uso.


Asunto(s)
Colección , Fotografía , Salud Pública/historia
4.
Nature ; 575(7781): 130-136, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695207

RESUMEN

With rapidly changing ecology, urbanization, climate change, increased travel and fragile public health systems, epidemics will become more frequent, more complex and harder to prevent and contain. Here we argue that our concept of epidemics must evolve from crisis response during discrete outbreaks to an integrated cycle of preparation, response and recovery. This is an opportunity to combine knowledge and skills from all over the world-especially at-risk and affected communities. Many disciplines need to be integrated, including not only epidemiology but also social sciences, research and development, diplomacy, logistics and crisis management. This requires a new approach to training tomorrow's leaders in epidemic prevention and response.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Salud Pública/tendencias , Ciencia/tendencias , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Control de Infecciones , /microbiología , Salud Pública/historia , Ciencia/historia
5.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(4): 440-466, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592527

RESUMEN

This manuscript explores the history of the Freedom House Enterprises Ambulance Service, a social and medical experiment that trained "unemployable" black citizens during the late 1960s and early 1970s to provide then state of the art prehospital care. Through archives, newspapers, personal correspondence, university memoranda, and the medical literature, this paper explores the comparable, yet different roles of the program's two leaders, Drs. Peter Safar and Nancy Caroline. Despite its success in demonstrating national standards for paramedic training and equipment, the program ended abruptly in 1975. And though Pittsburgh's city administration cited economic constraints for its fledgling support of Freedom House, black and majority newspapers and citizens alike understood the city's diminishing support of the program in racial terms. The paper discusses Safar and Caroline's well-intentioned efforts in developing this novel program, while confronting the racial, social, and structural constraints on the program and the limits of racial liberalism.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias/historia , Grupos de Población Continentales , Política , Salud Pública/historia , Ciudades , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Pennsylvania
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569703

RESUMEN

Among the array of structurally and toxicologically diverse mycotoxins, aflatoxins have attracted the most interest of scientific research due to their high toxicity and incidence in foods and feeds. Despite the undeniable progress made in various aspects related to aflatoxins, the ultimate goal consisting of reducing the associated public health risks worldwide is far from being reached due to multiplicity of social, political, economic, geographic, climatic, and development factors. However, a reasonable degree of health protection is attained in industrialized countries owing to their scientific, administrative, and financial capacities allowing them to use high-tech agricultural management systems. Less fortunate situations exist in equatorial and sub-equatorial developing countries mainly practicing traditional agriculture managed by smallholders for subsistence, and where the climate is suitable for mould growth and aflatoxin production. This situation worsens due to climatic change producing conditions increasingly suitable for aflatoxigenic mould growth and toxin production. Accordingly, it is difficult to harmonize the regulatory standards of aflatoxins worldwide, which prevents agri-foods of developing countries from accessing the markets of industrialized countries. To tackle the multi-faceted aflatoxin problem, actions should be taken collectively by the international community involving scientific research, technological and social development, environment protection, awareness promotion, etc. International cooperation should foster technology transfer and exchange of pertinent technical information. This review presents the main historical discoveries leading to our present knowledge on aflatoxins and the challenges that should be addressed presently and in the future at various levels to ensure higher health protection for everybody. In short, it aims to elucidate where we come from and where we should go in terms of aflatoxin research/development.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxinas/toxicidad , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Microbiología de Alimentos/historia , Micotoxicosis/historia , Venenos/toxicidad , Aflatoxinas/análisis , Aflatoxinas/química , Agricultura/historia , Agricultura/métodos , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Cambio Climático , Países en Desarrollo , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Salud Global , Política de Salud , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Micotoxicosis/diagnóstico , Micotoxicosis/etiología , Micotoxicosis/terapia , Venenos/análisis , Venenos/química , Estudios Prospectivos , Salud Pública/historia , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(19): E1159-E1160, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524840

RESUMEN

: Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821) is generally known as one of the founders of the modern Hygiene and Public Health. It is less known his contribution in investigating the pathogenesis of spinal disorders. In his "De Vertebralis Columnae in Morbis Dignitate" (1791), Frank first proposed to use the Latin term "rhachialgia" (back pain) to indicate all the painful states of spine. He focused on the "plethora spinali" in the vessels of the spinal cord and its membrane, sustaining that blood congestion was the origin of all the spinal disorders. He also believed that the excess of blood was able to generate a "diffuse inflammation" of vertebral and medullary structures. The innovative concepts developed by Johann Peter Frank demonstrated that he could be worthily considered as a pioneer in the study of spinal disorders.Level of Evidence: 5.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de Espalda , Médicos/historia , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral , Dolor de Espalda/etiología , Dolor de Espalda/historia , Dolor de Espalda/patología , Dolor de Espalda/fisiopatología , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Salud Pública/historia , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral/etiología , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral/historia , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral/patología , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral/fisiopatología
11.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(4): 391-398, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486790

RESUMEN

The period that starts in 1940 is crucial for the creation of Mexico's modern health system. The Institute of Sanitary and Tropical Diseases is the pioneer institution in health research and on its first two decades it achieved maturity and consolidated lines of research expressed in almost 1700 publications. It also obtained notorious international visibility and was selected as a regional reference for epidemiological surveillance of influenza, streptococcus and salmonella. Its evolution took place with an innovation rhythm that would be decreasing by the end of this period. It faced limitations to renew lines of research, researchers and laboratory equipment. However, its role in public health decisions of the country remained central.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Investigación/historia , Academias e Institutos/historia , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , México
12.
MEDICC Rev ; 21(2-3): 69-74, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401639

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION In 19th century colonial Cuba, Boards of Health (Juntas de Sanidad) were created to administer public health, in tandem with and later replacing the older Royal Protomedicato Court (Real Tribunal de Protomedicato). Development of the Board of Health in the northeastern city of Holguín reflected local historical processes, as well as class relations and social issues characteristic of this period. Among the highlights of the Board's activities were epidemic control during cholera and smallpox outbreaks, monitoring the city's sanitary conditions, and support for charitable work. Studying the history of such epidemiological surveillance activities may benefit design and implementation of related current research and prevention/control campaigns. OBJECTIVE Describe the development of the 19th century Board of Health in the city of Holguín. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The research was conducted through a critical analysis of primary sources contained in the Historical Archives of (today's) Holguín Province, specifically relevant documents from the regional and city government (Fondo Tenencia de Gobierno y Ayuntamiento) and town council (Cabildo). Cuban and international scientific publications were also consulted. DEVELOPMENT The Board of Health was the main institution conducting health and hygiene control and charitable activities in the city of Holguín during the 19th century. It was created mainly to take preventive measures against diseases affecting the population, an effort it undertook with support from the Urban Health Police. Its efforts to confront smallpox and cholera epidemics greatly helped to reduce the toll of these diseases on the population, albeit not sufficiently to prevent their reccurrence. Beginning in the 1870s, weakened government support eroded the Board's position, and health-related measures were implemented mainly by the Board of Charity, which focused on matters concerning the city's Civil Hospital. CONCLUSIONS Although established in 1820, Holguín's Board of Health carried out preventive actions most actively from 1850 to 1865, with support from the Urban Health Police. Its gradual disappearance from the health policy arena beginning in the 1870s reflects its failure as an institution, in large part due to weak government support. KEYWORDS Board of Health, prevention, epidemics, Cuba.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Cuba/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos
13.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465645

RESUMEN

The article is devoted to the history of the creation and activities of the N. A. Semashko National Research Institute of Public Health. On the basis of the analysis of archival materials and scientific works of the staff of the Institute, the main results of the Institute work for 75 years are presented. The contribution of the Institute to the development of science and health care in the USSR and the Russian Federation is investigated.


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos , Salud Pública/historia , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Federación de Rusia
15.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; 90(3): 351-355, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344197

RESUMEN

Although public health and social medicine have a long history in Latin America going back to Co lonial times, their relevance has ebbed and flowed as a result of the development of a variety of social and political movements. The Mexican Revolution accelerated implementation of public health po licies in Mexico and resulted in the creation of the Mexican Institute of Social Security to serve the health and social security needs of the country's population. Construction of the Hospital La Raza and its embellishment by the mural paintings of Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros correspon ded to the heyday of public health ideas in Mexico. This is clearly reflected in Rivera's mural painting from 1953, The History of Medicine in Mexico: People's Demand for Better Health. The left side of the painting, representing the history of modern medicine in Mexico, exemplifies the tensions between individuals and social groups demanding the fruits of modern medicine and public health, and en trenched bureaucracy and private interests resisting their demands. Rivera's artistry illustrates this tension by depicting urban social groups and a family with a pregnant mother and children reques ting medical attention on one side of the main panel, facing condescending physicians, bureaucrats and upper society gentlemen and ladies on the other side. The importance of social movements to the development of public health policies illustrated by Rivera in 1953 continues to be relevant in Latin America today where increasing millions still lack the benefits of health care and social security.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/historia , Pinturas/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Personajes , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , México , Medicina Social/historia
16.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(2): 111-117, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215204

RESUMEN

The article presents the genesis of the foundation and development of 'Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny' [Annals of the National Institute of Hygiene] since 1950 to 2019, scientific peer-reviewed journal devoted to research studies on the food and water safety, nutrition, environmental hygiene, toxicology and health risk assessment, and public health. It also shows the difficulties that this journal had initially to struggle with, and its achievements in recent years, aiming to improve its international position. The article discusses the stages of journal's development and activity in terms of scientific, editorial and publishing.


Asunto(s)
Higiene/historia , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Sociedades Médicas/historia , Academias e Institutos , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(4): 1431-1438, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066845

RESUMEN

The article discusses the trajectory of Sergio Arouca (1941-2003), observing his performance as a public health activist via and within institutions. The analysis of episodes reveals a fertile combination between Arouca's surprising ability to think in a non-standard way, his charisma, and the presence of people who shared the same values. In some situations, this combination generated democratizing innovations. Examples include the Paulínia project in the 1970s, in which Arouca with his team invited the population to participate in the management of health services; the opening of the 8th National Health Conference to the participation of civil society; the installation of democratic management in the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) and the creation of the Participative Management Department of the Ministry of Health during the first Lula administration.


Asunto(s)
Reforma de la Atención de Salud/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Brasil , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
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