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Chemosphere ; 346: 140662, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949182


Perchlorate, a widespread environmental contaminant originating from various industrial applications, agricultural practices, and natural sources, poses potential risks to ecosystems and human health. While previous studies have highlighted its influence on the thyroid endocrine system and its impact on gonadal maturation, reproduction, and sex hormone synthesis, the specific interplay between thyroid and steroid hormones, in this context, remains largely unexplored. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the adverse effects and underlying mechanisms triggered by exposure to sodium perchlorate (SP) on reproductive endocrine activity in zebrafish. For 21 d, the fish were exposed to test SP concentrations (0, 3, 30, 300 mg/L), which were determined based on the exposure concentrations that induced various toxic effects in the fish, considering naturally occurring concentrations. Exposure to SP, except at 3 mg/L in males, significantly decreased the production of thyroid hormone (TH) in both female and male zebrafish. Moreover, gonadal steroid levels were markedly reduced in both sexes. The expression of hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA in female zebrafish was significantly decreased, whereas aromatase activity in male zebrafish was significantly elevated in the SP exposure groups. The reduced levels of THs and gonadal steroid hormones were strongly correlated. Abnormal responses to SP exposure led to reduced reproductive success in the 300 mg/L SP exposure group. These findings indicate that prolonged and continuous exposure to a specific concentration of SP may lead to long-term reproductive problems in zebrafish, primarily through hormonal imbalances and suppression of hepatic VTG mRNA expression.

Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Pez Cebra , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Pez Cebra/metabolismo , Percloratos/toxicidad , Percloratos/metabolismo , Glándula Tiroides/metabolismo , Salud Reproductiva , Ecosistema , Gónadas , Hormonas Esteroides Gonadales/metabolismo , Reproducción , Esteroides/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
Rev. int. androl. (Internet) ; 21(4): 1-9, oct.-dic. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-225999


Introduction: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) are one of the risk factors for male reproductive health and melatonin can be an ideal candidate for therapeutic development against RF-induced male fertility problems due to its antioxidant properties. The possible therapeutic role of melatonin in the destructive effects of 2100MHz RF radiation on rat sperm characteristics is investigated in the present study. Methods: Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups and the experiment continued for ninety consecutive days; Control, Melatonin (10mg/kg, subcutaneously), RF (2100MHz, thirty minutes per day, whole-body), and RF+Melatonin groups. Left caudal epididymis and ductus deferens tissues were placed in sperm wash solution (at 37°C) and dissected. The sperms were counted and stained. Measurements of the perinuclear ring of the manchette and posterior portion of the nucleus (ARC) were performed and the sperms were examined at an ultrastructural level. All of the parameters were evaluated statistically. Results: The percentages of abnormal sperm morphology were significantly increased with RF exposure, while the total sperm count was significantly decreased. RF exposure also showed harmful effects on acrosome, axoneme, mitochondrial sheath, and outer dense fibers at the ultrastructural level. The number of total sperms, sperms with normal morphology increased, and ultrastructural appearance returned to normal by melatonin administration. Discussion: The data showed that melatonin may be a beneficial therapeutic agent for long-term exposure of 2100MHz RF radiation-related reproductive impairments. (AU)

Introducción: Los campos electromagnéticos de radiofrecuencia (RF-EMF) son uno de los factores de riesgo para la salud reproductiva masculina y la melatonina puede ser un candidato ideal para el desarrollo terapéutico contra los problemas de fertilidad masculina inducidos por RF debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes. En el presente estudio se investiga el posible papel terapéutico de la melatonina en los efectos destructivos de la radiación RF de 2100MHz en las características del esperma de rata. Métodos: Se dividieron ratas albinas Wistar en 4 grupos y se continuó el experimento durante 90 días consecutivos: grupos control, melatonina (10mg/kg, por vía subcutánea), RF (2100MHz, 30min por día, cuerpo entero) y RF+melatonina. Los tejidos del epidídimo caudal izquierdo y del conducto deferente se colocaron en una solución de lavado de esperma (a 37°C) y se diseccionaron. Los espermatozoides fueron contados y teñidos. Se realizaron mediciones del anillo perinuclear del manchette y de la porción posterior del núcleo (ARC) y se examinaron los espermatozoides a nivel ultraestructural. Todos los parámetros fueron evaluados estadísticamente. Resultados: Los porcentajes de morfología anormal de los espermatozoides aumentaron significativamente con la exposición a RF, mientras que el recuento total de espermatozoides disminuyó significativamente. La exposición a RF también mostró efectos nocivos en el acrosoma, el axonema, la vaina mitocondrial y las fibras densas externas a nivel ultraestructural. El número total de espermatozoides, los espermatozoides con morfología normal aumentaron y la apariencia ultraestructural volvió a la normalidad mediante la administración de melatonina. Discusión: Los datos mostraron que la melatonina puede ser un agente terapéutico beneficioso para la exposición a largo plazo de las deficiencias reproductivas relacionadas con la radiación de RF de 2100MHz. (AU)

Animales , Ratas , Melatonina/efectos de la radiación , Melatonina/uso terapéutico , Salud Reproductiva , Semen/fisiología , Ratas Wistar , Ondas de Radio/efectos adversos , Infertilidad Masculina , Espermatogénesis
Reprod Health ; 20(1): 162, 2023 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37907933


BACKGROUND: Persons with disabilities (PwDs) face barriers in accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services due to lack of knowledge and awareness, stigma and discrimination, and inadequate service provision. This study aimed to examine the determinants of SRH knowledge and awareness among PwDs in Ghana, and to explore their perceptions of the functionality of SRH services. METHODS: A sequential explanatory mixed-methods study design was used to collect and analyse quantitative (n = 402) and qualitative (n = 37) data from PwDs in two districts in Ghana. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, while qualitative data was analysed thematically. RESULTS: Most of the participants had high awareness of SRH (94.3%), sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (92.5%) and HIV/AIDS (97.0%). Employment status was positively associated with SRH awareness [aOR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.59]. Disability type was a significant predictor of STI [aOR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.39, 2.94] and HIV/AIDS [aOR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.21, 4.44] awareness, with the visually impaired having higher odds than the physically disabled. Age group was also a significant predictor of STI awareness, with older respondents having higher odds than younger ones [aOR = 1.76; CI = 1.01,3.05 for 30-39 years; aOR = 2.48; CI = 1.22, 5.05 for 40-49 years]. The qualitative findings revealed four main themes: conceptualisation of SRH, active engagement in SRH information seeking, tensions between knowledge and religious beliefs and perceived utility of SRH services. CONCLUSION: Despite the high levels of SRH knowledge and awareness among PwDs, there are significant gaps and challenges related to disability type, age group, misconceptions, beliefs, and service non-functionality that limit the utility of SRH services. The findings call for tailored education to reduce misconceptions and put in pragmatic steps to deliver quality SRH services and information to PwDs. Further research is needed to assess the sexual lives of PwDs and explore the perspectives of all relevant stakeholders, including service providers and policymakers on how to enhance SRH outcomes for PwDs in Ghana.

People with disability often encounter barriers in access sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. These challenges arise from a lack of understanding and awareness about these services, stigma, and discrimination as well as unavailability of these services. This study sought to assess the extent of SRH knowledge and awareness among persons with disabilities (PwDs) in Ghana and to investigate their perceptions of the functionality of SRH services. To accomplish this, a study design that combined both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed. The study collected and analysed data from 402 PwDs in two districts of Ghana. The quantitative data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses, whereas the qualitative data, were thematically analysed. The findings indicated that a substantial number of participants demonstrated high awareness of SRH, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. The participants' employment status was positively associated with their level of SRH awareness. Additionally, the type of disability played a significant role in predicting awareness of STIs and HIV/AIDS. Visually impaired individuals exhibited a greater likelihood of awareness compared to those with physical disabilities. Age also influenced STI awareness, with older respondents showing higher levels of awareness than their younger counterparts. Qualitative analyses unveiled four main themes: how SRH is conceptualised, the active seeking of SRH information, the tension between knowledge and religious beliefs, and the perceived usefulness of SRH services. The study concluded that PwDs have a high level of SRH knowledge and awareness. However, it identified gaps and challenges that stem from differences in disability type, age group, misconceptions, religious beliefs, and the effectiveness of the services provided. To address these issues, the study recommends tailored educational interventions to meet the unique needs and concerns of PwDs in relation to SRH. Furthermore, enhancing the quality and accessibility of SRH services for this population is suggested. The study underscores the need for further research on the sexual lives of PwDs and the views of stakeholders on how to enhance their SRH outcomes are needed.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Personas con Discapacidad , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Humanos , Ghana , Conducta Sexual , Salud Reproductiva
Afr J Reprod Health ; 27(10): 133-144, 2023 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37915182


Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services are a necessity for marginalized persons such as the displaced. The protocol describes an intervention that can contribute to overcoming challenges associated with SRH service delivery of three selected reproductive health (RH) services: HIV/AIDS, contraception, and cervical cancer screening. A pre-and post-intervention approach will be used to evaluate the effect of an intervention with trained Community-Based Reproductive Health Personnel (CBRHP) and/or mHealth technology within the selected IDP camps. Three (3) months of health education through the CBRHP and/or via mHealth technology will be provided. Using a questionnaire, interviews, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guide, the researcher will assess the suitability of this intervention to attain the objectives. Data analysis will be done with SPSS version 26. Univariate analysis will include mean and standard deviation, bivariate analysis will include a chi-square test of goodness for the association of variables, and McNemer's test to evaluate the effect of the intervention by comparing consistency in response across the variables under study. Multivariate analysis will be used to assess if sociodemographic, knowledge and health service impacts access and use of RH services. For qualitative analysis, findings will be grouped into themes. The outcomes of each theme will be used to complement the findings of the quantitative analysis. The primary outcome measures will include the level of knowledge of SRH, the number of people who want to access RH services and which RH services are most sought by the respondents. If the use of CBRHP is successful, there will be an increase in knowledge and use of HIV/AIDS, contraception and cervical cancer services. Challenges associated with access and uptake of RH services will also be assessed.

Les services de santé sexuelle et reproductive (SSR) sont une nécessité pour les personnes marginalisées telles que les personnes déplacées. Le protocole décrit une intervention qui peut contribuer à surmonter les défis associés à la prestation de services de SSR de trois services de santé reproductive (SR) sélectionnés : VIH/SIDA, contraception et dépistage du cancer du col de l'utérus. Une approche pré- et post-intervention sera utilisée pour évaluer l'effet d'une intervention avec du personnel de santé reproductive à base communautaire (CBRHP) formé et/ou la technologie mHealth au sein des camps de déplacés internes sélectionnés. Trois (3) mois d'éducation sanitaire via le CBRHP et/ou via la technologie mHealth seront dispensés. À l'aide d'un questionnaire, d'entretiens et d'un guide de discussion de groupe (FGD), le chercheur évaluera l'adéquation de cette intervention pour atteindre les objectifs. L'analyse des données sera effectuée avec SPSS version 26. L'analyse univariée inclura la moyenne et l'écart type, l'analyse bivariée comprendra un test de qualité du chi carré pour l'association des variables et le test de McNemer pour évaluer l'effet de l'intervention en comparant la cohérence de réponse pour les variables étudiée. Une analyse multivariée sera utilisée pour évaluer si les services sociodémographiques, les connaissances et les services de santé ont un impact sur l'accès et l'utilisation des services de SR. Pour l'analyse qualitative, les résultats seront regroupés en thèmes. Les résultats de chaque thème seront utilisés pour compléter les résultats de l'analyse quantitative. Les principales mesures des résultats incluront le niveau de connaissances en matière de SSR, le nombre de personnes souhaitant accéder aux services de SR et quels services de SR sont les plus recherchés par les répondants. Si l'utilisation du CBRHP réussit, il y aura une augmentation des connaissances et de l'utilisation des services liés au VIH/SIDA, à la contraception et au cancer du col de l'utérus. Les défis associés à l'accès et à l'utilisation des services de SR seront également évalués.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Salud Reproductiva/educación , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual , Educación en Salud
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 15(1): e1-e11, 2023 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37916722


BACKGROUND: Parents play a vital role in the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of adolescents. Parents' communication with their adolescents regarding SRH is considered an important part of adolescent development, as this contributes to optimising safe SRH. AIM: This phase of the study explored the culturally sensitive SRH information communication skill needs of parents, based on their personal and social motivation, within the Ghanaian context. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Asante Akyem North Municipality of Ghana. METHODS: This article describes the second phase of an explanatory, sequential, mixed-method study. Following on from the first phase systematic review, this second phase comprised a qualitative descriptive study where 10 purposively sampled parents of adolescents participated in semi-structured interviews to elicit data. Braun and Clarke's thematic data analysis process was applied. Data were saved and managed in Atlas.ti (version 23.0.7). RESULTS: Four themes emerged on communication skills: SRH information, parent and adolescent factors, contextual factors and communication skill needs. Parent and adolescent communication on SRH takes place occasionally. Parents lack the skills to communicate with adolescents regarding SRH. CONCLUSION: Parents in this context require skills to communicate SRH information with their adolescent children. A culturally appropriate intervention that supports SRH information communication between parents and adolescents may have value in guiding this communication process.Contribution: The findings of this study can contribute to the adaptation of a culturally sensitive SRH information communication intervention in Ghana which will promote adolescent SRH.

Comunicación en Salud , Salud Reproductiva , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Ghana , Conducta Sexual , Padres , Comunicación
Front Public Health ; 11: 1203376, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937073


Background: Although appropriate life skills are recognized as a fundamental right for adolescents and a critical component of health policy, they are often overlooked and rarely researched in pastoral communities. Life skills encompass the ability to adopt positive behaviors, which enable individuals to effectively deal with the demands and challenges of everyday life. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-linked life skills intervention program on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health skills in the pastoral community of Guji zone. Methods: A two-arm cluster randomized control trial with a pretest-posttest experimental design was conducted, involving the intervention group (N = 375) and the control group (N = 384). This study assessed the effect of a school-linked adolescent-friendly life skills intervention in comparison to the usual RH curriculum, used as a control arm. Pretest-posttest and posttest-posttest scores of the control group and trial groups were compared, and the data were collected using 27 self-administered questions. The collected data were analyzed using paired-sample independent t-tests and a generalized linear model to examine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Results: Data were collected from 759 adolescents in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. The findings have shown that the proportion of mean life skills score was significantly higher in the intervention clusters than controls [(375) 70.49% vs. (384) 62.25%, P < 0.001 95% CI (0.06 and 0.1)]. Adolescents who were trained in school-linked life skills (ß = 1.915, 95% CI: 1.411-2.418), were confident to make safe and informed decisions (ß = 1.999, 95% CI: 1.562-2.436), and had life skills to deal with SRH issues (ß = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.233-2.087) were significantly correlated with predicting the relevant life skills. The proportion of adolescents with SRH life skills increased from 384 (52%) at baseline to 375 (70%) at end line in the intervention group compared to 384 (60.31%) at baseline to 384 (62.31%) in control arms, respectively. Conclusions: The implementation of a school-linked life skills intervention program proved to have a significant effect on SRH life skills development. Furthermore, individual-level and behavioral-level variables were significant in explaining variability in life skills development within the pastoral community. Therefore, we recommend scaling up this intervention in all high schools. Trial registration: Trial registration PACTR202107905622610, registered on 16 July 2021.

Salud Reproductiva , Conducta Sexual , Humanos , Adolescente , Salud Reproductiva/educación , Etiopía , Modelos Lineales , Instituciones Académicas
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(Suppl 4)2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918835


INTRODUCTION: This paper identifies and summarises tensions and challenges related to healthcare worker rights and responsibilities and describes how they affect healthcare worker roles in the provision of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care in health facilities. METHOD: The review was undertaken in a two-phase process, namely: (1) development of a list of core constructs and concepts relating to healthcare worker rights, roles and responsibilities to guide the review and (2) literature review. RESULT: A total of 110 papers addressing a variety of SRH areas and geographical locations met our inclusion criteria. These papers addressed challenges to healthcare worker rights, roles and responsibilities, including conflicting laws, policies and guidelines; pressure to achieve coverage and quality; violations of the rights and professionalism of healthcare workers, undercutting their ability and motivation to fulfil their responsibilities; inadequate stewardship of the private sector; competing paradigms for decision-making-such as religious beliefs-that are inconsistent with professional responsibilities; donor conditionalities and fragmentation; and, the persistence of embedded practical norms that are at odds with healthcare worker rights and responsibilities. The tensions lead to a host of undesirable outcomes, ranging from professional frustration to the provision of a narrower range of services or of poor-quality services. CONCLUSION: Social mores relating to gender and sexuality and other contested domains that relate to social norms, provider religious identity and other deeply held beliefs complicate the terrain for SRH in particular. Despite the particularities of SRH, a whole of systems response may be best suited to address embedded challenges.

Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Humanos , Conducta Sexual , Salud Reproductiva , Instituciones de Salud , Personal de Salud
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 888, 2023 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37990221


BACKGROUND: Midwives' contribution to improving outcomes for women and newborns depends on factors such as quality of pre-service training, access to continuing professional development, and the presence of an enabling work environment. The absence of opportunities for career development increases the likelihood that health professionals, including midwives, will consider leaving the profession due to a lack of incentives to sustain and increase motivation to remain in the field. It also limits the opportunities to better contribute to policy, training, and research. This study aimed to assess the influence of a Master in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) at the INFSS on midwives' career progression in Mali. METHODS: This mixed methods study was conducted using an online questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, and a document review. The study participants included graduates from two cohorts (N = 22) as well as employers, managers, and teachers of the graduates (N = 20). Data were analysed according to research questions, comparing, and contrasting answers between different groups of respondents. RESULTS: The study revealed that graduates enrolled in the programme primarily to improve their knowledge and skills in management and public health. The graduates' expected roles are those of programme and health project manager and participation in planning and monitoring activities at national or sub-national level. The managers expected the programme to reflect the needs of the health system and equip midwives with skills in management and planning. The Master enhanced opportunities for graduates to advance their career in fields they are not usually working in such as management, research, and supervision. However, the recognition of the master's degree and of the graduates' profile is not yet fully effective. CONCLUSION: The master's degree in SRH is a capacity building programme. Graduates developed skills and acquired advanced knowledge in research and management, as well as a postgraduate degree. However, the master programme needs to be better aligned with health system needs to increase the recognition of graduates' skills and have a more positive impact on graduates' careers.

Partería , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Malí , Salud Reproductiva , Educación de Postgrado , Salud Pública/educación
Reprod Health ; 20(1): 172, 2023 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37990327


PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic led to major service disruptions in the healthcare sector, especially regarding sexual and reproductive health services. However, the impact of the pandemic on Canadian adolescents is relatively unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of adolescents in Alberta, Canada. METHODS: A qualitative study using an interpretive description (ID) approach and community-based participatory research principles was conducted to capture the subjective experience and perceptions of adolescents and service providers. With the collaboration of the Adolescent Advisory Group and community partners, 18 adolescents and 15 service providers were recruited for the study through purposive sampling. Findings from the qualitative interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three major themes emerged from the analysis: (1) COVID-19 SRH experience, (2) barriers to SRH, and (3) adolescent SRH strategies. Our findings highlight numerous barriers and challenges that prevented adolescents from accessing SRH education, products, and services. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on the SRH and the well-being of adolescents. Our study reflects the need for diverse SRH strategies to maintain continued access to SRH resources during disruptive events, such as the pandemic.

Access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services is a basic human right. All individuals require access to appropriate SRH services to maintain their optimal sexual and reproductive health. Adolescents require special guidance, support, and youth-friendly services in matters of SRH as they enter puberty and explore their sexual identity. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, many health and SRH services were suspended. Access to SRH products and services became difficult due to public health restrictions, which has possible negative consequences for adolescents' SRH. The experiences of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding their SRH are not reported in Alberta, Canada. Therefore, we explored the impacts of these public health restrictions on adolescents' SRH. We performed qualitative interviews with adolescents and SRH service providers to know their perspectives on how the pandemic influenced the SRH of adolescents. This paper provides insights into the barriers faced by adolescents while accessing SRH services during the pandemic, as well as their perceptions of digital strategies, such as mobile applications, and other recommendations for supporting SRH education and services. Based on the study findings, an adolescent-friendly mobile application will be developed to provide a virtual platform connecting adolescents to SRH educational resources, services, and support.

COVID-19 , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Adolescente , Humanos , Salud Reproductiva/educación , Pandemias , Alberta/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(11)2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949497


Frontline workers for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) provide life-changing and life-saving services to millions of people every year. From accompanying the pregnant, delivering babies and caring for the newborn to supporting those subjected to sexual violence; from treating debilitating infections to expanding contraceptive choices; from enabling access to safe abortion services to countering homophobia: all over the world frontline SRHR carers and advocates make it possible for so many more to experience dignity in sex, sexuality and reproduction. Yet they are also subjected to hostility for what they do, for whom they provide care, for where they work and for the issues they address. From ostracistion and harassment in the workplace to verbal threats and physical violence, hostilities can extend even into their private lives. In other words, as SRHR workers seek to fulfil the human rights of others, their own human rights are put at risk. Yet, as grave as that is, it is a reality largely undocumented and thus also underestimated. This scoping review sets out to marshal what is known about how hostilities against frontline SRHR workers manifest, against whom, at whose hands and in which contexts. It is based on review of six sources: peer-reviewed and grey literature, news reports, sector surveys, and consultations with sector experts and, for contrast, literature issued by opposition groups. Each source contributes a partial picture only, yet taken together, they show that hostilities against frontline SRHR workers are committed the world over-in a range of countries, contexts and settings. Nevertheless, the narratives given in those sources more often treat hostilities as 'one-off', exceptional events and/or as an 'inevitable' part of daily work to be tolerated. That works in turn both to divorce such incidents from their wider historical, political and social contexts and to normalise the phenomena as if it is an expected part of a role and not a problem to be urgently addressed. Our findings confirm that the SRHR sector at large needs to step-up its response to such reprisals in ways more commensurate with their scale and gravity.

Salud Reproductiva , Derecho a la Salud , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Hostilidad , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Reproducción
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 31(4): 2269008, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37982143


Integrating pleasure may be a successful strategy for reaching young people with sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) interventions. However, sexual pleasure-related programming and research remains sparse. We aimed to assess chatbot acceptability and describe changes in SRHR attitudes and behaviours among Kenyan young adults engaging with a pleasure-oriented SRHR chatbot. We used an exploratory mixed-methods study design. Between November 2021 and January 2022, participants completed a self-administered online questionnaire before and after chatbot engagement. In-depth phone interviews were conducted among a select group of participants after their initial chatbot engagement. Quantitative data were analysed using paired analyses and interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Of 301 baseline participants, 38% (115/301) completed the endline survey, with no measured baseline differences between participants who did and did not complete the endline survey. In-depth interviews were conducted among 41 participants. We observed higher satisfaction at endline vs. baseline on reported ability to exercise sexual rights (P ≤ 0.01), confidence discussing contraception (P ≤ 0.02) and sexual feelings/needs (P ≤ 0.001) with their sexual partner(s). Qualitative interviews indicated that most participants valued the chatbot as a confidential and free-of-judgment source of trustworthy "on-demand" SRHR information. Participants reported improvements in sex-positive communication with partners and safer sex practices due to new learnings from the chatbot. We observed increases in SRHR empowerment among young Kenyans after engagement with the chatbot. Integrating sexual pleasure into traditional SRHR content delivered through digital tools is a promising strategy to advance positive SRHR attitudes and practices among youth.

Placer , Salud Reproductiva , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Humanos , Kenia , Conducta Sexual , Reproducción
J Adolesc Health ; 73(6S): S73-S80, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37953012


PURPOSE: Poor mental health is associated with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) risks, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pre-exposure prophylaxis discontinuation. Adolescents and young people (AYP) are vulnerable to HIV and depression. This paper describes the prevalence and severity of depression and associated factors in AYP accessing SRH services in South Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of enrollment data (January 2019 to December 2021) from a cohort of individuals receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis services at eight clinics in three provinces in South Africa was conducted. Females (n = 1,074) and males (n = 231) aged 15-24 years were included. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted, and the prevalence and severity of depression assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with depression. RESULTS: Over 40% of participants had experienced any depression symptoms (43.7% of females, 38.5% of males). For males, experiencing intimate partner violence was the only predictor of depression symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 8.81, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-75.44). For females, living with both parents (AOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.15-2.51), having transactional sex (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.00-2.65), experiencing any intimate partner violence (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.34-2.89), and using drugs (AOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03-3.11) were all positively associated with depression symptoms. Resilience was a protective factor against depression symptoms for both sexes (males: AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.98; females: AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97). DISCUSSION: There is a high burden of depression among AYP accessing SRH services in South Africa. Mental health screening should be integrated into SRH and HIV prevention programs for AYP.

Infecciones por VIH , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Salud Reproductiva , Salud Mental , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Sexual
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 237, 2023 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37964291


BACKGROUND: Community bylaws are commonly accepted mechanisms to influence behaviour change to achieve better health and development outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the uses, benefits, and potential downsides of community bylaws are largely unclear, especially regarding sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of young people. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which community bylaws in Machinga District in southern Malawi are responsive to young people's realities and SRHR needs. METHODS: In Phase 1 of this qualitative study, 35 community members were interviewed, including 14 young people (15-24 years), five parents, five traditional leaders, and eleven key informants. Based on findings from Phase 1, eleven members from local youth groups co-created a drama performance that covered issues concerning bylaws and young people's SRHR (Phase 2). The drama was performed in the community, after which young women (18-24 years), young men (17-24 years), female and male parents discussed on what they saw in the drama, focusing on young people's SRHR, in four focus group discussions (Phase 3). All transcripts were coded and thematically analysed and narratives were written on main themes. RESULTS: Three community SRHR bylaws, related to teenage pregnancy, child marriage, and sexual harassment and rape were identified and commonly accepted in the community. While these bylaws intend to reduce SRHR-related issues among young people, they are often not involved in bylaw formulation. The bylaws were associated with protection of girls, and a good reputation for boys, young men and traditional leaders. Bylaw enforcement faced problems, as fines were not in line with national laws, and wealthy offenders could avoid them through bribes. Effects of bylaws on teenage pregnancy rates seemed limited, while some positive effects on school readmission, prevention of child marriage, and reporting sexual harassment were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that community bylaws were accepted but not owned by young people, and had different effects on the rich versus the poor, and girls versus young men. Bylaws were associated with punishment in terms of money, which seemed to overpower their potential to promote rights and address social norms underlying SRHR issues of the youth.

Embarazo en Adolescencia , Derecho a la Salud , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Malaui , Embarazo en Adolescencia/prevención & control , Salud Reproductiva , Conducta Sexual , Adulto Joven
Reprod Health ; 20(1): 166, 2023 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37946289


INTRODUCTION: Girls' and women's health as well as social and economic wellbeing are often negatively impacted by early childbearing. In many parts of Africa, adolescent girls who get pregnant often drop out of school, resulting in widening gender inequalities in schooling and economic participation. Few interventions have focused on education and economic empowerment of adolescent mothers in the region. We aim to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial in Blantyre (Malawi) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) to examine the acceptability and feasibility of three interventions in improving educational and health outcomes among adolescent mothers and to estimate the effect and cost-effectiveness of the three interventions in facilitating (re)entry into school or vocational training. We will also test the effect of the interventions on their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and mental health. INTERVENTIONS: The three interventions we will assess are: a cash transfer conditioned on (re)enrolment into school or vocational training, subsidized childcare, and life skills training offered through adolescent mothers' clubs. The life skills training will cover nurturing childcare, SRH, mental health, and financial literacy. Community health workers will facilitate the clubs. Each intervention will be implemented for 12 months. METHODS: We will conduct a baseline survey among adolescent mothers aged 10-19 years (N = 270, per site) enrolled following a household listing in select enumeration areas in each site. Adolescent mothers will be interviewed using a structured survey adapted from a previous survey on the lived experiences of pregnant and parenting adolescents in the two sites. Following the baseline survey, adolescent mothers will be individually randomly assigned to one of three study arms: arm one (adolescent mothers' clubs only); arm two (adolescent mothers' clubs + subsidized childcare), and arm three (adolescent mothers' clubs + subsidized childcare + cash transfer). At endline, we will re-administer the structured survey and assess the average treatment effect across the three groups following intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis, comparing school or vocational training attendance during the intervention period. We will also compare baseline and endline measures of SRH and mental health outcomes. Between the baseline and endline survey, we will conduct a process evaluation to examine the acceptability and feasibility of the interventions and to track the implementation of the interventions. DISCUSSION: Our research will generate evidence that provides insights on interventions that can enable adolescent mothers to continue their education, as well as improve their SRH and mental health. We aim to maximize the translation of the evidence into policy and action through sustained engagement from inception with key stakeholders and decision makers and strategic communication of research findings. Trial registration number AEARCTR-0009115, May 15, 2022.

Madres Adolescentes , Cuidado del Niño , Embarazo , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Burkina Faso , Malaui , Salud Reproductiva , Proyectos Piloto , Madres , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
Glob Health Action ; 16(1): 2279841, 2023 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010100


BACKGROUND: Sexual and reproductive health literacy is a key to attaining and maintaining sexual and reproductive health, especially among young people in low-income countries, such as sub-Saharan Africa. While the importance of sexual and reproductive health literacy is gaining wider recognition, studies on the topic have been mainly concentrated in high-income (developed) countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a coherent summary and synthesis of the available evidence on sexual and reproductive health literacy among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, with implications for policy, interventions, and research. METHODS: The review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute's methodology for reviews and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guideline to enhance the clarity and transparency of the reporting process. PubMed, CINAHL, AJOL, AIM, and Google Scholar were searched for evidence from 18 March to 20 May 2022. RESULTS: The search provided 2,682 articles in total, of which only 24 met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The findings revealed persistent sexual and reproductive health information/knowledge gaps, poor sexual and reproductive health-related knowledge and practices, lack of exercising sexual and reproductive health knowledge, and multiple determinants of sexual and reproductive health literacy among young people, ranging from personal to larger structural conditions. CONCLUSION: The review found that sexual and reproductive health literacy among young people in sub-Saharan Africa is concerning and has not been fully researched. A deeper understanding of the issue is essential for designing and implementing effective interventions to improve sexual and reproductive health literacy and health outcomes among young people.

Alfabetización en Salud , Salud Reproductiva , Humanos , Adolescente , Conducta Sexual , África del Sur del Sahara
BMJ Open ; 13(11): e073586, 2023 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000827


OBJECTIVES: Negative views of healthcare providers towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services deter adolescents from seeking vital SRH services. This paper assessed the impact of an intervention on the views and perceptions of healthcare providers towards the provision of adolescent SRH services. DESIGN AND SETTING: A descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted between 14 October and 19 November 2021 in six local government areas (LGAs) in Ebonyi state, southeast Nigeria, after the implementation of an intervention comprising of training and supportive supervision. PARTICIPANTS AND DATA COLLECTION: Data were collected through: (1) two in-depth interviews (IDIs) with LGA healthcare managers; (2) six IDIs with LGA adolescent health programme managers; (3) two focus group discussions (FGDs) with 15 primary healthcare facility managers; (4) two FGDs with 20 patent medicine vendors and (5) two FGDs with 17 community health volunteers. A total of six FGDs were held with 52 healthcare providers. The interviews were conducted using pretested interview guides. Transcripts were coded in NVivo (V.12) and themes were identified through inductive analysis. RESULTS: As a result of the intervention, most healthcare providers started recognising the rights of adolescents to obtain contraceptive services and no longer deny them access to contraceptive services. The providers also became friendlier and were no longer harsh in their interactions with adolescents. There were some unique findings relative to whether the providers were formal or informal healthcare providers. It was found that the informal healthcare providers were bolder and more comfortable delivering SRH services to adolescents and reported improved patronage by the adolescents. The formal healthcare providers made their facilities more conducive for adolescents by creating safe spaces and introducing extracurricular activities. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of the constant capacity building of both formal and informal healthcare providers, which can address healthcare providers' biases, views and perceptions of delivering SRH services to adolescents.

Creación de Capacidad , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Humanos , Adolescente , Nigeria , Estudios Transversales , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Conducta Sexual , Anticonceptivos , Personal de Salud , Salud Reproductiva , Investigación Cualitativa
Reprod Health ; 20(1): 174, 2023 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37996929


BACKGROUND: Globally, there are 42 million women and girls estimated to be forcibly displaced. Adolescent girls and young women in humanitarian settings have their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) neglected. This systematic review aimed to describe SRH obstacles that adolescent girls and young women (10-24 years old) face in humanitarian settings in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review in six databases, focusing on migrant women ages 10 - 24and their SRH outcomes. The mixed-methods appraisal tool was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. This review follows PRISMA and the Systematic Review Guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination recommendations. RESULTS: Among the 1290 studies screened by abstracts, 32 met the eligibility criteria: 15 were qualitative, 10 were quantitative and seven were mixed-methods studies. Most studies were performed in the last four years, in African countries. They discussed the increased frequency of adolescent pregnancies (16-23%), lack of contraceptive use and access (8-32%), poor menstrual hygiene management (lack of water, shortage of menstrual hygiene supplies), ignorance and stigma about sexually transmitted infections and HIV, a higher number of child, early and forced marriage or partnership and sexual and gender-based violence, challenging to obtain SRH information/knowledge/access, and unmet SRH needs. CONCLUSION: Migration is a current issue. Although there is a growing number of studies on adolescent girls and young women's SRH in humanitarian settings, this population remains overlooked, and face several challenges in SRH. There is a need for targeting interventions on SRH.

This systematic review describes the available evidence on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges faced by adolescent girls and young women in humanitarian settings. Thirty-two studies were analyzed, demonstrating poor SRH outcomes: higher incidence of adolescent pregnancy, lack of access to contraceptives and low rates of its use, precarious menstrual hygiene management (MHM), ignorance and stigma about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, higher rates of child, early and forced marriage or partnership (CEFMP) and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Identifying these challenges can help humanitarian actors address the SRH needs of these populations.

Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Salud Reproductiva , Embarazo , Niño , Femenino , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Higiene , Menstruación , Conducta Sexual
Health Policy Plan ; 38(Supplement_2): ii25-ii35, 2023 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37995266


In Kenya, the pregnancy rate of 15% among adolescents aged 15-19 years is alarmingly high. Adolescent girls living in informal urban settlements are exposed to rapid socio-economic transitions and multiple intersecting health risks and may be particularly disadvantaged in accessing sexual reproductive health services. Understanding vulnerabilities and service-seeking behaviours from different perspectives is important in order to support the development and implementation of progressive policies and services that meet adolescents' unique needs within urban informal settlements. This study explored policy makers, community health service providers' and community members' perceptions of access to, and delivery of, sexual reproductive health services for pregnant adolescents in one informal urban settlement in Nairobi. We employed qualitative methods with respondents throughout the health system, purposively sampled by gender and diversity of roles. We conducted focus group discussions with community members (n = 2 female-only; n = 2 male-only), key informant interviews with policy makers (n = 8), traditional birth attendants (n = 12), community health volunteers (CHVs) (n = 11), a nutritionist (n = 1), social workers (n = 2) and clinical officers (n = 2). We analysed the data using thematic analysis. Government policies and strategies on sexual and reproductive health for adolescents exist in Kenya and there are examples of innovative and inclusive practice within facilities. Key factors that support the provision of services to pregnant adolescents include devolved governance, and effective collaboration and partnerships, including with CHVs. However, inadequate financing and medical supplies, human resource shortages and stigmatizing attitudes from health providers and communities, mean that pregnant adolescents from informal urban settlements often miss out on critical services. The provision of quality, youth-friendly reproductive health services for this group requires policies and practice that seek to achieve reproductive justice through centring the needs and realities of pregnant adolescents, acknowledging the complex and intersecting social inequities they face.

Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Embarazo , Humanos , Adolescente , Femenino , Masculino , Kenia , Grupos Focales , Salud Reproductiva , Políticas