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5.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 156, 2019 12 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gendered disparities in health care delivery and outcomes are an international problem. Patient-centred care (PCC) improves patient and health system outcomes, and is widely advocated to reduce inequities. The purpose of this study was to review published research for frameworks of patient-centred care for women (PCCW) that could serve as the basis for quality improvement. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, and Joanna Briggs index for English-language quantitative or qualitative studies published from 2008 to 2018 that included at least 50% women aged 18 years or greater and employed or generated a PCCW framework. Findings were analyzed using a 6-domain PCC framework, and reported using summary statistics and narrative descriptions. RESULTS: A total of 9267 studies were identified, 6670 were unique, 6610 titles were excluded upon title/abstract screening, and 11 were deemed eligible from among 60 full-text articles reviewed. None were based on or generated a PCCW framework, included solely women, or analyzed or reported findings by gender. All studies explored or described PCC components through qualitative research or surveys. None of the studies addressed all 6 domains of an established PCC framework; however, additional PCC elements emerged in 9 of 11 studies including timely responses, flexible scheduling, and humanized management, meaning tailoring communication and treatment to individual needs and preferences. There were no differences in PCC domains between studies comprised primarily of women and other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Given the paucity of research on PCCW, primary research is needed to generate knowledge about PCCW processes, facilitators, challenges, interventions and impacts, which may give rise to a PCCW framework that could be used to plan, deliver, evaluate and improve PCCW.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/normas , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Mejoramiento de la Calidad
6.
Bull Hist Med ; 93(4): 550-576, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885016

RESUMEN

This essay examines the career of feminist journalist Barbara Seaman and her contribution to the circulation of health feminist ideas in the 1970s. Seaman, author of the influential exposé The Doctors' Case Against the Pill (1969), became a noted critic of women's health care and of gynecologists in particular. In her next book, Free and Female (1972), and in newspaper articles, interviews, and television appearances, she implored women to "liberate" themselves from their gynecologists and empower themselves in the arena of health care. Seaman's media engagement contributed to the development of a "popular health feminism" that took the ideas of the women's health movement public for mainstream audiences to consume and engage with.


Asunto(s)
Feminismo , Periodismo , Activismo Político , Salud de la Mujer/historia , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Médicos/normas
8.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(3): 465-469, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403594

RESUMEN

The Well-Woman Chart summarizes current recommendations for preventive health services for women from adolescence and continuing across the lifespan. It was developed by the Women's Preventive Services Initiative, a national collaborative of women's health professional organizations and patient representatives. The Well-Woman Chart includes current clinical guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Bright Futures from the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Women's Preventive Services Initiative that are covered with no cost-sharing for public and most private insurance plans under the prevention service mandate of the Affordable Care Act. The structure of the Well-Woman Chart is based on age intervals and pregnancy status categories that align with existing recommendations. The target audience for the Well-Woman Chart is all clinicians providing preventive health care for women, particularly in primary care settings, and patients affected by the recommendations. The preventive services recommendations apply to females 13 years of age and older and pregnant females of any age. The Well-Woman Chart provides clinical guidance for screening, counseling, and other recommended preventive services for women during health care visits based on age, pregnancy status, and risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Preventivos de Salud/normas , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres/normas , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(3): 470-480, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403968

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence affects 15-71% of women over their lifetime, resulting in significant stress, negative health effects, and negative economic effects. Features include physical and sexual abuse as well as psychological abuse and controlling behaviors such as reproductive coercion or stalking. Intimate partner violence can occur in both heterosexual and same-sex relationships, though the risk may be higher in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning couples. Pregnancy remains an especially risky time for escalating abuse and also provides a window of opportunity for screening and intervention. Victims experience many consequences of abuse, including physical injuries, traumatic brain injury, and chronic conditions such as headaches, insomnia, pelvic pain, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Homicide is an especially devastating consequence, with 40-45% of female victims killed by an intimate partner, and homicide remains an important cause of pregnancy-related death. Routine screening is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, and obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) should remain vigilant for signs of abuse in their patients. Often the cycle of abuse makes it difficult for women to break free, and ob-gyns should continue to provide supportive care regardless of a woman's readiness to leave an abusive relationship.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Ginecología/normas , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obstetricia/normas , Embarazo , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Adulto Joven
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(2): 365-375, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306323

RESUMEN

The opioid epidemic is a public health crisis, and pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality due to substance use highlights the need to prioritize substance use as a major patient safety issue. To assist health care providers with this process and mitigate the effect of substance use on maternal and fetal safety, the National Partnership for Maternal Safety within the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care has created a patient safety bundle to reduce adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes associated with substance use. The Consensus Bundle on Obstetric Care for Women with Opioid Use Disorder provides a series of evidence-based recommendations to standardize and improve the quality of health care services for pregnant and postpartum women with opioid use disorder, which should be implemented in every maternity care setting. A series of implementation resources have been created to help providers, hospitals, and health systems translate guidelines into clinical practice, and multiple state-level Perinatal Quality Collaboratives are developing quality improvement initiatives to facilitate the bundle-adoption process. Structure, process, and outcome metrics have also been developed to monitor the adoption of evidence-based practices and ensure consistency in clinical care.


Asunto(s)
Obstetricia/normas , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Materna/normas , Embarazo
11.
Midwifery ; 76: 36-44, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154158

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Effective antenatal care is important for the health and wellbeing of pregnant women and infants. However, in Saudi Arabia, attendance rates are low, increasing the risk of negative birth outcomes. The aim of this research is to understand the beliefs of pregnant women and health professionals about the factors leading to these low attendance rates. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative exploratory study-using semi structured face-to-face interviews. Interviews were conducted exploring (a) attitudes to the use of antenatal care by pregnant Saudi women, (b) beliefs of women regarding the value of antenatal care and (c) perceived barriers to attendance. SETTING: Data were collected from three hospitals in two regions of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: Women at any stage of their pregnancy attending for antenatal care or ultrasound, women attending postnatal clinic, and health professionals (obstetricians) who support women during pregnancy and birth. FINDINGS: Although mothers viewed antenatal care as important for maternal and infant health, several barriers to attending care were identified by mothers and professionals. These factors were classified into three themes: physical barriers (e.g., lack of transport), low maternal education, and inadequate healthcare facilities (including negative staff attitudes and poor communication). These factors were exacerbated by the beliefs of partners and family. Notably, the theme of low maternal education was raised only by health professionals, whilst the theme of staff attitudes and communication was raised only by mothers. KEY CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to antenatal care exist at the personal, social, socioeconomic and health services level. Some health professionals may be unaware of the importance of their communication style. Interventions to improve attendance must be multifaceted rather than focussing on individual women alone. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Barriers for women attending antenatal healthcare must be addressed in order to increase attendance rates. Specific practice-based interventions may involve changing the time or location of services and exploring changes to staff communication with women.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/psicología , Atención Prenatal/normas , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/psicología , Adulto , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Citas y Horarios , Femenino , Personal de Salud/tendencias , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Humanos , Madres/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/tendencias , Investigación Cualitativa , Arabia Saudita , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Salud de la Mujer/tendencias
12.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e024861, 2019 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122967

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Low-income and middle-income countries such as Tanzania experience a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including anaemia. Studying if and how anaemia affects growth, placenta development, epigenetic patterns and newborns' risk of NCDs may provide approaches to prevent NCDs. PARTICIPANTS: The FOETALforNCD (FOetal Exposure and Epidemiological Transitions: the role of Anaemia in early Life for Non-Communicable Diseases in later life) Study is a population-based preconception, pregnancy and birth cohort study (n=1415, n=538, n=427, respectively), conducted in a rural region of North-East Tanzania. All participants were recruited prior to conception or early in pregnancy and followed throughout pregnancy as well as at birth. Data collection included: maternal blood, screening for NCDs and malaria, ultrasound in each trimester, neonatal anthropometry at birth and at 1 month of age, cord blood, placental and cord biopsies for stereology and epigenetic analyses. FINDINGS TO DATE: At preconception, the average age, body mass index and blood pressure of the women were 28 years, 23 kg/m2 and 117/75 mm Hg, respectively. In total, 458 (36.7%) women had anaemia (haemoglobin Hb <12 g/dL) and 34 (3.6%) women were HIV-positive at preconception. During pregnancy 359 (66.7%) women had anaemia of which 85 (15.8%) women had moderate-to-severe anaemia (Hb ≤9 g/dL) and 33 (6.1%) women had severe anaemia (Hb ≤8 g/dL). In total, 185 (34.4%) women were diagnosed with malaria during pregnancy. FUTURE PLANS: The project will provide new knowledge on how health, even before conception, might modify the risk of developing NCDs and how to promote better health during pregnancy. The present project ended data collection 1 month after giving birth, but follow-up is continuing through regular monitoring of growth and development and health events according to the National Road Map Strategic Plan in Tanzania. This data will link fetal adverse event to childhood development, and depending on further grant allocation, through a life course follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Malaria , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Complicaciones Hematológicas del Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Adulto , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/epidemiología , Desarrollo Infantil , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Epigenómica , Femenino , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Atención Preconceptiva/métodos , Atención Preconceptiva/normas , Atención Preconceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Hematológicas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Hematológicas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/diagnóstico , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Endokrynol Pol ; 70(2): 198-212, 2019.
Artículo en Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039273

RESUMEN

Women with PCOS are characterised by ovarian hyperandrogenism, which, apart from fertility problems, hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia, also leads to the development of central (android) obesity and its adverse metabolic consequences. Additionally, women with PCOS have intrinsic insulin resistance (IR) with its consequent hyperinsulinaemia, which leads to the development of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which give rise to cardiovascular disease (CVD), being the main cause of death among women. Although there are several publications on the topic of life-style changes in women with PCOS to normalise body weight and thus to reduce the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity, such as T2DM and CVD, the number of randomised studies that would enable the formation of strong recommendations is very limited. Nevertheless, taking into consideration the pathophysiology, any intervention implementing healthy dietary habits leading to the reduction of body weigh should be the core of non-pharmacological treatment in women with PCOS. The aim of the given recommendations herein is to point out and systemise the interventions on lifestyle change in women with PCOS as well as to form a practical guideline for the health care specialists, dieticians, and mental-therapists (psychologist) who take care of women with this syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Educación en Salud/normas , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/terapia , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina , Síndrome Metabólico/prevención & control , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/prevención & control , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Pérdida de Peso
14.
J Phys Act Health ; 16(5): 355-361, 2019 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975016

RESUMEN

Background: The relationship between specific characteristics of physical activity (PA) (eg, intensity, type, frequency) with sex hormones is uncertain. The authors evaluated the association between characteristics of PA and circulating sex hormones. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Women's Lifestyle Validation Study (n = 493). Total PA, light-intensity PA (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) were assessed by accelerometry (a) and self-report (sr). Self-report was used to assess PA type (ie, aerobic, weight training) and exercise frequency. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were assayed among all women; estradiol was assayed in postmenopausal women not currently on hormone therapy. Results: Estradiol was inversely associated and SHBG positively associated with MVPA and LPA (estradiol: ß = -0.15 per SD increase, P ≤ .01 for a-MVPA and a-LPA; SHBG: a-MVPA ß = 0.20 per SD increase, P ≤ .01, a-LPA ß = 0.15, P < .01). By type, aerobic activity and weight training were each independently associated with estradiol and SHBG. Controlling for body mass index attenuated all associations for estradiol, and to a lesser extent SHBG. PA was not associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Multiple aspects of PA were independently associated with sex hormones; associations varied some by activity intensity and type, and were attenuated after accounting for body mass index.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Hormonas Esteroides Gonadales/metabolismo , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Estudios de Validación como Asunto
15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(5): 842-856, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954288

RESUMEN

Sexual problems are common in women of all ages. Despite their frequency and impact, female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) are often unrecognized and untreated in clinical settings. In response, the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health convened a multidisciplinary, international expert panel to develop a process of care (POC) that outlines recommendations for identification of sexual problems in women. This POC describes core and advanced competencies in FSD for clinicians who are not sexual medicine specialists and serve as caregivers of women and, therefore, is useful for clinicians with any level of competence in sexual medicine. The POC begins with the expectation of universal screening for sexual concerns, proceeds with a 4-step model (eliciting the story, naming/reframing attention to the problem, empathic witnessing of the patient's distress and the problem's impact, and referral or assessment and treatment) that accommodates all levels of engagement, and delineates a process for referral when patients' needs exceed clinician expertise. Distressing problems related to desire, arousal, and orgasm affect 12% of women across the lifespan. Low desire is the most common sexual problem, but sexual pain and other less common disorders of arousal and orgasm are also seen in clinical practice. Screening is best initiated by a ubiquity statement that assures the patient that sexual concerns are common and can be revealed. Patient-centered communication skills facilitate and optimize the discussion. The goal of the POC is to provide guidance to clinicians regarding screening, education, management, and referral for women with sexual problems.


Asunto(s)
Disfunciones Sexuales Fisiológicas , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas , Salud Sexual/normas , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Competencia Clínica , Empatía , Femenino , Humanos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/métodos , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Derivación y Consulta/normas , Disfunciones Sexuales Fisiológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunciones Sexuales Fisiológicas/terapia , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/terapia , Sociedades Médicas
17.
MedEdPORTAL ; 15: 10797, 2019 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800997

RESUMEN

Introduction: Genetics is ubiquitous in OB-GYN. However, data suggest that trainees feel underprepared to counsel patients about genetic testing, the nuances of which are becoming increasingly complicated. We sought to develop and implement a genetics curriculum for OB-GYN residents. Methods: This five-module (screening for fetal aneuploidy, prenatal diagnostic testing, prenatal carrier screening, pedigrees, and cancer genetics), interactive, case-based curriculum is linked to Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology objectives and can stand alone or work as part of an ultrasound or obstetrics rotation. Each module, containing objectives, assigned readings, and cases with answers, is used in a small-group format and can be completed in 20-30 minutes prior to the start of a clinical day. Modules were implemented at two academic centers with first-year OB-GYN residents. Qualitative real-time feedback and summative quantitative feedback from OB-GYN residents were obtained. Results: Twenty-one OB-GYN residents completed the curriculum, which was well received by trainees and program directors. All residents (100%) felt the curriculum increased knowledge of prenatal genetics and felt more comfortable counseling patients after completion. Seventy-three percent enjoyed the discussion/case-based format; associated articles were found helpful by 100% of trainees. Facilitators enjoyed teaching the curriculum and felt learner knowledge improved dramatically. Discussion: These low-cost modules were easy to implement and resulted in increased knowledge and confidence in prenatal and cancer genetics. Designed to stand alone and take as little as 20 minutes, the modules provide a helpful adjunct to a women's health rotation or didactic curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Genética/educación , Internado y Residencia/métodos , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Aneuploidia , Prácticas Clínicas/métodos , Femenino , Genes Relacionados con las Neoplasias/genética , Tamización de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Asesoramiento Genético/normas , Ginecología/educación , Humanos , Conocimiento , Obstetricia/educación , Embarazo/genética , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ultrasonografía Prenatal/normas
19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(1): 53-57, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623912

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine women's exposure to domestic violence, it's affecting factors and coping methods. METHODS: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2017 and comprised married women living in Kesan, a district in the Turkish province of Edirne. A self-generated questionnaire was used to gather sociodemographic data and women's exposure to domestic violence. SPSS 16 was used to analyse data. RESULTS: Of the 586 subjects, 321(55%) were aged up to 40 years, while 265(45%) were aged 41 years or more. Domestic violence was reported by 156(26.6%) women. Beating ranked first among physical violence behavior reported by 83(14.2%) subjects. Name-calling and yelling ranked first among verbal violence behaviour reported by 118(20.1%). Keeping women at a certain distance rankedfirst among emotional violence behaviour, reported by 95(16.2%). Not purchasing the fundamental needs of the home ranked first among the economic violence behaviour, reported by 38(6.5%). Finally, 14(2.4%) reported being physically forced to engage in a sexual act, which ranked first among sexual violence behaviour. From among the women abused, 114(66.7%) women said violence occurred because of the instant anger of their partners, and 69(44.2%)said they did not apply to any officialinstitution for help. CONCLUSIONS: Women preferred to remain silent about domestic violence. There is a need to introduce urgent prevention programmes to end domestic violence.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Maltratadas/psicología , Violencia Doméstica , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología , Abuso Físico , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Necesidades , Abuso Físico/prevención & control , Abuso Físico/psicología , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia/epidemiología , Salud de la Mujer/normas
20.
Encephale ; 45(6): 527-529, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301569

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence exists everywhere in the world. It depends mainly on the cultural and religious norms conveyed in the various societies. This is a neglected area of research. Available data are insufficient, especially in Arab-Muslim context. METHODS: In this paper, we comprehensively review the scientific literature in order to clarify the cultural, religious and legal aspects of the concept of sexual violence against women in Tunisia, and ask the question of the urgent need to put in place strategies to counter this problem. RESULTS: The National Office for Family and Population published in 2011 the results of the national survey on violence against women in Tunisia, including data on sexual violence and its impact on women's health and well-being. According to this survey, 14.2% of women reported having been sexually abused by an intimate partner during their lifetime and 9.0% reported having experienced it during the last 12 months. One out of every six Tunisian women has been the victim of a sexual violence in a conjugal setting. More men than women legitimized violence against women in contexts where family control, especially conjugal control, is exercised over them. In a study examining the impact of culture and religion on experiences and sexual practice of women in Tunisian society, the majority of respondents thought that sexuality in women was a religious duty and that they do not have the right to refuse their husbands or to rebel. Thus, women would be doubly sanctioned having neither the right to express their desire nor not to respond to their husband's desire. A survey of a representative sample of Tunisian women found that 56.9% of the participants reported being victims of domestic violence, particularly sexual violence (10.7%) consisting mainly of rape and sodomy, at least once in their lifetime. This survey showed that those victims expressed dissatisfaction with overall quality of life. Moreover, contrary to Western literature, sexual violence was the least reported form of violence by teenage girls in Tunisian schools. Indeed, cultural values of modesty, virginity and honor are socially much more demanded for girls, in Arab countries in general, reinforcing staggering silence and inaction around violence experienced by school-aged adolescents. In Tunisian society, the cultural "solution" to rape wants the woman to marry her rapist which safeguards her family's integrity by legitimizing the union. CONCLUSION: Sexual violence has detrimental effects on female victims' physical and mental health. Even if the information on this form of violence is not easy to obtain in our environment, and that rates of subjects reporting sexual violence in their lifetimes are not important, the problem of sexual violence must be considered as a public health problem requiring urgent interventions and a greater institutional will.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Maltratadas/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mujeres Maltratadas/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/etnología , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Incesto/etnología , Incesto/psicología , Incesto/estadística & datos numéricos , Matrimonio/etnología , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Violación/psicología , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/etnología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Normas Sociales/etnología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Maltrato Conyugal/etnología , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Maltrato Conyugal/estadística & datos numéricos , Revelación de la Verdad , Túnez/epidemiología , Salud de la Mujer/etnología , Salud de la Mujer/normas , Salud de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Derechos de la Mujer/normas
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