Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.592
Filtrar
1.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(2): 262-267, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953815

RESUMEN

National Health Mission instituted the Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) in 2005, with an aim of ensuring health and well-being for local communities in India. There is a lack of concrete evidence on the functioning of VHSNCs at a national level. Thus, this study was undertaken to outline the roles, responsibilities, and functions of VHSNCs in India. We conducted a comprehensive data search in Medline, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and Google Scholar between 2005 and August 2021. All peer-reviewed qualitative studies that reported the roles, responsibilities, functions, and good practices of VHSNCs from India were included in our review. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist was used to assess the quality of individual studies. In total, we included 15 studies (including 1100+ VHSNCs) from various states of India. Our review highlighted that the majority of the VHSNCs functioned without a clear-cut definition of roles and responsibilities had irregular meetings and workforce shortage. There was a lack of inclusivity, accountability, and delay in the processing of untied funds. The included studies have showed that VHSNCs were involved health promotional activities such as formulation and implementation of village health plans, delivery of services through public distribution systems, ensuring safe drinking water and sanitary supervision, and identification and referral of malnourished children. Our review highlights the crucial role that VHSNCs play in improving the health outcomes of rural populations and underscores the need for continued support and capacity-building efforts to ensure their effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Saneamiento , India , Humanos , Saneamiento/normas , Investigación Cualitativa , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Rol Profesional , Comités Consultivos/organización & administración
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1352275, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947353

RESUMEN

Introduction: Diarrheal disease is a global public health concern, particularly in low-income countries. In Ghana, widespread issues like inadequate sanitation, unsafe drinking water, malnutrition, and poor hygiene practices contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea. Climate change exacerbates these challenges by increasing the frequency and severity of conditions that spread diarrheal diseases. This study explores households' knowledge, understanding, and management practices for diarrhea in climate change-vulnerable coastal communities. Methods: The study is set in Ghana's central (Mumford, Opetekwei) and eastern (Anyako, Anyanui-Atiteti) coastlines. Using a cross-sectional study design, a structured questionnaire was administered to randomly sampled households (n = 419) to collect quantitative data. The study collected qualitative data from focus group discussions (n = 8), with groups separated into men and women, key informant interviews, and observations of food, water, and sanitation conditions across the studied communities. Results and discussion: The study found significant variations between the studied communities and socio-demographic variables except for the respondents' gender. Multivariate regression analyses identified significant associations between socio-demographic variables (especially gender and educational status) and perceptions of diarrhea causes. The most used first management action against diarrhea is 'over-the-counter drugs', followed by home-made traditional remedies. Significant differences were observed in the usage of management practices across the studied communities. Trust, affordability, and availability were identified as the main factors influencing households' use of approved pharmaceutical drugs and traditional herbal remedies for managing behavior, with significant differences being observed across communities. The study recommends a multi-sectoral approach, including improved access to regularly flowing, safe water and sanitation facilities, education on preventing diarrhea, and adequate healthcare services. Community-based interventions such as promoting good hygiene practices at homes and community settings such as schools, lorry parks, funeral grounds, and recreational areas can also effectively reduce the burden of diarrhea.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Diarrea , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Ghana , Diarrea/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Adulto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Focales , Saneamiento , Higiene , Composición Familiar
3.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 9(1): 23, 2024 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Environmental factors greatly impact infectious disease-related mortality, yet there's a lack of comprehensive global studies on the contemporary burden and trends. This study aims to evaluate the global burden and trends of infectious disease mortality caused by air pollution, unsafe water, poor sanitation, and non-optimal temperature across Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) regions from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: This observational study utilized data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study to examine mortality rates from infectious diseases attributed to environmental risk factors between 1990 and 2019, including air pollution, unsafe water, sanitation, handwashing facilities (UWSH), and non-optimal temperatures. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) and estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) were utilized to present infectious disease mortality, and its trajectory influenced by environmental risk factors over the years. Nonlinear regression was conducted to explore the association between the SDI and ASMRs across regions from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: In 2019, global infectious disease deaths linked to air pollution, UWSH, and non-optimal temperature reached a startling 2,556,992. Disease mortality varied widely across SDI regions, with the highest number of deaths due to air pollution and UWSH in Low SDI regions, and deaths from non-optimal temperature primarily in High SDI regions. Age disparities emerged, with children under five and the elderly most affected. However, an increasing mortality trend was observed among seniors (65-69, 75-79, and over 80) in High SDI regions due to enteric infections linked to UWSH. Globally, a consistent decrease in ASMR was seen from 1990 to 2019 for all diseases connected to these factors, except for respiratory infections linked to non-optimal temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Our study underscores the significant impact of air pollution, UWSH, and non-optimal temperatures on global infectious disease mortality, particularly among vulnerable groups such as children and the elderly. It's important to tackle these challenges with targeted interventions aiming to enhance environmental quality, improve water and sanitation systems, and control extreme temperatures. In addition, international cooperation is essential for bridging regional disparities and driving global public health initiatives forward, thereby helping achieve Sustainable Development Goals more effectively.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Higiene , Saneamiento , Temperatura , Humanos , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Transmisibles/mortalidad , Enfermedades Transmisibles/etiología , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Anciano , Preescolar , Niño
4.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04141, 2024 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38939947

RESUMEN

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) poses significant health and social challenges for women, particularly in slums characterised by limited access to basic amenities like water and sanitation facilities. This study aimed to investigate the association between accessibility of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities and IPV among women in Kibra, Nairobi county, Kenya. Methods: A cross-sectional study design utilising a modified Demographic Health and Survey questionnaire was conducted among women aged 15-49 in Kibra slums. Data on water and sanitation accessibility and IPV experiences were collected from 1068 participants. Quantitative analysis by use of logistic regression, was conducted to assess associations between WASH accessibility and IPV. Results: Among the participants, 64.0% reported experiences of IPV. Women who had access to water inside household; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.44 (95% CI = 0.31-0.64) and sanitation AOR = 0.57 (95% CI = 0.37-0.88) had decreased odds of experiencing IPV whereas reliance on external water sources such as outside pipes AOR = 18.18 (95% CI = 8.62-38.33) or vendors AOR = 14.42 (95% CI = 6.88-30.24) had heightened IPV vulnerability. Conclusions: Access to clean water and sanitation is associated with reduced likelihood of women experiencing IPV in slums whereas access to water outside household is associated with increased likelihood of experiencing IPV. Connecting households with water to improve access and construction of adequate sanitation facilities may protect women against intimate partner violence in slums.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Áreas de Pobreza , Saneamiento , Abastecimiento de Agua , Humanos , Femenino , Kenia/epidemiología , Adulto , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 95, 2024 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38926857

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a preventable disease affecting children under five years disproportionately. Globally, thousands of children die from diarrhoea related diseases each year, most deaths occuring in sub-Saharan Africa where Ghana is located. Coastal communities bear the greatest brunt due to poor sanitary conditions. We assess the prevalence of diarrhoea in selected coastal communities along the eastern coast of Ghana. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Mumford, Opetekwei, Anyako, Anyauni and Ateteti communities in the Central, Greater Accra and Volta region respectively. We interviewed households with children under five years on the occurrence of diarrhoea and health seeking practices. We also used a checklist to assess the sanitary conditions of the household. Frequencies and proportions were generated. We determined significant differences using modified Poisson regression models at p < 0.05. Results were presented in tables and text. RESULTS: The prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 36% (95% CI 33-40%). Most cases were from Anyako community. All interviewed households in Mumford and Opetekwei used improved water sources whiles 94% in Atetetio used improved water sources. Children who were fully vaccinated had 32% lower prevalence of diarrhoea compared to those who were not (aPR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.84). CONCLUSION: Diarrhoea prevalence was high inspite of the reported use of improved water sources and sanitation facilities by majority of households in the communities. Fully vaccinated children had a relatively lower prevalence of diarrhoea compared to children who were not fully vaccinated. We recommend in-depth analysis of the use of water and sanitation facilities in these settings to understand the reasons for the observed diarrhoea prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea , Saneamiento , Humanos , Ghana/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Diarrea/epidemiología , Lactante , Prevalencia , Preescolar , Femenino , Masculino , Abastecimiento de Agua , Composición Familiar , Recién Nacido , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 12(3)2024 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834532

RESUMEN

In sanitation policies, "improved sanitation" is often broadly described as a goal with little rationale for the minimum standard required. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial in rural Ethiopia. We compared the performance of well-constructed and poorly constructed pit latrines in reducing child diarrhea. In addition, we explored whether having a well-constructed household latrine provides indirect protection to neighbors if cluster-level coverage reaches a certain threshold. We followed up children aged younger than 5 years (U5C) of 906 households in rural areas of the Gurage zone, Ethiopia, for 10 months after community-led total sanitation interventions. A study-improved latrine was defined as having all the following: pit of ≥2 m depth, slab of any material, drop-hole cover, wall, roof, door, and handwashing facilities (water and soap observed). U5C in households with a study-improved latrine had 54% lower odds of contracting diarrhea than those living in households with a latrine missing 1 or more of the characteristics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27, 0.81; P=.006). Analyses were adjusted for child age and sex, presence of improved water for drinking, and self-reported handwashing at 4 critical times. The odds of having diarrhea among those with an improved latrine based on the World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) definition (i.e., pit latrines with slabs) were not substantially different from those with a JMP-unimproved latrine (aOR=0.99; 95% CI=0.56, 1.79; P=.99). Of U5C living in households without a latrine or with a study-unimproved latrine, those in the high-coverage villages were less likely to contract diarrhea than those in low-coverage villages (aOR=0.55; 95% CI=0.35, 0.86; P=.008). We recommend that academic studies and routine program monitoring and evaluation should measure more latrine characteristics and evaluate multiple latrine categories instead of making binary comparisons only.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Cuartos de Baño , Humanos , Etiopía , Diarrea/prevención & control , Diarrea/epidemiología , Preescolar , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Composición Familiar
8.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 63(4): 435-468, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889358

RESUMEN

This study identifies multiple pathways connecting household water insecurity with child nutrition. Using nationally representative samples for 18 countries, we examine the mediating role of child's dietary diversity as a function of household water status, while also accounting for sanitation. We construct a latent household water insecurity score (HWI) and use Structural Equation approach to model underlying pathways. HWI affected child's HAZ score and hemoglobin both directly and indirectly, with a mediation from child feeding alongside effects from sanitation. Broadening the conception of household water insecurity and accommodating the indirect effects of water could improve explanations of child under-nutrition.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Inseguridad Hídrica , Humanos , Preescolar , Saneamiento , Estado Nutricional , Femenino , Lactante , Masculino , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Dieta , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Niño , Abastecimiento de Agua
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1355613, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859897

RESUMEN

Introduction: In Ethiopia, despite major improvements seen in health service delivery system, the country continues to be significantly affected by cholera outbreaks. Cholera remains a significant public health problem among the vulnerable populations living in many resource-limited settings with poor access to safe and clean water and hygiene practices. Recurring cholera outbreaks are an indication of deprived water and sanitation conditions as well as weak health systems, contributing to the transmission and spread of the cholera infection. Objective: To assess the cholera outbreak, its challenges, and the way forward on public health interventions to solve the knowledge and health service delivery gaps related to cholera control in Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: Active surveillance of the cholera outbreak was conducted in all kebeles and town administrative of Guraghe zone from 7/8/2023 to 30/10/2023. A total of 224 cholera cases were detected during the active surveillance method. Data obtained from Guraghe zone offices were exported to SPSS version 25 for additional analysis. The case fatality rate, incidence of the cases, and other descriptive variables were presented and described using figures and tables. Result: A total of 224 cholera cases were detected through an active surveillance system. In this study, the case fatality rate of cholera outbreak was 2.6%. To tackle the cholera outbreak, the Guraghe zone health office collaborated with other stakeholders to prepare four cholera treatment centers. The absence of OCV, inaccessible safe water, low latrine coverage, inappropriate utilization of latrines, and absence of cholera laboratory rapid diagnostics test in Guraghe Zone are barriers to tackling the outbreak. Conclusion: Ethiopia National Cholera Plan targeted eradicating cholera by 2030, 222 cholera outbreak occurred in Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia. To minimize and control cholera mortality rate oral cholera vaccinations should be employed in all areas of the region. Sustainable WASH measures should be guaranteed for the use of safe water and good hygiene practices. Early diagnosis and treatment should be initiated appropriately for those who are infected.


Asunto(s)
Cólera , Brotes de Enfermedades , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/prevención & control , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Adolescente , Femenino , Masculino , Saneamiento , Salud Pública , Adulto , Niño , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Preescolar , Incidencia
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12890, 2024 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839887

RESUMEN

This study uses linked administrative data on live births, hospital stays, and census records for children born in Hungary between 2006 and 2011 to examine the relationship between poor housing quality and the health of newborns and children aged 1-2 years. We show that poor housing quality, defined as lack of access to basic sanitation and exposure to polluting heating, is not a negligible problem even in a high-income EU country like Hungary. This is particularly the case for disadvantaged children, 20-25% of whom live in extremely poor-quality homes. Next, we provide evidence that poor housing quality is strongly associated with lower health at birth and a higher number of days spent in inpatient care at the age of 1-2 years. These results indicate that lack of access to basic sanitation, hygiene, and non-polluting heating and their health impacts cannot be considered as the exclusive problem for low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, there is also a need for public policy programs that identify those affected by poor housing quality and offer them potential solutions to reduce the adverse effects on their health.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Femenino , Hungría , Masculino , Saneamiento/normas , Salud Infantil
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305054, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848329

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children under the age of five experience a significant disease burden from diarrheal illnesses. This poses a severe public health risk as the second leading cause of infant death worldwide, after pneumonia. Lira City in Uganda is one of the developing urban areas with limited information about the diarrheal disease among children under the age of 5 years. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and assess the water, sanitation and hygiene related factors associated with diarrheal diseases among children under five years in Lira City. METHODS: The study was conducted among 492 care takers of children under the age of 5 years in Lira City between August 2022 and September 2022. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire and a multi-stage sampling was used to select study participants. Data was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression using STATA version 17. P-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 541 participants, 492 responded. The majority of the respondents, 425(86.4%) were female, 146(29.7%) had children aged 1-12 months, 192 (39%) had primary level education, and 155(31.5%) were self-employed. The prevalence of diarrhea among children under five years was 130(26.4%) and the associated factors with diarrheal disease were children between 49-60 months old (AOR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.03-0.39, P = 0.001), cleaning the latrine more times (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.22-0.81, P = 0.010) and not treating water (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.11-3.06, P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: There is high prevalence of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. The study's findings highlight the need for ongoing efforts to lower the prevalence of diarrheal illnesses among children under the age of five in Uganda's emerging urban areas.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea , Higiene , Saneamiento , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Diarrea/epidemiología , Preescolar , Lactante , Higiene/normas , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1484, 2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831296

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Poor sanitation and/or open defecation are a significant public health problem in Ethiopia, where access to improved sanitation facilities is still limited. There is a growing body of literature about the effect of open defecation on children's linear growth failure. However, very few studies about the effects of open defecation on child anemia exist. In this study, we examine whether childhood undernutrition (i.e. stunting, wasting, and underweight) mediates the relationship between open defecation and childhood anemia in children aged 6-59 months in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used pooled Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data (2005-2016) comprising 21,918 (weighted data) children aged 6-59 months. Anemia was defined as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) level of less than 11 g/deciliter (g/dl) for children under 5 years. Childhood undernutrition was assessed using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), and weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ) for stunting, wasting, and underweight respectively. Mediation effects were calculated using the bootstrap and the indirect effect was considered significant when the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals (95% CI) did not contain zero. Moreover, separate multilevel regression analyses were used to explore the statistical association between open defecation and child anemia, after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that nearly half (49.6%) of children aged 6 to 59 months were anemic, 46.8% were stunted, 9.9% were wasted, and 29.5% were underweight. Additionally, 45.1% of children belonged to households that practiced open defecation (OD). Open defecation was associated with anemia (AOR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.18-1.39) and it positively predicted anemia with direct effect of ß = 0.233, p < 0.001. Childhood undernutrition showed a partial mediating role in the relationship between OD and anemia. Analyzing the indirect effects, results revealed that child undernutrition significantly mediated the relationship between open defecation and anemia (stunting (ßindirect = 0.014, p < 0.001), wasting (ßindirect = 0.009, p = 0.002), and underweight (ßindirect = 0.012, p < 0.001)). When the mediating role of child undernutrition was accounted for, open defecation had a positive impact on anemia with a total effect of ßtotal = 0.285, p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Open defecation showed a significant direct effect on anemia. Child undernutrition remarkably mediated the relationship between OD and anemia that further magnified the effect. This finding has an important programmatic implication calling for strengthened, accelerated and large-scale implementation of strategies to end open defecation and achieve universal access to sanitation in Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Humanos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Lactante , Preescolar , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Anemia/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Defecación/fisiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología , Saneamiento , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Delgadez/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 27: e240029, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896649

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the consistency of data regarding the provision of fluoridation in Brazilian municipalities with water supply systems. METHODS: Official data from the National Basic Sanitation Survey and the National Information System on Sanitation for 2017 were compared. RESULTS: Out of 5,570 municipalities in Brazil, 4,546 (81.6%) had water supply systems. The agreement between data sources was 84%, with a Kappa of 0.668, indicating substantial agreement. However, the estimates of fluoridation provision exhibited an average discrepancy of 8.1 percentage points, ranging from 1.2 points in the Central-West region to 21.4 points in the Northeast region. CONCLUSION: To address these inconsistencies, it is essential to enhance information sources, ensuring more reliable data for health, sanitation authorities, and society at large.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruración , Brasil , Fluoruración/estadística & datos numéricos , Fluoruración/normas , Humanos , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Saneamiento/normas , Ciudades
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 172, 2024 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902762

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hospital sanitation workers (SWs) are exposed to numerous occupational hazards due to workplace conditions such as unsafe and unhygienic working environment in the hospitals. Therefore, knowing magnitude, types and source of occupational hazard exposures with their determinants are very significant for further mitigations. METHODS: Hospital based cross-sectional study design was conducted in public hospitals, eastern Ethiopia from 1st May to August 30th, 2023. 809 SWs participated. Data was entered into Epi Data Version 3.1 and Stata 17MP version used for analysis. Descriptive analysis was applied to describe the data. While, multilevel logistic regression was explored to determine the association between outcome and independents among at individual level (model 1), at hospitals (model 2) and combination of the two (model 3). The crude odds ratio (COR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for models 2 and 3 were reported. Variables with an AOR with a 95% confidence interval (CI) at a p-value < 0.05 were reported. RESULT: Out of 809 SWs, 729 (90.11%) responded. The overall magnitude of self-reported occupational hazard exposures among SWs was 63.65% (95% CI 0.60-0.67). Of this, biological, chemical, and ergonomic hazards accounted for 82.44%, 74.76%, and 70.92%, respectively. The multilevel logistic regression shows that having social recognition (AOR: 0.37, 95% CI 0.14, 0.91), neutral attitude (AOR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.17, 1.41) as compared to negative attitude. The model also found that SWs those supervised could reduce the likelihood of occupational hazard exposures by 50% times (AOR: 0.50, 95% CI 0.18, 1.38) as compared to non-supervised SWs. The final model predicted the variation of occupational hazard exposures among sanitary workers from the hospitals to hospitals was 26.59%. CONCLUSIONS: The concluded that hospital sanitary workers are facing biological, chemical, ergonomic, physical, psychological, mechanical, and electrical hazards. This study's findings predicted that dissatisfied with their environment, working more than 8 hr per a day,  a negative attitude towards workplace risks and inadequate supervision may serve as contributing factors for the likelihood of occupational hazard exposures among these groups. Thus, the study suggested that hospitals could reduce these hazard risks if they implement the Risk Assessment and Safety Management (RASM) model, which includes multi-modal strategies, indicators and tripartite philosophy.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Públicos , Exposición Profesional , Humanos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Hospitales Públicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Adulto , Femenino , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Saneamiento , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Personal de Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Lugar de Trabajo
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1379232, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864013

RESUMEN

Background: Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a virus that occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has spread to several countries. Although interventions in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) for COVID-19 are likely a pre-existing response to childhood diarrhea, evidence of the effects of COVID-19 preventative strategies on childhood diarrhea has been lacking. This study aimed to assess the implications of COVID-19 prevention for the occurrence of childhood diarrhea in rural communities of Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 May 2020 to 30 July 2020 involving selected households in the Semen Bench district, Bench Sheko zone, southwestern Ethiopia. A single population proportion formula was used to obtain a total of 768 sample sizes. Data were collected from selected households using a simple random sampling technique. Epidata 3.1 was used to enter the data and then exported to Stata 14 for analysis. Descriptive statistics along with binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors of COVID-19 knowledge and practices related to childhood diarrhea. The chi-squared test was used to check the association between COVID-19 prevention and childhood diarrhea reduction. Results: A total of 720 (93.75%) households participated in the study to achieve the study objectives. Approximately 55% of the participants had a good understanding of COVID-19 prevention, while only 48.5% had good COVID-19 prevention practices. The prevalence of childhood diarrhea was 19.3% which was more common among households with poor practices of COVID-19 prevention. The respondents with poor COVID-19 prevention knowledge were 42% (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.398, 0.847, P = 0.005) less likely to develop childhood diarrhea than those who had good COVID-19 prevention knowledge. Households with poor practices for COVID-19 prevention were 75.1% more likely to develop childhood diarrhea than those who had good preventive practices for COVID-19 prevention (AOR = 1.751, 95% CI: 1.193, 2.571, P = 0.004). The lower risk of childhood diarrhea is significantly related to good COVID-19 prevention practices. However, households with no formal education and a lack of WASH facilities have a higher likelihood of having childhood diarrhea in the household. Conclusion: COVID-19 preventative strategies help reduce the prevalence of diarrhea in children. More research using prospective study designs and advanced statistical models is needed to better understand the implication of COVID-19 preventative efforts in reducing childhood diarrhea.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diarrea , Población Rural , Humanos , Etiopía/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Composición Familiar , Niño , Persona de Mediana Edad , Preescolar , SARS-CoV-2 , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Lactante , Adulto Joven , Higiene
16.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 842-858, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822464

RESUMEN

The management of greywater and sanitation in South Africa's urban informal settlements is a pressing concern. This review critically examines the legal framework that governs greywater management in South Africa's informal settlements, aiming to shed light on the existing regulations, gaps, and opportunities for sustainable greywater reuse. By scrutinizing the legal framework, the review identifies gaps and challenges in the regulatory environment, including inconsistencies, lack of clarity, and limited enforcement mechanisms. It explores the potential for international best practices to inform possible amendments to the existing legal framework. This was a quantitative research design utilizing a cross sectional survey model. Questionnaires were administered electronically to a sample of 17 municipal leaders from the City of Tshwane, City of Johannesburg and Buffalo City municipalities whose responsibilities were on water management. Descriptive statistics were employed in analysis of the data. Outcomes were reviewed against the alignment or the lack thereof with the SANS 1732:201x standards. This paper underscores the critical need for a coherent and robust legal framework to support responsible greywater management in South Africa's informal settlements. The paper's insights contribute to the ongoing discourse on water governance, shedding light on the pathways toward a more equitable water future.


Asunto(s)
Saneamiento , Sudáfrica , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Saneamiento/legislación & jurisprudencia , Abastecimiento de Agua/legislación & jurisprudencia , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ciudades
17.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2369099, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38940272

RESUMEN

Urban inequalities are exacerbated due to rapid urbanisation. This is also evident within slums in low- and middle-income countries, where high levels of heterogeneity amongst the slum population lead to differential experiences in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and housing access. This scoping review provides evidence of the interconnection of WASH and housing and presents barriers to access and the consequences thereof for slum dwellers. It does so while considering the social stratification amongst urban slum dwellers and their lived experiences. A systematic search of journal articles was conducted in November 2022 in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. A total of 33 papers were identified which were full text reviewed and data extracted. Infrastructure, social and cultural, socio-economic, governance and policy and environmental barriers emerged as general themes. Barriers to WASH and housing were more frequently described concerning women and girls due to gender norms within WASH and the home. Barriers to WASH lead to compromised health, socio-economic burdens, and adverse social impacts, thus causing residents of slums to navigate their WASH mobility spatially and over time. Insights from this review underscore the need for an intersectional approach to understanding access inequalities to WASH and housing.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Vivienda , Áreas de Pobreza , Saneamiento , Humanos , Higiene , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 12(3)2024 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38936959

RESUMEN

Barriers to achieving and sustaining access to water, sanitation, hygiene, cleaning, and waste management (WASH) in health care facilities include a lack of supportive policy environment and adequate funding. While guidelines exist for assessing needs and making initial infrastructure improvements, there is little guidance on how to develop budgets and policies to sustain WASH services. We conducted costing and advocacy activities in Thakurbaba municipality, Nepal, to develop a budget and operations and maintenance policy for WASH in health care facilities in partnership with the municipal government. Our objectives for this study were to (1) describe the process and methods used for costing and advocacy, (2) report the costs to achieve and maintain basic WASH services in the 8 health care facilities of Thakurbaba municipality, and (3) report the outcomes of advocacy activities and policy development. We applied bottom-up costing to enumerate the resources necessary to achieve and maintain basic WASH services and their costs. The annual costs to achieve, operate, and maintain basic access to WASH services ranged from US$4881-US$9695 per facility. Cost findings were used to prepare annual budgets recommended to achieve, operate, and maintain basic services, which were presented to the municipal government and incorporated into an operations and maintenance policy. To date, the municipality has adopted the policy and established a recovery fund of US$3831 for repair and maintenance of infrastructure and an additional US$153 per facility for discretionary WASH spending, which were to be replenished as they were spent. Advocacy at the national level for WASH in health care facilities is currently being championed by the municipality, and findings from this project have informed the development of a nationally costed plan for universal access. This study is intended to provide a roadmap for how cost data can be collected and applied to inform policy.


Asunto(s)
Presupuestos , Instituciones de Salud , Higiene , Saneamiento , Abastecimiento de Agua , Nepal , Saneamiento/economía , Saneamiento/normas , Humanos , Instituciones de Salud/economía , Abastecimiento de Agua/economía , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas , Administración de Residuos/economía
19.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1671, 2024 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38910246

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There has been extensive research conducted on open defecation in Ethiopia, but a notable gap persists in comprehensively understanding the spatial variation and predictors at the household level. This study utilizes data from the 2021 Performance Monitoring for Action Ethiopia (PMA-ET) to address this gap by identifying hotspots and predictors of open defecation. Employing geographically weighted regression analysis, it goes beyond traditional models to account for spatial heterogeneity, offering a nuanced understanding of geographical variations in open defecation prevalence and its determinants. This research pinpoints hotspot areas and significant predictors, aiding policymakers and practitioners in tailoring interventions effectively. It not only fills the knowledge gap in Ethiopia but also informs global sanitation initiatives. METHODS: The study comprised a total weighted sample of 24,747 household participants. ArcGIS version 10.7 and SaT Scan version 9.6 were used to handle mapping, hotspots, ordinary least squares, Bernoulli model analysis, and Spatial regression. Bernoulli-based model was used to analyze the purely spatial cluster detection of open defecation at the household level in Ethiopia. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) analysis and geographically weighted regression analysis were employed to assess the association between an open defecation and explanatory variables. RESULTS: The spatial distribution of open defecation at the household level exhibited clustering (global Moran's I index value of 4.540385, coupled with a p-value of less than 0.001), with significant hotspots identified in Amhara, Afar, Harari, and parts of Dire Dawa. Spatial analysis using Kuldorff's Scan identified six clusters, with four showing statistical significance (P-value < 0.05) in Amhara, Afar, Harari, Tigray, and southwest Ethiopia. In the geographically weighted regression model, being male [coefficient = 0.87, P-value < 0.05] and having no media exposure (not watching TV or listening to the radio) [coefficient = 0.47, P-value < 0.05] emerged as statistically significant predictors of household-level open defecation in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that open defecation at the household level in Ethiopia varies across the regions, with significant hotspots identified in Amhara, Afar, Harari, and parts of Dire Dawa. Geographically weighted regression analysis highlights male participants lacking media exposure as substantial predictors of open defecation. Targeted interventions in Ethiopia should improve media exposure among males in hotspot regions, tailored sanitation programs, and region-specific awareness campaigns. Collaboration with local communities is crucial.


Asunto(s)
Defecación , Etiopía , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Saneamiento/normas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Regresión Espacial , Análisis Espacial , Composición Familiar , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38928906

RESUMEN

Healthcare-acquired infections are a major problem in healthcare facility settings around the world. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has over 2 million diarrhea patients hospitalized each year. These healthcare settings become high-risk environments for spreading diarrheal illnesses such as cholera. The objective of the Preventative Intervention for Cholera for 7 Days (PICHA7) program is to develop evidence-based water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions to reduce cholera and other severe diarrheal diseases in the DRC. The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of PICHA7 program delivery in increasing handwashing with a cleansing agent at stool/vomit- and food-related events in a healthcare facility setting among diarrhea patients and patient attendants. A pilot of the PICHA7 program was conducted among 284 participants in 27 healthcare facilities from March 2020 to November 2021 in urban Bukavu in the South Kivu Province of the DRC. The standard arm received the standard message provided in the DRC to diarrhea patients on the use of oral rehydration solution and a basic WASH message at healthcare facility discharge. The PICHA7 arm received the PICHA7 WASH pictorial module delivered by a health promoter focused on handwashing with a cleansing agent at the bedside of the diarrhea patient in the healthcare facility and provision of a soapy water bottle (water and detergent powder). Within 24 h of intervention delivery, a three-hour structured observation of handwashing practices at stool/vomit- and food-related events (key events) was conducted in healthcare facilities of diarrhea patients and their attendants. Compared to the standard arm, there was significantly more handwashing with a cleansing agent at key events in the PICHA7 arm (40% vs. 15%) (odds ratio: 5.04; (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.01, 12.7)). These findings demonstrate that delivery of the PICHA7 WASH pictorial module and provision of a soapy water bottle to diarrhea patients and their attendants presents a promising approach to increase handwashing with a cleansing agent among this high-risk population in healthcare facilities in the eastern DRC.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea , Desinfección de las Manos , Instituciones de Salud , Higiene , Saneamiento , Humanos , Diarrea/prevención & control , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Masculino , Adulto , República Democrática del Congo , Femenino , Proyectos Piloto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Cólera/prevención & control
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...