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1.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 89-98, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819182

RESUMEN

This study aims to address the question: Why did transition countries enact laws related to social health insurance (SHI) at different times, even though they experienced dissolution of the Soviet Union at the same time in the early 1990s? We used Ragin's fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to investigate the configurations of causal conditions that affected the speed of developing SHI-related legislation in 24 post-socialist countries. The potential causal conditions were health status, economic status, level of governance, level of democracy, issue salience, and number of medical professionals. We found 3 pathways that led to the enactment of SHI-related laws and 1 pathway that inhibits enactment. The key factors impacting enactment of SHI-related laws were non-corrupt governments and realization of democracy. In addition, medical professionals' involvement in policymaking could be the factor to enact SHI-related laws. Further research is needed for more in-depth analysis regarding what the laws specifically include, type of health insurance systems that were adopted based on the laws, and if the legislation contributed toward achieving universal health coverage.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Seguridad Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , U.R.S.S.
2.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 68(4): 225-232, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904558

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the medical and laboratory profile of the patients who have been diagnosed with chronic urticaria in the outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital of the social security system in Costa Rica. METHODS: All patients over 13 years of age who had been diagnosed with chronic urticaria between January 1st, 2014, and December 31st, 2018 were included. Variables of medical and laboratory data were statistically analyzed, and the treatment of the patients between their first and last medical consultation was compared. RESULTS: This was about 160 patients who had been diagnosed with chronic urticaria; 129 of them were women, 45.7 % between the ages of 30-49 years; in 17.5 % of them (28 patients), inducible urticaria was associated; 54.8 % (46/84) had positive antithyroperoxidase antibodies; 16.9 % (27 patients) maintained a single dose of second-generation anti-H1 antihistamines in the last consultation; 16.3 % (26 patients) no longer required antihistamine treatment in the last consultation. Cyclosporine was used in 8.8 % (14 patients), and omalizumab was used in 2.5 % (four patients). CONCLUSION: Since this is a real-life study in a geographic region with limited publications on this pathology, we trust that the provided information will contribute to the scientific community in order to improve the quality of life of patients with chronic urticaria through a timely diagnosis and an effective and efficient treatment.


Asunto(s)
Urticaria Crónica , Urticaria , Adulto , Enfermedad Crónica , Costa Rica , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Omalizumab , Calidad de Vida , Seguridad Social , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Urticaria/diagnóstico , Urticaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Urticaria/epidemiología
3.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 500-509, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908386

RESUMEN

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and heart diseases, which include Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH), have been positioned as the two main causes of mortality in Mexico, which represents important challenges for the different health institutions. Objective: To analyze the spatio-temporal trend of DM and SAH based on the detections made in first and and second level units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, during the period 2004-2019. Material and methods: Ecological study in which detection rates of both diseases were calculated per 1,000 persons according to year, triennium and representation. The spatiotemporal trend was analyzed by spatial statistics using Geographic Information Systems. Results: During 2004-2019 therere were 9 399 889 and 11 862 069 detections on average of DM and SAH, respectively. Regarding DM, the detection rate ranged from 203.4 (2004) to 384.4 (2019) per 1000 persons, this trend increased in Tamaulipas. While SAH decreased from 1140.2 (2004) to 352 (2019) per 1000 persons in Veracruz Sur and Tamaulipas, respectively. Conclusions: The observed spatio-temporal trend can contribute to organizing and guiding, according to representation and level of care, institutional programs, integrated care protocols, clinical practice guidelines and other public policy instruments available at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social to improve early detection, care, control and access to medications for DM and SAH.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Ambiente , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , México/epidemiología , Seguridad Social
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 6079-6088, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910000

RESUMEN

Historically, the conflict of interests between employers and workers obliged the State to assume the role of regulating this relationship, instituting laws and overseeing the application of health and safety standards at work. The Accident Prevention Factor (FAP) is one of these guidelines. This article aims to analyze the correlations between the FAP and the risk rate for occupational accidents in Brazil in the period between 2006 and 2016. Ecological study, which analyzed the occupational accidents, registered in the Brazilian Social Security database in the period between 2006 and 2016. The analysis included the calculation of accident risk rates according to the Brazilian regions, divisions of the CNAE, reason/situation, ICD-10 chapters, sex and age. The comparison between results from the two periods was performed using the average risk rates from the two periods using Student t test, Spearman correlation and beta value. Basically, all rate series analyzed had a strong downward trend in the FAP period, contrary to what occurred in the immediately previous period.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , Lugar de Trabajo , Prevención de Accidentes , Accidentes de Trabajo/prevención & control , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Seguridad Social
5.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(6): 549-556, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934221

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Service Quality in Hospital (SERVQHOS) assesses quality and satisfaction with hospital care received. This study aimed to determine the quality and satisfaction of parents in a tertiary-level pediatric public facility in Mexico. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 425 anonymous surveys were distributed during the discharge of children. The questionnaire evaluates the individual (subjective) and organizational (objective) quality of service: reliability, tangibles, assurance, responsiveness, and empathy, as well as satisfaction on a 5-point scale from 1 (much worse) to 5 (much better). RESULTS: A total of 401 questionnaires were returned (94%). The mean quality score was 3.6 ± 0.7. The best-rated aspects were the medical equipment technology (3.6 + 0.8), the confidence that the staff transmits to patients (3.6 ± 0.8), and the friendliness of the staff when attending patients (3.6 ± 0.8). The worst-rated aspects were the condition of the rooms (3.4 ± 0.8), the waiting time to be attended by a physician (3.3 ± 0.8), and the timeliness of internal consultations (3.3 ± 0.8). The overall population rated as satisfied in 97% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: A high rate of satisfaction was observed concerning both objective and subjective factors. However, the negative aspects of objective quality, such as reliability, should be addressed organizationally without implying economic investment in their resolution.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción Personal , Seguridad Social , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , México , Padres , Alta del Paciente , Satisfacción del Paciente , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736340, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746082

RESUMEN

Rural-to-urban migration has increased rapidly in China since the early 1980s, with the number of migrants has reached 376 million by 2020. Despite this sharp trend and the significant contributions that migrants have made to urban development, the migrant workers have had very limited access to the social insurance that the majority of urban workers enjoy. Against the background of the social insurance system adjustment in Chengdu in 2011, this study uses a difference-in-differences (DID) model to empirically test the impacts of changes in the social insurance policy contribution rates on the social insurance participation rates of migrant workers, using the China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) data for 2009-2016. We find that the social insurance participation rate of migrant workers was significantly reduced after they were incorporated into the urban worker insurance system. There was no significant change in the wages of migrant workers, but the working hours were increased and their consumption level decreased. In other words, simply changing the social insurance model of migrant workers from "comprehensive social insurance" to "urban employee insurance" reduces the incentives for migrant workers to participate in insurance and harms the overall welfare of migrant workers. Our study indicates that the design of the social security policy is an important reason for the lower participation rate of migrants. It is necessary to solve the problem of insufficient incentives through the targeted social security policies; primarily, the formulation of a social security policy contribution rate suitable for the migrants, and the establishment of a comprehensive social security policy and the gradual integration of the social security system.


Asunto(s)
Migrantes , China , Humanos , Motivación , Política Pública , Población Rural , Seguridad Social
8.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3583, 2021 Sep 27.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752020

RESUMEN

Benzodiazepines and "Z-drugs" (BZD/Z) are overprescribed in many countries. This study evaluates their consumption in a social security sector health insurance provider with national coverage in Argentina. With a descriptive and observational approach, outpatient dispensations of BZD/Zs were analyzed for people over 18 years old from April 2020 to March 2021, disaggregated by sex, age, active ingredient, and half-life. An annual prevalence of use of 11.6% was found among the 431,445 adult affiliates, with higher rates in women and in those over age 60. Overall consumption of BZD/Zs was 77.6 defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 enrollee-days. The average user received 5.1 annual dispensations and the equivalent of 1.4 DDD for each day of the year. BZD/Zs with long half-life were the most used. We found high levels of BZD/Z consumption and for longer periods than recommended. It is necessary to improve the quality of consumption and reduce the negative impact of inappropriate use of these drugs among treated individuals.


Asunto(s)
Benzodiazepinas , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Benzodiazepinas/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Persona de Mediana Edad , Seguridad Social
9.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Oct 22.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675182

RESUMEN

In this paper we analyze the role of Labor and Social Security Inspectorate (Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social in Spanish) in the assessment and management of the risks associated to COVID-19 in the workplaces, since the beginning of the pandemic until the enforcement of the Royal Decree-Law 26/2020, with special focus on the Operative and Technical Criteria issued by the Directorate of the State Labor and Social Security Inspectorate. The paper describes the differentiation of those situations where the infection risk is derived from the work activity itself and, therefore, has a professional nature, from those where the risk is external to the work activity, thus lacking such character. A specific part of this paper is dedicated to the study of the collaboration and coordination between the Labor and Social Security Inspectorate and the Public Health Authorities, which has been become essential to effectively protect the health of workers.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Seguridad Social , Humanos , Renta , SARS-CoV-2 , España
11.
Work ; 70(1): 109-124, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487009

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies of the social validity of work ability evaluations are rare, although the concept can provide valuable information about the acceptability, comprehensibility and importance of procedures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore clients' perceptions of social validity of work ability evaluations and the following official decisions concerning sickness benefits within the Swedish sickness insurance system. METHODS: This was a longitudinal qualitative study based on interviews with 30 clients on sick leave, analyzed through deductive content analysis. RESULTS: Clients' understanding of the evaluation was dependent on whether the specific tests were perceived as clearly related to the clients' situation and what information they received. For a fair description of their work ability, clients state that the strict structure in the evaluation is not relevant to everyone. CONCLUSION: The work ability evaluations indicate low acceptability due to lack of individual adaptation, the comprehensibility varied depending on the applicability of the evaluation and information provided, while the dimension 'importance' indicated as higher degree of social validity. The official decision about sickness benefits however was considered unrelated to the evaluation results, lacking solid arguments and sometimes contradictory to other stakeholders' recommendations indicating poor social validity.


Asunto(s)
Seguro , Evaluación de Capacidad de Trabajo , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Seguridad Social
12.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(3): 179-180, 2021 08 13.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357720

RESUMEN

After 78 years of having been founded, the Mexican Institute of Social Security has undergone several changes in its structure and dimension, secondary to both population growth and epidemiological and social transitions, in such a way that its growth has been exponential. The institute safeguards the welfare of its beneficiaries through medical, economic and social benefits. Currently, it provides health coverage to more than 60% of the Mexican population through the physical infrastructure and workforce of its 440 000 employees.


Asunto(s)
Renta , Seguridad Social , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Recursos Humanos
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 695121, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368061

RESUMEN

Deepening the reform of insurance companies and improving commercial insurance protection capabilities become issues important to national strategy. They involve improving China's multi-tiered social security system to analyze the deep-seated reasons impacting the purchasing behavior of commercial health insurance for rural residents in China. Using the DEA-CCR model, this paper evaluates the development of China's insurance industry, inspects the impact of insurance industry development on purchasing behavior of rural commercial health insurance based on the data of tracking survey projects from China's household, and carries out empirical analysis. The research result shows that the development of the insurance industry has obviously promoted the purchase behavior of commercial health insurance for rural residents. This research has significant practical value on protection and promotion of production and life quality of rural residents, which will also provide beneficial reference on the formulation and implementation of future operation strategy in China's commercial health insurance companies.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Salud Rural , China , Humanos , Población Rural , Seguridad Social
14.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(3): 260-261, 2021 Aug 13.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375045

RESUMEN

This article is dedicated to the memory of doctor Francisco Olvera Esnaurrizar (1929-2019), first editor of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social -Medical Journal of the Mexican Institute for Social Security- (1962-1973).


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos , Médicos , Humanos , Renta , México , Seguridad Social
15.
Lima; Perú. EsSalud; 20210800. 42 p. tab.
Monografía en Español | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1283785

RESUMEN

El documento contiene las normas a fin de contribuir al fortalecimiento del Modelo de Cuidado Integral de salud por curso de vida para el asegurado, su familia y comunidad basado en los atributos de la atención primaria de salud: primer contacto, integridad, longitudinalidad y continuidad de la atención.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Seguridad Social , Familia , Salud de la Familia , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente
16.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54573

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. The Region of the Americas is facing accelerated demographic and epidemiological changes. As these trends will continue in future years, long-term care needs are expected to rise. How can countries respond to these challenges?We propose that countries in the Region should invest in the implementation of long-term care systems. Con-sidering the heterogeneity in the Region, we propose a strategy based on three components: (i) understanding the problem; (ii) thinking about solutions; and (iii) building support and consensus. Depending on each coun-try’s needs and capacities, these three elements suggest short-term and long-term actions and goals, from generating better information on long-term care needs to the implementation of long-term care systems. Long-term care is a relevant issue for the Region today. The task is challenging, but countries need to embrace it and move forward before it is too late.


[RESUMEN]. La Región de las Américas está haciendo frente a acelerados cambios demográficos y epidemiológicos. Considerando que estas tendencias se mantendrán en los años venideros, se prevé que la necesidad de cuidados a largo plazo se incrementará. ¿Cómo pueden responder los países a estos retos?Proponemos que los países de la Región inviertan en el establecimiento de sistemas de cuidados a largo plazo. Considerando la heterogeneidad de la Región, proponemos una estrategia fundamentada en tres com-ponentes: a) comprender el problema; b) pensar en soluciones; y c) generar apoyo y consenso. De acuerdo con las necesidades y las capacidades de cada país, estos tres elementos determinan los objetivos y las medidas a corto y largo plazo, desde la producción de mejor información sobre las necesidades de cuidados a largo plazo hasta el establecimiento de sistemas de cuidados a largo plazo.Hoy en día, los cuidados a largo plazo son una cuestión pertinente en la Región. Aunque esta tarea represente un reto, los países deben aceptarlo y progresar antes de que sea demasiado tarde.


[RESUMO]. A Região das Américas encontra-se em transição demográfica e epidemiológica acelerada. Esta tendência deve persistir nos próximos anos e antecipa-se um crescimento da demanda por assistência a longo prazo. Como os países podem enfrentar estes desafios?A nossa proposta é que os países das Américas invistam na implementação de sistemas de assistência a longo prazo. Como a Região se caracteriza pela heterogeneidade entre os países, propomos uma estratégia alicerçada em três componentes: (i) entender o problema, (ii) buscar soluções e (iii) granjear apoio e con-senso. Dependendo das necessidades e da capacidade de cada país, esses três componentes devem servir para estabelecer metas e ações a curto ou longo prazo, que vão desde aprofundar o conhecimento sobre as necessidades existentes a implementar os sistemas em si. A assistência a longo prazo é uma questão atual de interesse para a Região. A tarefa envolve muitos desafios, mas os países precisam encampá-la e avançar antes que seja tarde demais.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Política de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Seguridad Social , Planificación en Salud , Américas , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Política de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Seguridad Social , Planificación en Salud , Américas , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Política de Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Seguridad Social , Planificación en Salud , Américas
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206095

RESUMEN

Few studies have considered the effects of insurance on periodontal disease. We aimed to investigate the association between insurance schemes and periodontal disease among adults, using Thailand's National Oral Health Survey (2017) data. A modified Community Periodontal Index was used to measure periodontal disease. Insurance schemes were categorized into the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS), Social Security Scheme (SSS), and "others". Poisson regression was applied to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) of insurance schemes for periodontal disease, with adjustment for age, gender, residential location, education attainment, and income. The data of 4534 participants (mean age, 39.6 ± 2.9 years; 2194 men, 2340 women) were analyzed. The proportions of participants with gingivitis or periodontitis were 87.6% and 25.9%, respectively. In covariate adjusted models, lowest education (PRs, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) and UCS (PRs, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08) yielded significantly higher PRs for gingivitis, whereas lowest education (PRs, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.05-1.37) and UCS (PRs, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34) yielded substantially higher PRs for periodontitis. Insurance schemes may be social predictors of periodontal disease. For better oral health, reduced insurance inequalities are required to increase access to regular dental visits and utilization in Thailand.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Seguro de Salud , Masculino , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Seguridad Social , Tailandia/epidemiología
18.
Environ Res ; 202: 111738, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331925

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some socioeconomically vulnerable groups may experience disproportionately higher risk of extreme heat illness than other groups, but no study has utilized the presence/absence of a social security number (SSN) as a proxy for vulnerable sub-populations. METHODS: This study focused on the warm season from 2008 to 2012 in Florida, U.S. With a total number of 8,256,171 individual level health outcomes, we devised separate case-crossover models for five heat-sensitive health outcomes (cardiovascular disease, dehydration, heat-related illness, renal disease, and respiratory disease), type of health care visit (emergency department (ED) and hospitalization), and patients reporting/not reporting an SSN. Each stratified model also considered potential effect modification by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Mean temperature raised the odds of five heat-sensitive health outcomes with the highest odds ratios (ORs) for heat-related illness. Sex significantly modified heat exposure effects for dehydration ED visits (Males: 1.145, 95 % CI: 1.137-1.153; Females: 1.110, 95 % CI: 1.103-1.117) and hospitalization (Males: 1.116, 95 % CI: 1.110-1.121; Females: 1.100, 95 % CI: 1.095-1.105). Patients not reporting an SSN between 25 and 44 years (1.264, 95 % CI: 1.192-1.340) exhibited significantly higher dehydration ED ORs than those reporting an SSN (1.146, 95 % CI: 1.136-1.157). We also observed significantly higher ORs for cardiovascular disease hospitalization from the no SSN group (SSN: 1.089, 95 % CI: 1.088-1.090; no SSN: 1.100, 95 % CI: 1.091-1.110). CONCLUSIONS: This paper partially supports the idea that individuals without an SSN could experience higher risks of dehydration (for those 25-45 years), renal disease, and cardiovascular disease than those with an SSN.


Asunto(s)
Calor Extremo , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Calor Extremo/efectos adversos , Femenino , Florida/epidemiología , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Seguridad Social
19.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(2): 110-118, 2021 Jun 14.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231982

RESUMEN

Background: Occupational accidents represent an important problem that affects workers, families, society, industry, social security institutions and the nation as a whole, which affects directly the global economy. Objective: To assess the direct costs of occupational accidents at the Baja California Local Office of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS -Mexican Institute for Social Security-) in 2017. Material and methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study; the information was obtained from IMSS 2017 Statistical Memory and Baja California Local Office database. We analyzed 26,657 cases of work-related accidents and diseases. Years of potential productive life lost were calculated with the years of potential productive life lost indicator and the accumulated years of potential productive life lost indicator. Results: 97,901 certificates of temporary incapacity for work were issued in Baja California with a total amount of 150,284,001 Mexican pesos. 1593 permanent disabilities were granted with an average monthly amount of 3830 pesos and a total of 8982 accumulated years of potential productive life lost. 38 death certificates by work-related risks were issued and accounted for a total of 1048 years of potential productive life lost and 182 491 pesos for funeral expenses. Conclusions: Direct costs of occupational accidents and diseases in the Baja California Local Office of IMSS have an impact on economic growth. Concerted efforts are needed to achieve a progressive reduction of work-related fatalities, accidents and diseases.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , Seguridad Social , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , México/epidemiología
20.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(2): 319-325, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245518

RESUMEN

The widespread practice of social dependence in modern Russia is both a problem of the functioning of the field of social security and a research issue that has not yet been studied enough. The article is devoted to the consideration of various aspects of the involvement in the practice of social dependence of representatives of one of the categories of the population - senior citizens. The results of an empirical study of social dependence are presented, on the basis of which it is proved that the degree of involvement in dependent practices of older people is low compared to representatives of other socio-demographic categories of the population. The hypothesis of the conditionality of manifestations of social dependence among the elderly by paternalism of the Soviet period was refuted by experts during the study. The pattern of increasing negative attitude of citizens to manifestations of social dependence with an increase in their age has been revealed.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad Social , Anciano , Humanos , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología
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