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1.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(3): 176-182, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792068

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about athletes' understanding of safe sport and occurrence of harassment and abuse in elite youth sport. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the IOC Safe Sport educational experience at the Youth Olympic Games 2018 in Buenos Aires and to ascertain the athletes' (1) understanding of what constitutes harassment and abuse, (2) perception of the occurrence in their sport, and (3) knowledge of where to report. METHODS: Athletes visiting the IOC Safe Sport Booth answered a survey related to athletes' (1) understanding of harassment and abuse in sport, (2) perception of the occurrence of harassment and abuse in their sport, and (3) knowledge of where to report. Experts and volunteers answered an email survey on their experience. RESULTS: The response rate was 71.8%. When asked to define 'safe sport', the athletes mainly relate the concept to general physical and environmental safety, fair play and clean sport, rather than sport free from harassment and abuse. Almost half (46%) of the athletes expressed surprise by the definition of behaviours of harassment and abuse within sport. When asked if harassment and/or abuse occur in their sport, 47.5% reported 'no' or 'not likely', while 34% stated 'likely' or 'very likely'; 19% were 'unsure'. The majority (63%) of athletes knew where to seek help. Three quarters (71%) of the athletes rated the educational materials as 'good' to 'excellent'. The experts and volunteers believed the intervention would result in change in athletes' awareness, knowledge and behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This multinational cohort of elite youth athletes is not knowledgeable of the concept of harassment and abuse in sport, despite there being a significant perception of occurrence of harassment and abuse in their sports.


Asunto(s)
Acoso no Sexual , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Seguridad , Deportes Juveniles , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Atletas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105336, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704640

RESUMEN

Electric two-wheelers (E2Ws) have become newly popular transportation tools with the associated growing traffic safety concerns. E2W riders and bicyclists behave similarly as vulnerable road users (VRUs), while exhibited dissimilarities in riding postures and interactions with the two-wheelers. Existing epidemiology reveals prominent differences in injury risks between E2W riders and other vulnerable road users in collisions with motor vehicles. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors influencing kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler rides in two-wheeler-vehicle collisions and compare between E2W-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle collisions. Via multi-body modeling of two two-wheeler types, two vehicle types, and three rider statures in MADYMO, twelve collision scenarios were developed. A simulation matrix considering a range of impact velocities and relative positions was performed for each scenario. A subsequent parametric analysis was conducted with focus on the kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler riders. Results show that the head injury risk increased with vehicle moving velocity, while the two-wheeler velocity and relative location between rider and vehicle prior to the collision exhibited highly non-linear influence on the kinematical response. The rider with larger stature had higher possibilities to miss head impact on the vehicle. In collisions with the sedan, E2W riders would sustain lower head injury risks with lower contacting velocity on the windshield than bicyclists. While in collisions with the SUV, E2W riders would sustain increasing head injury risks due to the higher structural stiffness at contact, and the risk level was about the same as bicyclists. The findings revealed the loading mechanisms behind the different head injury risks between E2W riders and bicyclists.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Ciclismo/lesiones , Motocicletas , Heridas y Traumatismos/etiología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Seguridad , Heridas y Traumatismos/prevención & control
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105346, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710957

RESUMEN

Pedestrian distraction is a growing road safety concern worldwide. While there are currently no studies linking distraction and pedestrian crash risk, distraction has been shown to increase risky behaviours in pedestrians, for example, through reducing visual scanning before traversing an intersection. Illuminated in-ground Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded into pathways are an emerging solution to address the growing distraction problem associated with mobile use while walking. The current study sought to determine if such an intervention was effective in attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. We conducted a controlled laboratory study (N = 24) to evaluate whether pedestrians detected the activation of flashing LEDs when distracted by a smartphone more accurately and efficiently when the lights were located on the floor compared to a control position on the wall. Eye gaze movements via an eye tracker and behavioural responses via response times assessed the detection of these flashing LEDs. Distracted participants were able to detect the activation of the floor and wall-mounted LEDs with accuracies above 90%. The visual and auditory distraction tasks increased reaction times by 143 and 124 ms, respectively. Even when distracted, performance improved with floor LEDs close to participants, with reaction time improvements by 43 and 159 ms for the LEDs 2 and 1 ms away from the participant respectively. The addition of floor LED lights resulted in a performance similar to the one observed for wall-mounted LEDs in the non-distracted condition. Moreover, participants did not necessarily need to fixate on the LEDs to detect their activation, thus were likely to have detected them using their peripheral vision. The findings suggest that LEDs embedded in pathways are likely to be effective at attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. Further research needs to be conducted in the field to confirm these findings, and to evaluate the actual effects on behaviour under real-world conditions.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Entorno Construido , Peatones/psicología , Teléfono Inteligente , Adulto , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Iluminación , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Seguridad , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
4.
Food Chem ; 306: 125640, 2020 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606625

RESUMEN

Combination of pesticides; acetamiprid, flutolanil and etofenprox are usually used for tomato fruits for protecting them against pest infection. Generally, pesticides, residues could be one of the health hazard sources. Two specific simple sensitive chromatographic methods are developed for simultaneous estimation of the concerning pesticides' residues using simple economic steps of field sample preparation. The first method is HP- TLC method. Hexane: methanol: acetone: glacial acetic acid (8:2:0.5:0.1, by volume) is proposed as a developing system. The second one is RP- HPLC. Acetonitrile: water (75:25, v/v) is proposed as a mobile phase. The recommended methods are completely validated regarding ICH guidelines. Their means percentages and standard deviations of accuracy range 100.32 ±â€¯0.89 to 99.27 ±â€¯0.9. The methods' repeatability and intermediate precision relative standard deviation percentages range 0.395-0.894. They are successfully applied for estimating the pesticides in pure and commercial forms and field samples.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Piretrinas/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Frutas/química , Seguridad
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105244, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405515

RESUMEN

This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between the built environment and roadway safety, with a focus on studies that analyse small geographical units, such as census tracts or travel analysis zones. We review different types of built environment measures to analyse if there are consistent relationships between such measures and crash frequency, finding that for many built environment variables there are mixed or contradictory correlations. We turn to the treatment of exposure, because built environment measures are often used, either explicitly or implicitly, as measures of exposure. We find that because exposure is often not adequately controlled for, correlations between built environment features and crash rates could be due to either higher levels of exposure or higher rates of crash risk per unit of exposure. Then, we identify various built environment variables as either more related to exposure, more related to risk, or ambiguous, and recommend further targeted research on those variables whose relationship is currently ambiguous.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Entorno Construido , Humanos , Densidad de Población , Medición de Riesgo , Seguridad , Análisis Espacial
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105326, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675667

RESUMEN

Numerous studies have previously used a variety of count-data models to investigate factors that affect the number of crashes over a certain period of time on roadway segments. Unlike past studies which deal with crash frequency, this study views the crash rates directly as a continuous variable left-censored at zero and explores the application of an alternate approach based on tobit regression. To thoroughly investigate the factors affecting freeway crash rates and the potentially temporal instability in the effects of crash factors involving traffic volume, freeway geometries and pavement conditions, a classic uncorrelated random parameters tobit (URPT) model and a correlated random parameters tobit (CRPT) model were estimated, along with a conventional fixed parameters tobit (FPT) model. The analysis revealed a large number of safety factors, including several appealing and interesting factors rarely studied in the past, such as the safety effects of climbing lanes and distance along composite descending grade. The results also showed that the CRPT model was not only able to reflect the heterogeneous effects of various factors, but also able to estimate the underlying interactions among unobserved characteristics, and therefore provide better statistical fit and offer more insights into factors contributing to freeway crashes than its model counterparts. Additionally, the results showed significant temporal instability in CRPT models across the studied time periods indicating that crash factors (including unobserved characteristics and the underlying interactions among them) and their effects on crash rates varied over time, and more attentions should be paid when interpreting crash data-analysis findings and making safety policies. The modeling technique in this study demonstrates the potential of CRPT model as an effective approach to gain new insights into safety factors, particularly when the heterogeneous effects of factors on safety are interactive. Additionally, findings from this study are also expected to assist in developing more effective countermeasures by better understanding the safety effects of factors associated with freeway design characteristics and pavement conditions.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Entorno Construido/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Medición de Riesgo , Seguridad/normas
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(19): 433, 2019 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851646

RESUMEN

This year's Healthy and Safe Swimming Week theme, "Pool Chemistry for Healthy and Safe Swimming," focuses on preventing pool chemical injuries. Pool chemicals prevent the spread of germs that cause illnesses and disease outbreaks; however, these same chemicals can cause injuries if mishandled. Each year, an estimated 3,000-5,000 emergency department visits caused by pool chemical injuries (e.g., poisonings from inhalation or ingestion of pool chemicals and dermatitis or conjunctivitis from pool chemical splashes) occur in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Seguridad , Piscinas , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Humanos
8.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(689): 587, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780466

Asunto(s)
Comercio , Seguridad
9.
Nursing ; 49(12): 42-49, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764873

RESUMEN

Immunization is crucial to maintaining public health. This article addresses the benefits of childhood vaccinations and educates parents on the myths surrounding possible adverse reactions.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad , Vacunas , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Padres/educación , Padres/psicología , Salud Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Vacunas/efectos adversos
10.
Orv Hetil ; 160(48): 1904-1914, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760778

RESUMEN

Introduction: The attitude to immunization and the issue of vaccine hesitancy in health care workers (HCWs) have been studied in a former survey performed by ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control). Aim: Our aim was to study the immunization attitude of primary care paediatricians, general practitioners and primary care nurses in Hungary. Method: We studied vaccine hesitancy in HCWs by way of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of a recent similar survey by ECDC in four countries. The online survey has been performed between May and July 2017. Altogether 765 questionnaires have been returned: 189 primary care paediatricians, 375 general practitioners working in adult or mixed practices, and 201 primary care nurses. The sample has been weighted to the country-specific features - e.g., location of the practice, residence and age of the HCWs - within each of the three groups, so from this aspect it can be considered representative. Results: Our results did not differ substantially from the international ECDC data. Approximately 2/3 of the primary care doctors and about 50% of the primary care nurses were convinced of the benefit and value of vaccines. Data on vaccine hesitancy were consolingly low, though the data on recommended vaccines were somewhat higher compared to the age related/NIP (National Immunization Plan) vaccines. The well-known vaccine scares - e.g., autism-MMR, etc., known also from the literature - could hardly been detected, and it can be explained by the voluntary participation in the study. The least supported vaccine is BCG, while the highest hesitancy rates are related to MMR in Hungary. Conclusion: The need to improve immunization-related communication among primary HCWs could clearly been detected - both in gradual and in post-gradual training programs. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(48): 1904-1914.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunas , Adulto , Humanos , Hungría , Atención Primaria de Salud , Seguridad , Confianza
15.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020602, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777659

RESUMEN

Background: Road accidents are a major global public safety and health problem. Presently, many countries such as China urgently need to find better strategies to improve their road safety. This paper has two key objectives, which are: (i) to propose potential solutions to improve China's road safety, and (ii) to provide China and other countries with helpful evidence for their future road safety. Methods: This study attempts to use an evidence-based safety approach to propose some potential strategies for China's road safety. Results: First, the current status of China's road safety was analyzed. Second, major road safety problems in China were identified and discussed. Finally, this paper illustrates China's road safety strategies based on available evidence. Conclusions: Presently and in the future, China's road safety is facing a series of problems, such as increasing road safety management pressure, the weak road safety management foundation, and the lack of government supervision. To improve road safety, China should adopt a comprehensive strategy, which includes road safety risk prevention and control, road safety legislation, road safety supervision, road safety research and its application, road safety propaganda and education, and road safety culture, etc.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Seguridad , China , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 33-44, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1026416

RESUMEN

Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir problemas e desafios colocados à Psicologia por expressões da violência no Brasil, analisando suas implicações éticas na problematização de políticas de subjetivação atuantes nesses cenários. Para essa discussão sobre as expressões da violência, elegemos dois analisadores: os fenômenos do encarceramento em massa e dos homicídios de segmentos juvenis. Nos últimos anos, a Psicologia tem tomado cada vez mais o campo das violências como objeto de discussão, intervenção e produção científica. Isso se materializa fortemente pelas questões sociopolíticas do país, especialmente no que se refere às abordagens policiais, ao encarceramento em massa, ao aumento sistemático/ininterrupto dos homicídios de segmentos infantojuvenis negros, colocando em discussão políticas de aprisionamento e criminalização. Utilizaremos autores que refletem criticamente acerca da colonialidade, a exemplo de Mbembe, dialogando com produções da Psicologia Social que discutem violência. O texto se desenvolverá por meio de três seções. Na primeira, discutiremos a problemática das mortes juvenis e do encarceramento em massa como expressões de uma necropolítica à brasileira. Na segunda, problematizaremos a produção de vidas (in)vivíveis como um dos desafios éticos à Psicologia em contextos de violências. Por último, abordaremos o aceno ético necessário como caminho de construção de uma outra Psicologia....(AU)


This article aims to discuss problems and challenges posed to Psychology by expressions of violence in Brazil, analyzing their ethical implications in the problematization of subjectivation policies in these scenarios. For this discussion on the expressions of violence, we chose two analysts: the phenomena of mass incarceration and homicides of juvenile segments. In recent years, Psychology has increasingly taken the field of violence as an object of discussion, intervention and scientific production. This is strongly reflected in the country's sociopolitical issues, especially with regard to police approaches, mass incarceration, the systematic / uninterrupted increase in homicides of black child and youth segments, and the questioning of policies of imprisonment and criminalization. We will use authors who reflect critically on coloniality, such as Mbembe, dialoguing with productions of Social Psychology that discuss violence. The text will be developed through three sections. In the first one, we will discuss the problem of juvenile deaths and mass incarceration as expressions of a necropolicy in Brazil. In the second, we will problematize the production of (in) livable lives as one of the ethical challenges to Psychology in contexts of violence. Finally, we will approach the necessary ethical approach as a way of building another Psychology....(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir problemas y desafíos planteados a la Psicología por las expresiones de violencia en Brasil, analizando sus implicaciones éticas en la problematización de políticas de subjetivación actuantes en esos escenarios. Para esta discusión sobre las expresiones de la violencia, elegimos dos analizadores: los fenómenos del encarcelamiento masivo y de los homicidios de segmentos juveniles. En los últimos años, la Psicología ha tomado cada vez más el campo de la violencia como objeto de discusión, intervención y producción científica. Esto se materializa fuertemente por las cuestiones sociopolíticas del país, especialmente en lo que se refiere a los abordajes policiales, al encarcelamiento masivo, al aumento sistemático/ininterrumpido de homicidios de segmentos infantojuveniles negros, poniendo en discusión políticas de aprisionamiento y criminalización. Utilizaremos autores que reflexionen críticamente acerca de la colonialidad, a ejemplo de Mbembe, dialogando con producciones de la Psicología Social que discutan violencia. El texto se desarrollará por medio de tres secciones. En la primera, discutiremos la problemática de las muertes juveniles y del encarcelamiento en masa como expresiones de una necropolítica en Brasil. En la segunda, problematizaremos la producción de vidas (in) vivibles como uno de los desafíos éticos a la Psicología en contextos de violencias. Finalmente, abordaremos el asentimiento ético necesario como una forma de construir otra Psicología....(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Prisiones , Psicología Social , Política Pública , Violencia , Brasil , Adolescente , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Homicidio , Psicología , Seguridad , Conducta del Adolescente
17.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1146-1149, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657312

RESUMEN

Cirrhosis is associated with adverse outcomes after emergency general surgery (EGS). The objective of this study was to determine the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in EGS patients with cirrhosis. We performed a two-year retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients who underwent LC for symptomatic gallstones. The primary outcome was the incidence of intraoperative complications. Of 796 patients, 59 (7.4%) were cirrhotic, with a median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 15 (IQR, 7). On unadjusted analysis, patients with cirrhosis were older, more likely to be male (both P < 0.01), diabetic (P < 0.001), had a higher incidence of preadmission antithrombotic therapy use (P < 0.02), and experienced a longer time to surgery (3.2 vs 1.8 days, P < 0.001). Coarsened exact matching revealed no difference in intra- or postoperative complications between groups (P = 0.67). Operative duration was longer in patients with cirrhosis (162 vs 114 minutes, P = 0.001), who also had a nonsignificant increase in the rate of conversion to an open cholecystectomy (14% vs 4%, P = 0.07). The results of this study indicate that LC may be safely performed in EGS patients with cirrhosis.


Asunto(s)
Colecistectomía Laparoscópica/efectos adversos , Tratamiento de Urgencia/efectos adversos , Cálculos Biliares/cirugía , Complicaciones Intraoperatorias/epidemiología , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Conductos Biliares/lesiones , Conversión a Cirugía Abierta/estadística & datos numéricos , Tratamiento de Urgencia/métodos , Femenino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Cálculos Biliares/etiología , Hemorragia/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Intestinos/lesiones , Complicaciones Intraoperatorias/etiología , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Seguridad , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo , Tiempo de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105271, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586823

RESUMEN

While there has been increasing interest in wet-weather pavement markings due to their improved visibility and potential for enhancing road safety in wet-night conditions, there is a lack of research evaluating their safety effectiveness based on actual wet-night crash data. This paper presents the safety assessment of wet-weather pavement markings in the Atlanta District of the Texas Department of Transportation, conducted by two different evaluation approaches that are known to be rigorous and statistically defensible: Empirical-Bayes before-after analysis and full Bayes before-after analysis with comparison groups. The results from both approaches suggest that there are positive safety effects of wet-weather pavement markings for relevant crashes, providing evidence-based support for safety benefits of wet-weather markings.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Teorema de Bayes , Entorno Construido/normas , Humanos , Seguridad
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