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2.
Am Surg ; 86(2): 152-157, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106909

RESUMEN

The professional use of social media is increasingly prevalent today, particularly in medicine and surgery. Several recent movements have highlighted the strengths of this forum for networking and mentorship for females in surgery who otherwise may lack mentors locally. We sought to describe modern uses for and strengths of social media for women in surgery globally via a systematic review of the literature. Multiple efforts and avenues have promoted gender equality in surgery, while also uniting female surgeons in a collaborative virtual network of colleagues. In particular, movements on Twitter, such as #ILookLikeASurgeon and #NYerORCoverChallenge, as well as other collaborative virtual fora have brought visibility to female surgeons, while drawing the young population of students and trainees toward surgical careers. Social media provides a unique opportunity for female trainees and established surgeons alike to network and establish mentorship relationships, which may aid in fostering interest in surgery and closing the gender gap in our field.


Asunto(s)
Tutoría , Médicos Mujeres , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Cirujanos , Selección de Profesión , Femenino , Humanos , Tutoría/métodos , Mentores/estadística & datos numéricos , Médicos Mujeres/organización & administración , Médicos Mujeres/provisión & distribución , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/organización & administración , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Cirujanos/organización & administración , Cirujanos/provisión & distribución
3.
5.
Instr Course Lect ; 69: 245-254, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017731

RESUMEN

Women comprise approximately 50% of medical students; however, only 14% of current orthopaedic residents are women. There are many factors that contribute to the reluctance of female medical students to enter the field including limited exposure to musculoskeletal medicine during medical school, negative perception of the field, lack of female mentors, barriers to promotion, and acceptance by senior faculty. Diversity in orthopaedics is critical to provide culturally competent care. Two pipeline programs, the Perry Initiative and Nth Dimensions, have successful track records in increasing female and underrepresented minorities in orthopaedic surgery residency training. Recognizing and combating implicit bias in orthopaedics will improve recruitment, retention, promotion, and compensation of female orthopaedic surgeons. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the current status of women in orthopaedics, describe ways to improve diversity in the field, and make surgeons aware of how implicit bias can contribute to discrepancies seen in orthopaedic surgery, including pay scale inequities and women in leadership positions.


Asunto(s)
Ortopedia , Médicos Mujeres , Sexismo , Selección de Profesión , Femenino , Humanos , Internado y Residencia , Procedimientos Ortopédicos
6.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e63-e69, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980155

RESUMEN

The under-representation of women in academic leadership roles, including in anaesthesiology, is a well-documented phenomenon that has persisted for decades despite more women attending medical school, participating in anaesthesiology residencies, and joining academic faculties. The percentage of female anaesthesiologists who hold senior academic ranks or leadership roles, such as chair, lags behind the percentage of female anaesthesiologists overall. Trends towards increasing the numbers of women serving in educational leadership roles, specifically residency programme directors, suggest that there are areas in which academic anaesthesiology has been, and can continue, improving gender imbalance. Continued institutional efforts to recruit women into anaesthesiology, reduce gender bias, and promote interventions that foster gender equity in hiring and promotion will continue to benefit women, academic anaesthesiology departments, and the healthcare system overall.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/tendencias , Internado y Residencia/tendencias , Médicos Mujeres/tendencias , Sexismo/tendencias , Centros Médicos Académicos/organización & administración , Centros Médicos Académicos/tendencias , Anestesiología/educación , Anestesiología/organización & administración , Selección de Profesión , Movilidad Laboral , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/organización & administración , Liderazgo , Médicos Mujeres/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Facultades de Medicina/tendencias , Sexismo/prevención & control , Estados Unidos
7.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1710331, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902346

RESUMEN

Background: Curricular transformation can result in bulges in students' clinical placements.Objective: To report on learner outcomes associated with a competency-based opt-out approach for a required 4th-year neurology clerkship.Methods and Study Design: During Oregon Health & Science University's recent undergraduate medical education curricular transformation, a 4-week required neurology clerkship transitioned from the fourth-year to the third-year in academic year 2016-17. Because this would have resulted in the neurology clerkship accommodating double enrollment for an entire academic year, 4th year medical students from the prior curriculum (graduating class of 2017) were offered the option of opting-out of the required neurology clerkship if they demonstrated competency by passing the USA National Board of Medical Examiners (US-NBME) clinical neurology subject examination and completing a neurology faculty-observed history and complete neurological examination.Results: Fifty-seven of 133 fourth-year students (42.9%) chose to complete the required neurology clerkship with 77 (57.9%) choosing to opt-out. All opt-out students passed the neurological exam assessment and scored similarly to the students who took the clerkship (US-NBME Neurology Subject Exam mean raw score in the opt-out group 76.9 vs, 77.6; p = 0.61). Students grades did not differ. Students who opted-out tended to pursue surgical careers (e.g., general surgery -10.8% opted-out vs 0% clerkship, OB/GYN - 6.8% opted-out vs 0% clerkship, orthopedic surgery 5.4% opted-out vs 0% clerkship) where those who took the clerkship tended to choose medical residency training disciplines (family medicine -16.1% clerkship vs 10.8% opting-out; internal medicine - 32.1% clerkship vs 14.9% opting-out; psychiatry 10.7% clerkship vs 2.7% opting-out (p = 0.042)Conclusion: While undertaking the neurology clerkship would have been the desired approach, students appear not to have been harmed by the opt-out approach regarding performance on the US-NBME clinical neurology subject exam. Choices regarding opting-out versus taking the neurology clerkship appear to be associated with career choice.


Asunto(s)
Prácticas Clínicas , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Neurología/educación , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Selección de Profesión , Educación Basada en Competencias , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Oregon
9.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e535-e539, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562974

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgery is a notoriously difficult career to enter and requires medical students to engage in extracurricular activities to demonstrate their commitment to the specialty. The National Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Competition (NUNC) was established in 2013 as a means for students to display this commitment as well as academic ability. METHODS: A bespoke 22-item questionnaire was designed to determine career outcomes and the role of competition attendance in job applications. It was distributed using the SurveyMonkey website to the 87 attendees at the 2013 and 2014 competitions. RESULTS: Responses were received by 40 competitors (response rate, 46.0%). Twenty-four responders (60.0%) intended to pursue a career in either neurosurgery (n = 18) or neurology (n = 6). This included 10 responders (25.0%) who had successfully entered either neurosurgery (n = 9) or neurology (n = 1). The performance of these 10 was significantly better than the other responders (57.0 ± 13.6% vs. 46.5 ± 13.5% [n = 30]; P = 0.036). Seventeen responders (42.5%) either included their attendance at NUNC in a post-Foundation job application or intend to. CONCLUSIONS: The NUNC provides the opportunity for medical students to demonstrate their interest in neurosurgery. It has the potential to be used as a tool for recognizing medical students suitable for neurosurgery training.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Neurocirugia , Competencia Profesional , Estudiantes de Medicina , Distinciones y Premios , Humanos , Neuroanatomía
10.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 331-342, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437517

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze why women quit full-time employment as neurosurgeons and to discuss the conditions required for their reinstatement. METHODS: We asked 94 core hospitals providing training programs in the board certification system adopted by the Japan Neurosurgical Society to indicate the total number and present status of women in their department and to send our anonymous questionnaire to women who had formerly worked as full-time neurosurgeons. The questionnaire consisted of closed and open questions on their reasons for quitting as full-time neurosurgeons. RESULTS: Among 427 women evaluated, 72 (17%) had quit full-time employment as neurosurgeons. Twenty-one women who had quit 3-21 years after starting their neurosurgery careers responded to the questionnaire, including 17 board-certified neurosurgeons, 11 individuals with master's degrees, and 16 mothers. Their main reasons for quitting full-time work were difficulty in balancing their neurosurgical career and motherhood (52%) and the physical burden (38%). At the time of quitting, only 2 units (5%) had a career counseling system for women. Two thirds of participants might resume full-time work as neurosurgeons in the future. Their support system during pregnancy and the child-raising period, and understanding of male bosses and colleagues were identified as the key themes. CONCLUSIONS: The Japan Neurosurgical Society could facilitate supportive environments for women in neurosurgery by enhancing adequate childcare services, changing the work style of full-time neurosurgeons to incorporate diverse working styles, shorter working hours, understanding of their bosses and colleagues, and a career counseling system.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirujanos , Médicos Mujeres , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral , Adulto , Selección de Profesión , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Urology ; 136: 51-57, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785279

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify institutional factors that predict medical student decision to apply for the urology match. MATERIALS AND METHODS: American Urological Association (AUA) Match data from 2015 to 2019 were used to determine the number of applicants from each medical school who submitted rank lists. Associations between the applicant counts from each medical school and medical school characteristics were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression models. Data were obtained using publicly available datasets and a survey of urology program coordinators. RESULTS: There were 1916 medical students from 199 medical schools who submitted rank lists to the urology residency match. After adjusting for class size, schools with a urology residency program produced significantly greater number of urology applicants (RR 2.7; 95% CI, 2.2-3.4, p<0.001). Additional predictors included a shorter preclerkship curriculum (less than 18 months; RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.09-1.35, P <.001), number of urology residents (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.17, P <.001), urology faculty (RR 1.1; 1.04-1.2; P = .01; per 10 faculty), top 20 residency ranking on Doximity (RR 1.2; 1.1-1.4, P <.001), and presence of urology interest group (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6, P = .005). Approximately 28% of applicants were female, and the percentage of female urology faculty at their institution significantly correlated with number of female applicants (ß = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.01-0.44; P = .049). CONCLUSION: To recruit more medical students into urology, departments should foster early preclinical exposure to specialty-specific interest groups, interaction with residents, and development of a diverse faculty.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Internado y Residencia/tendencias , Facultades de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Urología/educación , Femenino , Humanos , Solicitud de Empleo , Masculino , Estados Unidos
12.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 100-105, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920950

RESUMEN

The Cornell Leadership Program for Veterinary Students is an intensive 10-week learning experience intended to guide competitively selected scholars into careers in science and public health. It features independent research, vocational counseling, and student-directed learning modules. Program scholars are encouraged to objectively evaluate graduate training as preparation for careers promoted by the program. Prominence is given to experiential learning through research, participation in program enrichment modules, and inspirational experiences achieved through group meetings and individual interactions with established scientists. Program alumni are monitored to determine how the careers they pursue relate to their earlier-stated ambitions. In addition, subjective assessments are made of the quality of graduate training and its impact on alumni career paths. The influence of mentors, vocational counseling, and inspirational experiences on subsequent training is also subjectively assessed. Information is obtained from students' anonymous responses to questionnaires and recorded interviews. Program alumni are contacted annually to determine their current activities and career aspirations. The Leadership Program encourages program graduates to undertake careers in science and public health, yet an unanticipated number of alumni enter private veterinary practice. A factor relevant to that outcome is that many students destined for practice lack a definitive career plan. Persuading veterinary students to consider careers in research or public service is challenging but worth the effort. Critical to that connection is the need for veterinary students to objectively evaluate graduate training options because the vocations they follow appear to be strongly influenced by the experiences they choose.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Educación en Veterinaria , Ciencia , Estudiantes , Educación en Veterinaria/métodos , Educación en Veterinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Liderazgo , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciencia/educación , Ciencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1105): 20190340, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596121

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare key characteristics of interventional radiology (IR) training in the UK with four other English-speaking countries (USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) and summarise requirements for training. METHODS: Main features examined were career pathway and requirements, examinations required, specific competition for IR and the process of applying for training as an international medical graduate. Data were collected from official governing body publications, literature and personal experience. RESULTS: Several differences were highlighted, including length of training (ranging from 6 to 9 years after medical school), length of IR-specific training (ranging from 1 to 3 years) and examinations required (USA and Canada have additional IR-specific examinations). The level of competition is generally high, in all countries. CONCLUSIONS: With the demand for IR services set to increase over the next few years, it is crucial that more IR specialists are trained to meet this demand. Awareness of training structures in other countries can highlight opportunity and pitfalls, and help ensure the number of highly trained interventional radiologists in the UK continues to grow.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/tendencias , Radiología Intervencional/educación , Australia , Canadá , Selección de Profesión , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
14.
Nurse Educ ; 45(1): 39-42, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801418

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: RN precepted clinical immersion experiences have become a mainstay of prelicensure nursing education, as they increase autonomy and confidence as students prepare to graduate and enter the workforce. PROBLEM: Nursing students are often assigned a hospital unit that neither enables them to work with their preferred patient population nor appreciates the patient care continuum. APPROACH: A clinical immersion experience was developed using an innovative model focused on specific patient populations across the care continuum. OUTCOMES: Five clinically immersive experiences were developed. More than 50 students transitioned through varied areas across the care continuum, based on their chosen focus. CONCLUSION: Senior-level nursing students were able to care for patients along the care continuum in both acute and community settings through a new model.


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería/organización & administración , Atención de Enfermería/organización & administración , Preceptoría/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Selección de Profesión , Difusión de Innovaciones , Humanos , Modelos Educacionales , Investigación en Educación de Enfermería , Investigación en Evaluación de Enfermería
17.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(1-2): 163-171, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612549

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students perceive and make decisions regarding mental health nursing as a career following completion of an inpatient mental health practicum. BACKGROUND: Among nursing students, mental health is consistently perceived as the least desirable nursing career path. However, evidence to explain why this is the case remains limited, with a lack of research exploring students' experiences of mental health settings and how these experiences influence their perceptions of a mental health nursing career. This knowledge gap limits strategies to support nurses' selection of mental health nursing as a career path, contributing to a global shortage of mental health nurses. DESIGN: This study used a qualitative narrative inquiry design. METHODS: In-depth interviews (N = 15) were conducted with undergraduate nursing students to explore their experiences of mental health practicums. Participants had all completed a 6-week practicum in inpatient mental health settings in urban hospitals. Reporting follows COREQ guidelines. RESULTS: Nursing students' decisions to not choose a career in mental health nursing were influenced by negative practicum experiences, including the institutional environments of the inpatient mental health settings and witnessing of harmful nursing practices. These factors were identified as barriers to pursuing a career in mental health nursing. However, students expressed desire to continue to work with clients with mental health challenges and aimed to pursue nursing careers that preserve this opportunity in different healthcare settings. CONCLUSIONS: These findings expand upon existing literature that frequently positions nursing students as "uninterested" in mental health nursing and offers insights that can contribute to addressing global mental health nursing shortages. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study highlights the need for mental health nurses, nursing leaders, and educators to recognise and respond to students' difficult experiences in the inpatient mental health setting during practicums.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Enfermería Psiquiátrica , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Bachillerato en Enfermería , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Preceptoría , Investigación Cualitativa
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