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1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803724

RESUMEN

Drought poses a serious threat to oilseed crops by lowering yield and crop failures under prolonged spells. A multi-year field investigation was conducted to enhance the drought tolerance in four genotypes of Camelina and canola by selenium (Se) application. The principal aim of the research was to optimize the crop yield by eliciting the physio-biochemical attributes by alleviating the adverse effects of drought stress. Both crops were cultivated under control (normal irrigation) and drought stress (skipping irrigation at stages i.e., vegetative and reproductive) conditions. Four different treatments of Se viz., seed priming with Se (75 µM), foliar application of Se (7.06 µM), foliar application of Se + Seed priming with Se (7.06 µM and 75 µM, respectively) and control (without Se), were implemented at the vegetative and reproductive stages of both crops. Sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), an inorganic compound was used as Se sources for both seed priming and foliar application. Data regarding physiochemical, antioxidants, and yield components were recorded as response variables at crop maturity. Results indicated that WP, OP, TP, proline, TSS, TFAA, TPr, TS, total chlorophyll contents, osmoprotectant (GB, anthocyanin, TPC, and flavonoids), antioxidants (APX, SOD, POD, and CAT), and yield components (number of branches per plant, thousand seed weight, seed, and biological yields were significantly improved by foliar Se + priming Se in both crops under drought stress. Moreover, this treatment was also helpful in boosting yield attributes under irrigated (non-stress) conditions. Camelina genotypes responded better to Se application as seed priming and foliar spray than canola for both years. It has concluded that Se application (either foliar or priming) can potentially alleviate adverse effects of drought stress in camelina and canola by eliciting various physio-biochemicals attributes under drought stress. Furthermore, Se application was also helpful for crop health under irrigated condition.


Asunto(s)
Brassica napus/efectos de los fármacos , Brassica napus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brassicaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Brassicaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sequías , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Antioxidantes/análisis , Brassica napus/fisiología , Brassicaceae/fisiología , Productos Agrícolas/efectos de los fármacos , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Agrícolas/fisiología , Osmorregulación , Pakistán , Aceites Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas de Plantas/análisis , Aceite de Brassica napus/aislamiento & purificación
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1132-1141, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518072

RESUMEN

This experiment aims to study the effects of dietary selenium (Se) sources on the production performance, reproductive performance, and maternal effect of breeder laying hens. A total of 2,112 Hyline brown breeder laying hens of 42 wk of age were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups, with 8 repeats in each group and 88 chickens per repeat. The sources of dietary Se were sodium selenite (SS, added at 0.3 mg/kg), L-selenomethionine (L-SM, added at 0.2 mg/kg), and combination of SS and L-SM (SS 0.15 mg/kg + L-SM 0.15 mg/kg). The pretest period was 7 d, and the breeding period was 49 d. Compared with 0.3 mg/kg SS, the addition of 0.2 mg/kg L-SM in the diet significantly increased the hatchability (P < 0.05) and the Se content (P < 0.05) in egg yolk and chicken embryo tissues and improved the activity of yolk glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) effectively (P < 0.05). Treatment with 0.2 mg/kg L-SM also reduced the content of yolk malondialdehyde (P < 0.05) and significantly improved the antioxidant performance of 1-day-old chicks, as manifested by increased activity of antioxidant enzymes (GSH-px, total antioxidant capacity and the ability to inhibit hydroxyl radicals) in serum, pectoral, heart, and liver (P < 0.05). This treatment decreased the malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and increased the expression of liver glutathione peroxidase 4 and deiodinase 1 mRNA (P < 0.05). Adding L-SM to the diets of chickens increased the hatchability of breeder eggs as well as the amount of Se deposited and antioxidant enzyme activity in breeder eggs and embryos. Compared with SS, L-SM was more effectively transferred from the mother to the embryo and offspring, showing efficient maternal nutrition. For breeder diets, the combination of organic and inorganic Se (0.15 mg/kg SS + 0.15 mg/kg L-SM) is an effective nutrient supplementation technology program for effectively improving the breeding performance of breeders and the antioxidant performance and health level of offspring chicks.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos/fisiología , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Selenio , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Embrión de Pollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Huevos/normas , Femenino , Distribución Aleatoria , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/clasificación , Selenometionina/administración & dosificación , Selenito de Sodio/administración & dosificación
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 86, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411090

RESUMEN

This study determined the effects of antioxidant supplementation and storage time at cool temperatures on the characteristics of epididymal camel spermatozoa. Camel testes were collected at the abattoir after animal slaughtering and kept at 4 °C during transportation and until processing (max 6 h). Spermatozoa were retrieved and diluted with SHOTOR extender, split in aliquots, supplemented with the following antioxidants: 200 µm/mL vitamin E, 1.0 g/L vitamin C, 1 µg/mL selenium nanoparticles, 50 µg/mL zinc nanoparticles, 2 µg/mL sodium selenite, and 100 µg/mL zinc sulfate, and stored at 4 °C for 2, 48, 96, and 144 h. The storage time significantly affected (P < 0.05) the sperms' motility and livability, the sperms' membrane integrity, and the percentages of cytoplasmic droplets as well as the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Epididymal sperm characteristics (progressive motility, livability, membrane integrity, and abnormalities) were significantly improved (P < 0.05) when the spermatozoa were diluted with antioxidants as compared with the control group, and the best additives were identified as nano-selenium, sodium selenite, nano-zinc, and zinc sulfate. In conclusion, adding nano-sized minerals or inorganic trace elements and vitamins maintained the progressive motility, livability, and membrane integrity, and decreased abnormalities and cytoplasmic droplet percentages of epididymal camel spermatozoa stored at 4 °C up to 144 h.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Camelus/fisiología , Preservación de Semen/veterinaria , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Ácido Ascórbico/administración & dosificación , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacología , Masculino , Nanopartículas del Metal , Distribución Aleatoria , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/farmacología , Vitamina E/administración & dosificación , Vitamina E/farmacología , Zinc/administración & dosificación , Zinc/farmacología
4.
J Nutr ; 151(2): 293-302, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382417

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is a trace element that has been linked to many health conditions. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants for blood and toenail Se levels, but no GWAS has been conducted to date on responses to Se supplementation. OBJECTIVES: A GWAS was performed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with changes in Se concentrations after 1 year of supplementation. A GWAS of basal plasma Se concentrations at study entry was conducted to evaluate whether SNPs for Se responses overlap with SNPs for basal Se levels. METHODS: A total of 428 participants aged 40-80 years of European descent from the Selenium and Celecoxib Trial (Sel/Cel Trial) who received daily supplementation with 200 µg of selenized yeast were included for the GWAS of responses to supplementation. Plasma Se concentrations were measured from blood samples collected at the time of recruitment and after 1 year of supplementation. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between each SNP and changes in Se concentrations. We further examined whether the identified SNPs overlapped with those related to basal Se concentrations. RESULTS: No SNP was significantly associated with changes in Se concentration at a genome-wide significance level. However, rs56856693, located upstream of the NEK6, was nominally associated with changes in Se concentrations after supplementation (P = 4.41 × 10-7), as were 2 additional SNPs, rs11960388 and rs6887869, located in the dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH)/betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) region (P = 0.01). Alleles of 2 SNPs in the DMGDH/BHMT region associated with greater increases in Se concentrations after supplementation were also strongly associated with higher basal Se concentrations (P = 8.67 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: This first GWAS of responses to Se supplementation in participants of European descent from the Sel/Cel Trial suggests that SNPs in the NEK6 and DMGDH/BHMT regions influence responses to supplementation.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genotipo , Selenio/sangre , Selenio/farmacología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Selenio/administración & dosificación
5.
Nutrition ; 81: 110989, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049573

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic causing one of the biggest challenges for critical care medicine. Mortality from COVID-19 is much greater in elderly men, many of whom succumb to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) triggered by the viral infection. Because there is no specific antiviral treatment against COVID-19, new strategies are urgently needed. Selenium is an essential trace element with antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Poor nutritional status increases the pathogenicity of viruses and low selenium in particular can be a determinant of viral virulence. In the past decade, selenium pharmaconutrition studies have demonstrated some reduction in overall mortality, including how reduced incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and infectious complications such as ARDS in the critically ill. Consequently, we postulate that intravenous selenium therapy, could be part of the therapeutic fight against COVID-19 in intensive care unit patients with ARDS and that outcomes could be affected by age, sex, and body weight. Our working hypothesis addresses the question: Could high-dose selenite pharmaconutrition, as an early pharmacologic intervention, be effective at reducing the incidence and the progression from type 1 respiratory failure (non-ARDS) to severe ARDS, multiorgan failure, and new infectious complications in patients with COVID-19 patients?


Asunto(s)
/dietoterapia , Selenio/uso terapéutico , /complicaciones , Enfermedad Crítica , Femenino , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped , Humanos , Inflamación/etiología , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Micronutrientes/farmacocinética , Micronutrientes/uso terapéutico , Modelos Biológicos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Nutrición , Obesidad/complicaciones , Pandemias , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/farmacocinética
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 10469-10479, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380796

RESUMEN

Purpose: Selenium is an essential trace element that supports animal health through the antioxidant defense system by protecting cells from oxidative-related damage. Using inorganic selenium species, such as sodium selenite (Na Sel), as a food supplement is cost-effective; however, its limitation as a nutritional supplement is its cytotoxicity. One strategy to mitigate this problem is by delivering inorganic selenium using a nanoparticle delivery system (SeNP). Methods: Rainbow trout intestinal epithelial cells, bovine turbinate cells and bovine intestinal myofibroblasts were treated with soluble Na Sel or SeNPs. Two SeNP formulations were tested; SeNP-Ionic where inorganic selenium was ionically bound to cationic phytoglycogen (PhG) NPs, and SeNP-Covalent, where inorganic selenium was covalently bound to PhG NPs. Selenium-induced cytotoxicity along with selenium bioavailability were measured. Results: SeNPs (SeNP-Ionic or SeNP-Covalent) substantially reduced cytotoxicity in all cell types examined compared to similar doses of soluble inorganic selenium. The SeNP formulations did not affect selenium bioavailability, as selenium-induced glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and GPx1 transcript levels were similarly elevated whether cells were treated with soluble Na Sel or SeNPs. This was the case for all three cell types tested. Conclusion: Nanoparticle-assisted inorganic selenium delivery, which demonstrated equal bioavailability without causing deleterious cytotoxic side effects, has potential applications for safely supplementing animal diets with inorganic selenium at what are usually toxic doses.


Asunto(s)
Glucógeno/administración & dosificación , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/farmacocinética , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Bovinos , Línea Celular , Suplementos Dietéticos/toxicidad , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos/métodos , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Glutatión Peroxidasa/genética , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Glucógeno/química , Nanopartículas/química , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Selenio/toxicidad
7.
Chin J Physiol ; 63(5): 235-243, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109790

RESUMEN

Although selenium is known to be essential for reproductive function, studies have indicated the adverse effect with its prolonged use. The present study investigated the duration-related effect of selenium administrations on reproductive hormones and estrous cycle indices in adult female Wistar rats exposed to a model of light pollution using altered photoperiod (AP). Ninety-six cyclic female Wistar rats displaying 4-5 days' estrous cycle length (ECL) and weighing 148-152 g were randomly divided into short and long experimental cohorts consisting of six groups each and spanning for 1 and 8 weeks, respectively. Each consisted of control, high selenium dose (HSE), low selenium dose (LSE), AP, AP + HSE, and AP + LSE. The rats were orally administered high dose (150 µg/kg) and low dose (100 µg/kg) of sodium selenite once per day. The estrous cycle indices were monitored. Plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E), progesterone (P), prolactin, E/P ratio, and histology of ovary and uterine horn were evaluated. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. In AP rats, HSE and LSE caused no significant effect on LH, E, P, and E/P ratio, ECL, estrus interval (EI), and estrous cycle ratio (ECR). The effect of HSE and LSE on LH, E, P, E/P ratio, and ECL showed no duration-dependent increase, but there was a duration-dependent increase in EI and ECR at low dose. The study indicated that administration of HSE of selenium improved reproductive function in photo-pollution-exposed rats irrespective of the duration of treatment.


Asunto(s)
Genitales/efectos de los fármacos , Genitales/efectos de la radiación , Homeostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Fotoperiodo , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Animales , Estradiol , Femenino , Hormona Folículo Estimulante , Genitales/fisiopatología , Hormona Luteinizante , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6339-6353, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922005

RESUMEN

Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical alterations. Current antiepileptic drugs are associated with various adverse impacts. The main goal of the current study is to investigate the possible anticonvulsant effect of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-mediated epileptic seizures in mice hippocampus. Sodium valproate (VPA) was used as a standard anti-epileptic drug. Methods: Mice were assigned into five groups (n=15): control, SeNPs (5 mg/kg, orally), PTZ (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), SeNPs+PTZ and VPA (200 mg/kg)+PTZ. All groups were treated for 10 days. Results: PTZ injection triggered a state of oxidative stress in the hippocampal tissue as represented by the elevated lipoperoxidation, heat shock protein 70 level, and nitric oxide formation while decreased glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes activity. Additionally, the blotting analysis showed downregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the epileptic mice. A state of neuroinflammation was recorded following the developed seizures represented by the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was recorded following the development of epileptic convulsions. At the neurochemical level, acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamines content were decreased in the epileptic mice, accompanied by high glutamate and low GABA levels in the hippocampal tissue. However, SeNP supplementation was found to delay the onset and decreased the duration of tonic, myoclonic, and generalized seizures following PTZ injection. Moreover, SeNPs were found to provide neuroprotection through preventing the development of oxidative challenge via the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptotic cascade. Additionally, SeNPs reversed the changes in the activity and levels of neuromodulators following the development of epileptic seizures. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that SeNPs could be used as a promising anticonvulsant drug due to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuromodulatory activities.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas/química , Neuronas/patología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Convulsiones/tratamiento farmacológico , Selenio/uso terapéutico , Aminoácidos , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efectos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacología , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipocampo/patología , Masculino , Ratones , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neurotransmisores/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Pentilenotetrazol , Convulsiones/inducido químicamente , Convulsiones/prevención & control , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/farmacología
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3497-3509, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547009

RESUMEN

Purpose: The existing treatment modalities for rheumatoid arthritis are less effective and safe, therefore it is essential to develop new treatments that particularly target the inflamed joints with decreased off-target side-effects. The current study proposes a nanoparticle-based therapeutic approach to target the anti-oxidant defense system of arthritic Balb/c mice. Methods: Biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were synthesized by using Trachyspermum ammi seed extract and were evaluated for their toxicological, as well as their therapeutic potential in collagen-induced arthritic mice. Results: The tested doses of SeNPs had no significant toxic effects on liver, kidney, spleen, and serum biochemical parameters in comparison to healthy mice. The SeNPs treatment reduced the disease severity, as demonstrated by decreased paw edema along with reduced lymphocytic cellular infiltration in the histopathological findings. SeNPs also revealed dose-independent improvement in the redox state of inflamed synovium by significantly improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes in comparison to the arthritic controls. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that nano-selenium in combination with TAE extract showed enhanced therapeutic efficacy as compared to their individual effects.


Asunto(s)
Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Apiaceae/química , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Selenio/toxicidad , Selenio/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Antirreumáticos/farmacología , Artritis Reumatoide/patología , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Catalasa/metabolismo , Bovinos , Edema/patología , Femenino , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/enzimología , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Oxidación-Reducción , Extractos Vegetales/química , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/farmacología , Espectrofotometría Infrarroja , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Bazo/efectos de los fármacos , Bazo/patología
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20191107, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520220

RESUMEN

Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria and infection affecting most domestic animal species. The aim of this research was to comprehend the impact of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata in mouse jejunum, and how they work as antioxidants and anti-apoptotic agents against eimeriosis. The numbers of meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts of E. papillata reduced after the infected mice were treated with the SeNPs. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and other oxidative stress-related molecules, such as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assayed. E. papillata was able to change the redox status of the jejunal cells; this was confirmed by the elevation of the MDA and NO levels, and the decrease of the GSH levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. SeNP treatment significantly reversed this disturbance of the redox status. The expression levels of the apoptotic markers Bax and caspase-3 in the jejunal samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The SeNPs decreased the Bax and caspase-3 expression after being administered to the E. papillata-infected mice. Collectively, the SeNPs demonstrated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities against murine eimeriosis.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Coccidiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Animales , Coccidiosis/parasitología , Coccidiosis/patología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ratones
11.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1738-1748, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386229

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Excessive dietary selenium (Se; 3 mg/kg) or fat (>25%) intakes and overproduction of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) adversely affect body lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to reveal impacts and mechanisms of a moderately high Se and a high fat intake on lipid metabolism in Gpx1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. METHODS: The KO and WT mice (males, 12-wk-old, body weight = 24.8 ± 0.703 g) were allotted to 4 groups each (n = 5) and fed a sucrose-torula yeast basal diet (5% corn oil) supplemented with 0.3 or 1.0 mg (+Se) Se/kg (as sodium selenite) and 0% or 25% [high-fat (HF)] lard for 6 wk. Multiple physiological and molecular biomarkers (68) related to lipid metabolism and selenogenome expression in plasma, liver, and/or adipose tissue were analyzed by 2-way (+Se by HF) ANOVA. RESULTS: Compared with the control diet, the +Se diet decreased (P < 0.05) body-weight gain and plasma and liver concentrations of lipids (22-66%) but elevated (≤1.5-fold, P < 0.05) adipose tissue concentrations of lipids in the WT mice. The +Se diet up- and downregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA and/or protein concentrations of factors related to lipogenesis, selenogenome, and transcription, stress, and cell cycle in the liver (26% to 176-fold) and adipose tissues (14% to 1-fold), respectively, compared with the control diet in the WT mice. Many of these +Se diet effects were different (P < 0.05) from those of the HF diet and were eliminated or altered (P < 0.05) by the KO. CONCLUSIONS: The +Se and HF diets exerted tissue-specific and GPX1 expression-dependent impacts on lipid metabolism and related gene expression in the young-adult mice. Our findings will help reveal metabolic potential and underlying mechanisms of supplementing moderately high Se to subjects with HF intakes.


Asunto(s)
Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Selenio/farmacología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Glutatión Peroxidasa/genética , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Selenio/administración & dosificación
12.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 53(4): 295-302, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468295

RESUMEN

Selenium and zinc are essential trace elements and an inadequate dietary intake has been implicated in the decline of immune and cognitive functions in aged persons and in the pathogenesis of age-related disorders. Both micronutrients are often marketed as "antioxidants" in mineral supplements; however, neither selenium nor zinc are antioxidants per se but they may exert beneficial effects as components of enzymes and other proteins that catalyze redox reactions and/or are involved in the maintenance of redox homeostasis. According to epidemiological data older individuals have an increased risk of developing deficiencies in the selenium and zinc status; however, such statistical correlations in epidemiological studies do not imply a causal association. Intervention trials are scarce and have yielded inconsistent and sometimes even adverse results. It should also be noted that the observed deficiencies in micronutrients may not necessarily be attributable to inadequate dietary intake as the absorption and distribution within the body might also be influenced by factors such as medications or interaction with other food ingredients. Thus, any dietary supplementation should be implemented with caution and persons who wish to take mineral supplements should first seek medical advice. This article discusses the role of selenium and zinc in biological antioxidant systems, summarizes findings on the supply and supplementation of aged persons with these trace elements and on the influence they may exert on aging-related health issues, such as cognitive decline and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Envejecimiento Saludable , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Zinc/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos
13.
J Therm Biol ; 88: 102515, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125992

RESUMEN

Present study was carried out with the objective of investigating the role of green synthesized nano Se (GNS) in growth performance, digestibility of minerals, immunity, stress alleviation, antioxidant status, and body Se content of broiler chicken raised under hot and humid environment with respect to market nano Se (MNS) and inorganic Se. The experimental design was 3 × 3 factorial, in which three levels (0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 ppm) and three sources (inorganic, green nano, and market nano) of Se resulted in nine treatments viz. IS-0.15, GNS-0.15, MNS-0.15, IZ-0.20, GNS-0.20, MNS-0.20, IS-0.25, GNS-0.25, and MNS-0.25 (IS: inorganic Se, GNS: green nano Se, MNS: market nano Se). A total of 432 broiler chicken were divided among nine treatments with six replicates of birds per treatment (8 birds/replicate). Results of present study revealed significantly better growth performance of birds supplemented with 0.25 ppm nano Se. The supplementation of 0.25 ppm nano Se improved the immune response and lymphoid organ development of birds. Significantly higher Se and nitrogen digestibility coefficients, serum antioxidant activity and decline of Heterophil: Lymphocyte ratio and expression of HSP70 gene were observed in birds supplemented with 0.25 ppm Se and nano source of Se compared to inorganic Se. Significantly higher Se concentration in liver and breast muscle and higher serum Se concentration were observed in birds fed 0.25 ppm nano Se. The liver Se concentration was much higher than that of breast muscle. However, the nano Se synthesized by green method in this study did not differ significantly from the chemically synthesized nano Se. It was concluded that 0.25 ppm Se and nano form of Se are superior to lower levels and inorganic form of Se, respectively, in improving the immunity, growth, antioxidant status, and in stress alleviation of broiler chicken. However, GNS is equally efficient as chemically synthesized MNS.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Pollos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Calor , Humedad , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Proteínas Aviares/genética , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/inmunología , Pollos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Eritrocitos , Proteínas HSP70 de Choque Térmico/genética , Hemaglutinación , Hígado/metabolismo , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/metabolismo , Ovinos
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1491-1501, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111317

RESUMEN

This study investigated the influence of an organic mineral-supplemented broiler diet on the quality of nuggets. The resulting chicken nuggets were enriched with inorganic and organic forms of Zn and Se. The nuggets were processed by incorporating extracts from food industry by-products (rosemary [RH and RL], hydroxytyrosol [HYT], pomegranate [P], grape [GS], and Harpagophytum [H]). The physiochemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of the chicken nuggets were evaluated over a 12-month period of frozen storage. The addition of natural extracts did not affect the pH, proximate composition, or color (CIELab) of the nuggets among samples. However, significative differences were found between month of analysis (range from pH 6.16 to 6.63; luminosity from 62.51 to 84.74; redness from 0.16 to 7.14; and yellowness from 10.80 to 33.77). In addition, the combination of phenolic compounds with Zn and Se retarded microbial growth and reduced protein and lipid oxidation, thus maintaining the sensory quality and extending the shelf life of this product. For instance, the combination of RL + GS reduced in 75% the microbiological growth regarding the control sample (C), while samples that incorporated RH + P or HYT + P + H presented 50% less than C. In addition, upon only incorporating organic minerals Zn and Se, microbiological deterioration is reduced in 15%. This mix was significantly effective at reducing the oxidative reactions of lipids and proteins by 40% and 50%, as measured after 9 and 12 mo of frozen storage, respectively. The addition of the natural extracts and Zn and Se did not adversely affect the acceptability of the meat product.


Asunto(s)
Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Alimentos Congelados/análisis , Carne/análisis , Minerales/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Pollos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Alimentos Congelados/microbiología , Carne/microbiología , Minerales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Distribución Aleatoria , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/metabolismo , Zinc/administración & dosificación , Zinc/metabolismo
15.
Life Sci ; 248: 117464, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097667

RESUMEN

AIMS: The present study was carried out to investigate the influences of Selenium/Zinc-Enriched probiotics (SeZnP) on growth performance, serum enzyme activity, antioxidant capability, inflammatory factors and gene expression associated with Wistar rats inflated under high ambient thermal-stress. MAIN METHODS: Sixty male rates with six-weeks of age were randomly allocated into five groups (12 per group) and fed basal diet (Control), basal diet supplemented with probiotics (P), Zinc-Enriched probiotics (ZnP, 100 mg/L), Selenium-Enriched Probiotics (SeP, 0.3 mg/L) and Selenium/Zinc-Enriched probiotics (SeZnP, 0.3 mg + 100 mg/L). The experiment lasted 30 days. Blood and Tissues samples were taken to investigate serum enzyme activity, antioxidants capability and inflammatory factors by using of commercial kits and antioxidant, heat shock and inflammatory related molecules expressions were determined by qRT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: Data analysis revealed that thermal stress significantly increased the level of Aspartate-aminotransferase, Alanine-aminotransferase, Lactate-dehydrogenase, Creatine-kinase, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine and Alkaline phosphatase compared to P, ZnP, SeP or SeZnP groups (P < 0.01). However, supplementation of ZnP, SeP, and SeZnP significantly enhanced glutathione content, glutathione-peroxidase & superoxide-dismutase activity, and decreased malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentration of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly increased while IL-10 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of GPx1 and SOD1 genes were significantly increased, but COX-2, iNOS, HSP70 and 90 mRNA levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Finally, the highest influence of the mentioned parameters was observed in SeZnP supplemented group. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that SeZnP supplementation serves as possible and best nutritive than ZnP or SeP for Wistar rats raising under high ambient temperature.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/efectos de los fármacos , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Zinc/administración & dosificación , Alanina Transaminasa/genética , Alanina Transaminasa/metabolismo , Fosfatasa Alcalina/genética , Fosfatasa Alcalina/metabolismo , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/metabolismo , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Creatina Quinasa/genética , Creatina Quinasa/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Ciclooxigenasa 2/genética , Ciclooxigenasa 2/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa/genética , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Proteínas HSP70 de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas HSP70 de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/genética , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/genética , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087017

RESUMEN

The present study compares the net portal appearance of dietary iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) after meals containing different sources and levels of these minerals. Twelve pigs (55.1 ± 3.7 kg) were used in a cross-over design to assess the 11-h net portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of serum Fe and Se after ingestion of boluses containing inorganic (I) or organic (O) dietary Fe and Se at industry average (A; 200 and 0.6 mg, respectively) or high (H; 400 and 1.2 mg, respectively) levels. Arterial serum Fe concentrations increased by an average of 158% within 6 h post-meal and gradually decreased thereafter (P < 0.001). Values were greater (P < 0.001) for I than for O until 6 h post-meal and greater (P ≤ 0.001) for A than for H from 4 to 8 h post-meal. For the whole post-prandial period (11 h), arterial serum Fe concentrations tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for I than for O and were lowest for HO (P ≤ 0.03). Net PDV flux of Fe tended to be greater for AI than for AO (P ≥ 0.07). Cumulative appearance of Fe in PDV serum (% of dietary intake) was greater for I than for O (2.43 vs. -0.76%; P = 0.02) and A tended to be greater than H (1.96 vs. -0.29 %; P = 0.09) until 3 h post-meal, but these effects further faded out (P ≥ 0.43). Arterial serum Se concentration decreased for all treatments (average of 7%) from premeal values (P < 0.001), and this was more pronounced for O than for I (P = 0.03). Irrespective of treatment, net PDV flux of Se was positive (different from 0, P ≤ 0.03) during the first 90 min post-meal, decreased to negative minimum values (different from 0, P = 0.03) at 5 h post-meal, and was not different from 0 thereafter (P ≥ 0.11). Cumulative appearance of Se in PDV serum (% of dietary intake) was greater for I than for O (20.0 vs. -3.8%; P = 0.04) only at 45 min post-meal. In conclusion, both dietary Fe and Se absorption are limited to the early post-meal period. Whereas for Fe, the level effect is in accordance with the known negative correlation between its dietary concentration and percentage of intestinal absorption, this was not the case for dietary Se. The postabsorptive availability of dietary I was greater than O for both minerals and, particularly for Fe, at low levels.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Hierro en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Absorción Intestinal , Hierro en la Dieta/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Periodo Posprandial , Selenio/metabolismo
17.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 704-711, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060554

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between high selenium (Se) intake and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes has raised great concern, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Through targeted metabolomics analysis, we examined the liver sugar and acylcarnitine metabolism responses to supranutritional selenomethionine (SeMet) supplementation in pigs. METHODS: Thirty-six castrated male pigs (Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire, 62.0 ± 3.3 kg) were fed SeMet adequate (Se-A, 0.25 mg Se/kg) or SeMet supranutritional (Se-S, 2.5 mg Se/kg) diets for 60 d. The Se concentration, biochemical, gene expression, enzyme activity, and energy-targeted metabolite profiles were analyzed. RESULTS: The Se-S group had greater fasting serum concentrations of glucose (1.9-fold), insulin (1.4-fold), and free fatty acids (FFAs,1.3-fold) relative to the Se-A group (P < 0.05). The liver total Se concentration was 4.2-fold that of the Se-A group in the Se-S group (P < 0.05), but expression of most selenoprotein genes and selenoenzyme activity did not differ between the 2 groups. Seven of 27 targeted sugar metabolites and 4 of 21 acylcarnitine metabolites significantly changed in response to high SeMet (P < 0.05). High SeMet supplementation significantly upregulated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) activity by 64.4% and decreased hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity by 46.5-56.7% (P < 0.05). The relative contents of glucose, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, α-ketoglutarate, fumarate, malate, erythrose-4-phosphate, and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate in the Se-S group were 21.1-360% greater than those in the Se-A group (P < 0.05). The expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the relative contents of carnitine, hexanoyl-carnitine, decanoyl-carnitine, and tetradecanoyl-carnitine in the Se-S group were 35-97% higher than those in the Se-A group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary high SeMet-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were associated with suppression of sugar metabolism and elevation of lipid synthesis in pig livers. Our research provides novel insights into high SeMet intake-induced type 2 diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Dieta , Hígado/metabolismo , Selenometionina/administración & dosificación , Azúcares/metabolismo , Animales , Carnitina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/inducido químicamente , Suplementos Dietéticos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Homeostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Hiperglucemia/inducido químicamente , Hiperinsulinismo/inducido químicamente , Lípidos/biosíntesis , Hígado/química , Hígado/enzimología , Masculino , Metabolómica/métodos , Modelos Animales , Oxidación-Reducción , ARN Mensajero/análisis , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/efectos adversos , Selenio/análisis , Selenometionina/efectos adversos , Selenoproteínas/genética , Sus scrofa
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1187-1203, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110016

RESUMEN

Background: Selenium (Se) is an indispensable trace element required for animals and human beings, whereas Se-deficiency can accelerate the development of acute gastric injury induced by over-consumption of alcohol. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), as a special Se-supplement with favorable properties and unique bioactivities, are expected to play a passive role in gastroprotection. To the best of our knowledge, the gastroprotective potential of SeNPs is unknown and also, a rapid preparation of orally stable SeNPs available for prospective commercial application in the clinic is needed. Thus, SeNPs-embedded chitosan microspheres (SeNPs-CM) were developed to deliver SeNPs, and their gastroprotective potential was evaluated. Results: Herein, a rapid, eco-friendly and economic preparation process, composed of synthesis of SeNPs decorated by chitosan (CS), purification of CS-SeNPs by ultra-filtration (UF) and spray-drying of the purified CS-SeNPs, was introduced to prepare SeNPs-CM. The uniformly distributed SeNPs with a nanosize range of 60 nm were loaded into CS-microspheres, and they could be released from the microspheres in gastric conditions. In addition, SeNPs-CM were safer than selenite in terms of Se dose, with a LD50 of around 8-fold of that of selenite, and it could efficiently enhance the Se retention in Se-deficient Wistar rats. Furthermore, SeNPs-CM pre-treatment might significantly attenuate the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage, based on histological evaluation. It might be partly attributed to the systematic antioxidant activities of SeNPs-CM, reflected by the reduction in lipid peroxidation, the augmentation in antioxidant enzymatic activity as well as decreasing aggressive nitric oxides (NO). Conclusion: SeNPs-CM could be taken into consideration as a prospective Se-supplement for the oral delivery of SeNPs, with prominent gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced mucosal injury.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos/métodos , Mucosa Gástrica/efectos de los fármacos , Microesferas , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Selenio/farmacología , Administración Oral , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Quitosano/química , Etanol/toxicidad , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Ratas Wistar , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/química , Selenio/farmacocinética , Úlcera Gástrica/inducido químicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamiento farmacológico , Ultrafiltración/métodos
19.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012916

RESUMEN

Heat stress induces apoptosis in various cells. Selenium, an essential micronutrient, has beneficial effects in maintaining the cellular physiological functions. However, its potential protective action against chronic heat stress (CHS)-induced apoptosis in granulosa cells and the related molecular mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the roles of selenium in CHS-induced apoptosis in mouse granulosa cells and explored its underlying mechanism. The heat treatment for 6-48 h induced apoptosis, potentiated caspase 3 activity, increased the expression levels of apoptosis-related gene BAX and ER stress markers, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in mouse granulosa cells. The treatment with ER stress inhibitor 4-PBA significantly attenuated the adverse effects caused by CHS. Selenium treatment significantly attenuated the CHS- or thapsigargin (Tg, an ER stress activator)-induced apoptosis, potentiation of caspase 3 activity, and the increased protein expression levels of BAX, GRP78, and CHOP. Additionally, treatment of the cells with 5 ng/mL selenium significantly ameliorated the levels of estradiol, which were decreased in response to heat exposure. Consistently, administering selenium supplement alleviated the hyperthermia-caused reduction in the serum estradiol levels in vivo. Together, our findings indicate that selenium has protective effects on CHS-induced apoptosis via inhibition of the ER stress pathway. The current study provides new insights in understanding the role of selenium during the process of heat-induced cell apoptosis.


Asunto(s)
Estrés del Retículo Endoplásmico/efectos de los fármacos , Células de la Granulosa/citología , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Tapsigargina/efectos adversos , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Butilaminas/farmacología , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Células Cultivadas , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Células de la Granulosa/efectos de los fármacos , Células de la Granulosa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Selenio/farmacología , Factor de Transcripción CHOP/metabolismo , Proteína X Asociada a bcl-2/metabolismo
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1779-1786, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898025

RESUMEN

The present study was conducted to assess the effects of pre-breeding vitamin E and selenium (ESe) injections on the reproductive performance, antioxidant status, and serum progesterone (P4) concentration in estrus-synchronized Mehraban ewes. During the breeding season, 38 ewes (3-4 years) were divided into two groups (n = 18), and the synchronization of estrus was achieved by intravaginal insertion of 0.3 g progesterone CIDR device for 13 days followed by 350 IU eCG at CIDR withdrawal. Ewes were kept under pasture conditions and exposed to Mehraban rams 48 h following CIDR withdrawal. The experimental treatments were control and ESe injection. The ESe group was received three intramuscular (5 mL) injections of Ese (0.5 mg/mL of selenium as sodium selenite and 50 IU vitamin E as DL-α- tocopheryl) once every 2 weeks. Specifically, Ese was administered at 2 weeks before CIDR insertion, at the times of CIDR insertion and CIDR withdrawal. Fertility, prolificacy, lambing rate, and birth weight were recorded after parturition. Blood samples were collected at CIDR insertion, CIDR withdrawal, 5, 10, and 15 days after ram exposure. Fertility, prolificacy, lambing rate, and birth weight did not improve by Ese treatment, but viability of lambs was higher in ESe than control (P < 0.05). Serum total antioxidant capacity at day 5 and P4 at day 10 after ram exposure was higher in ESe than control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, sheep breeders can use ESe at CIDR insertion and withdrawal times to potentiate antioxidant status and progesterone profile of estrus-synchronized Mehraban ewes.


Asunto(s)
Sincronización del Estro/efectos de los fármacos , Fertilidad/efectos de los fármacos , Selenio/farmacología , Ovinos/fisiología , Vitamina E/farmacología , Administración Intravaginal , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Peso al Nacer , Estro/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Estaciones del Año , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Vitamina E/administración & dosificación
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