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1.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14352, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764037

RESUMEN

Climate change is responsible for mild winters and warm springs that can induce premature plant development, increasing the risk of exposure to cold stress with a severe reduction in plant growth. Tomato plants are sensitive to cold stress and beneficial microorganisms can increase their tolerance. However, scarce information is available on mechanisms stimulated by bacterial endophytes in tomato plants against cold stress. This study aimed to clarify metabolic changes stimulated by psychrotolerant endophytic bacteria in tomato plants exposed to cold stress and annotate compounds possibly associated with cold stress mitigation. Tomato seeds were inoculated with two bacterial endophytes isolated from Antarctic Colobanthus quitensis plants (Ewingella sp. S1.OA.A_B6 and Pseudomonas sp. S2.OTC.A_B10) or with Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, while mock-inoculated seeds were used as control. The metabolic composition of tomato plants was analyzed immediately after cold stress exposure (4°C for seven days) or after two and four days of recovery at 25°C. Under cold stress, the content of malondialdehyde, phenylalanine, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid was lower in bacterium-inoculated compared to mock-inoculated plants, indicating a reduction of lipid peroxidation and the stimulation of phenolic compound metabolism. The content of two phenolic compounds, five putative phenylalanine-derived dipeptides, and three further phenylalanine-derived compounds was higher in bacterium-inoculated compared to mock-inoculated samples under cold stress. Thus, psychrotolerant endophytic bacteria can reprogram polyphenol metabolism and stimulate the accumulation of secondary metabolites, like 4-hydroxybenzoic and salicylic acid, which are presumably involved in cold stress mitigation, and phenylalanine-derived dipeptides possibly involved in plant stress responses.


Asunto(s)
Frío , Respuesta al Choque por Frío , Endófitos , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiología , Solanum lycopersicum/fisiología , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiología , Regiones Antárticas , Respuesta al Choque por Frío/fisiología , Semillas/microbiología , Semillas/fisiología , Semillas/metabolismo
2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 61: 253-265, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777441

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and avocado seed oil (ASO) are natural polyphenols with established anti-inflammatory activity. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of PSO and ASO in experimental ulcerative colitis (UC) with reference to sulfasalazine (SLZ). METHODS: Eighty male albino rats were divided equally into 8 groups; Normal, PSO, ASO, SLZ, UC-control, (UC + PSO), (UC + ASO) and (UC + SLZ) groups. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal injection of acetic acid. PSO (0.5ml/200g), ASO (1ml/250g) and SLZ (100 mg/kg) were administered orally once/day for 14 days, 24h after colitis induction. Colitis was evaluated by measuring disease activity index (DAI), colon weight/length ratio and histologic inflammatory score. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), colonic macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. Colonic gene expression of TNF-α, VEGF and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also estimated. RESULTS: PSO and ASO treatments to UC rats significantly reduced DAI, weight/length ratio, VEGFR-2, and colon histologic inflammatory score versus UC-controls. ASO significantly suppressed MIF levels and TNF-α expression greater than PSO. However, PSO was more significant than ASO in reducing MDA levels and up-regulating HO-1 expression. Both oils significantly down-regulated VEGF expression. The obtained biochemical and histological changes induced by UC were nearly corrected by SLZ. CONCLUSION: The proved beneficial effect of PSO and ASO as anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and antioxidant in UC rats could be mediated by suppression of TNF-α, VEGF, and MIF and up-regulation of HO-1.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios , Colitis Ulcerosa , Persea , Aceites de Plantas , Granada (Fruta) , Animales , Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Persea/química , Ratas , Granada (Fruta)/química , Aceites de Plantas/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Factores Inhibidores de la Migración de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Factores de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , Semillas/química , Colon/efectos de los fármacos , Colon/patología , Colon/metabolismo , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10885, 2024 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740801

RESUMEN

The squash family (Cucurbitaceae) contains some of the most important crops cultivated worldwide and has played an important ecological, economic, and cultural role for millennia. In the American tropics, squashes were among the first cultivated crop species, but little is known about how their domestication unfolded. Here, we employ direct radiocarbon dating and morphological analyses of desiccated cucurbit seeds, rinds, and stems from El Gigante Rockshelter in Honduras to reconstruct human practices of selection and cultivation of Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita pepo, and Cucurbita moschata. Direct radiocarbon dating indicates that humans started using Lagenaria and wild Cucurbita starting ~ 10,950 calendar years before present (cal B.P.), primarily as watertight vessels and possibly as cooking and drinking containers. A rind directly dated to 11,150-10,765 cal B.P. represents the oldest known bottle gourd in the Americas. Domesticated C. moschata subsequently appeared ~ 4035 cal B.P., followed by domesticated C. pepo ~ 2190 cal B.P. associated with increasing evidence for their use as food crops. Multivariate statistical analysis of seed size and shape show that the archaeological C. pepo assemblage exhibits significant variability, representing at least three varieties: one similar to present-day zucchini, another like present-day vegetable marrow, and a native cultivar without modern analogs. Our archaeobotanical data supports the hypothesis that Indigenous cucurbit use started in the Early Holocene, and that agricultural complexity during the Late Holocene involved selective breeding that encouraged crop diversification.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Productos Agrícolas , Cucurbita , Humanos , Cucurbita/anatomía & histología , Datación Radiométrica/métodos , Historia Antigua , Cucurbitaceae/anatomía & histología , Domesticación , Semillas/química , Honduras
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 191, 2024 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702442

RESUMEN

Seed endophytes played a crucial role on host plants stress tolerance and heavy metal (HM) accumulation. Dysphania ambrosioides is a hyperaccumulator and showed strong tolerance and extraordinary accumulation capacities of multiple HMs. However, little is known about its seed endophytes response to field HM-contamination, and its role on host plants HM tolerance and accumulation. In this study, the seed endophytic community of D. ambrosioides from HM-contaminated area (H) and non-contaminated area (N) were investigated by both culture-dependent and independent methods. Moreover, Cd tolerance and the plant growth promoting (PGP) traits of dominant endophytes from site H and N were evaluated. The results showed that in both studies, HM-contamination reduced the diversity and richness of endophytic community and changed the most dominant endophyte, but increased resistant species abundance. By functional trait assessments, a great number of dominant endophytes displayed multiple PGP traits and Cd tolerance. Interestingly, soil HM-contamination significantly increased the percentage of Cd tolerance isolates of Agrobacterium and Epicoccum, but significantly decreased the ration of Agrobacterium with the siderophore production ability. However, the other PGP traits of isolates from site H and N showed no significant difference. Therefore, it was suggested that D. ambrosioides might improve its HM tolerance and accumulation through harboring more HM-resistant endophytes rather than PGP endophytes, but to prove this, more work need to be conducted in the future.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Endófitos , Metales Pesados , Semillas , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Endófitos/aislamiento & purificación , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Semillas/microbiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Cadmio/metabolismo , Biodiversidad , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/genética , Suelo/química , Biodegradación Ambiental , Raíces de Plantas/microbiología
5.
J Microencapsul ; 41(4): 296-311, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709162

RESUMEN

AIMS: To construct the microemulsion delivery system (ME) loading ATSO and NA and study their physicochemical characteristics to enhance their stability and water solubility. METHODS: By plotting ternary phase diagrams, the composition and proportions of the MEs were determined. The physicochemical characteristics and stability of MEs were evaluated by mean diameter, polydispersity index (PDI), pH, electrical conductivity, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), rheological behaviour measurement, and phase inversion temperature (PIT). RESULTS: The MEs was composed with EL-40 as a surfactant and specifically with the addition of ethanol as a cosurfactant in NA-loaded ME. The mean diameters of ATSO-loaded ME and NA-loaded ME were 39.65 ± 0.24 nm and 32.90 ± 2.65 nm, and PDI were 0.49 ± 0.01 and 0.28 ± 0.14, respectively. The TEM confirmed the spherical and smooth morphology of MEs. The rheological results indicated that MEs are dilatant fluids with the advantages of low viscosity, high fluidity, and tolerance to temperature fluctuations. The mean diameter and PDI of MEs showed no significant change after storage at 25 °C for 28 days and centrifugation. CONCLUSION: The prepared microemulsions could expand the application prospects of ATSO and NA products in cosmetics, medicine, foods and other fields.


Asunto(s)
Emulsiones , Aceites de Plantas , Reología , Emulsiones/química , Aceites de Plantas/química , Acer/química , Ácidos Grasos/química , Semillas/química , Tensoactivos/química , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Viscosidad
6.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731588

RESUMEN

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has experienced a significant resurgence in popularity, and global interest in diversifying its use in various industries, including the food industry, is growing. Therefore, due to their exceptional nutritional value, hemp seeds have recently gained increasing interest as a valuable ingredient for obtaining high-quality foods and dietary supplements. Hemp seeds stand out for their remarkable content of quality proteins, including edestin and albumin, two distinct types of proteins that contribute to exceptional nutritional value. Hemp seeds are also rich in healthy lipids with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid (omega-6), alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3), and some vitamins (vitamins E, D, and A). Polyphenols and terpenoids, in particular, present in hemp seeds, provide antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. This review examines the scientific literature regarding hemp seeds' physicochemical and nutritional characteristics. The focus is on those characteristics that allow for their use in the food industry, aiming to transform ordinary food products into functional foods, offering additional benefits for the body's health. Innovating opportunities to develop healthy, nutritionally superior food products are explored by integrating hemp seeds into food processes, promoting a balanced and sustainable diet.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Alimentos Funcionales , Semillas , Cannabis/química , Semillas/química , Alimentos Funcionales/análisis , Valor Nutritivo , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/química
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11542, 2024 05 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773154

RESUMEN

Evidence for seed transmission of phytoplasmas has grown in several pathosystems including coconut (Cocos nucifera). Bogia coconut syndrome (BCS) is a disease associated with the lethal yellowing syndrome associated with the presence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma noviguineense' that affects coconut, betel nut (Areca catechu) and bananas (Musa spp.) in Papua New Guinea. Coconut and betel nut drupes were sampled from BCS-infected areas in Papua New Guinea, dissected, the extracted nucleic acid was used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) used to check for presence of phytoplasma DNA. In a second study, drupes of both plant species were collected from multiple field sites and grown in insect-proof cages. Leaf samples taken at 6 months were also tested with PCR and LAMP. The studies of dissected coconut drupes detected phytoplasma DNA in several tissues including the embryo. Drupes from betel nut tested negative. Among the seedlings, evidence of possible seed transmission was found in both plant species. The results demonstrate the presence of 'Ca. P. noviguineense' in coconut drupes and seedlings, and in seedlings of betel nut; factors that need to be considered in ongoing management and containment efforts.


Asunto(s)
Areca , Cocos , Phytoplasma , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Plantones , Semillas , Cocos/microbiología , Phytoplasma/genética , Phytoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Semillas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Plantones/microbiología , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Papúa Nueva Guinea , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular
8.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 613, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773248

RESUMEN

Understanding how to increase soybean yield is crucial for global food security. The genetic and epigenetic factors influencing seed size, a major crop yield determinant, are not fully understood. We explore the role of DNA demethylase GmDMEa in soybean seed size. Our research indicates that GmDMEa negatively correlates with soybean seed size. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we edited GmDMEa in the Dongnong soybean cultivar, known for small seeds. Modified plants had larger seeds and greater yields without altering plant architecture or seed nutrition. GmDMEa preferentially demethylates AT-rich transposable elements, thus activating genes and transcription factors associated with the abscisic acid pathway, which typically decreases seed size. Chromosomal substitution lines confirm that these modifications are inheritable, suggesting a stable epigenetic method to boost seed size in future breeding. Our findings provide insights into epigenetic seed size control and suggest a strategy for improving crop yields through the epigenetic regulation of crucial genes. This work implies that targeted epigenetic modification has practical agricultural applications, potentially enhancing food production without compromising crop quality.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Elementos Transponibles de ADN , Glycine max , Semillas , Glycine max/genética , Semillas/genética , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Elementos Transponibles de ADN/genética , Epigénesis Genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11310, 2024 05 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760375

RESUMEN

Seeds, as the initial products in agricultural systems, play a pivotal role in ensuring quality, fundamental to national food security and sustainable agricultural development. This study introduces a concept integrating public governance and evolutionary game theory to construct a quadripartite evolutionary game model involving seed companies, certification agencies, farmers, and governmental departments. It considers the strategic choices of these stakeholders under varying economic motivations and market mechanisms, as well as the influence of external regulation and incentives on game strategies. The existence conditions for evolutionarily stable strategy combinations are determined using the Lyapunov first method, and MATLAB is employed for numerical simulation analysis to validate the game analysis under initial conditions. The simulation results reveal two potential equilibrium points corresponding to different strategic choices among stakeholders. The study finds that producing high-quality seeds and the refusal of certification agencies to engage in rent-seeking are crucial for ensuring seed quality. Additionally, the cost-benefit ratio of seed companies, the speculative cost of certification agencies, and the rights-protection cost of farmers are key determinants in the evolution of seed quality assurance strategies. This research also holds practical significance in enhancing seed quality assurance mechanisms and fostering sustainable development in agriculture.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Semillas , Agricultura/métodos , Teoría del Juego , Humanos
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 420, 2024 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760701

RESUMEN

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a physical technology with notable effects on living organisms. In the present study, tomato seeds (Solanum lycopersicum var. Bassimo Mill.) were exposed to CAP for various time intervals, ranging from 1 to 5 min, in both continuous and intermittent periods, and were compared with a control group that received no CAP treatment. Seedlings grown from treated seeds exhibited improvements in levels of growth traits, photosynthetic pigments, and metabolite contents when compared to the control group. Seedlings from seeds treated with S04 displayed significant increases in shoot and root lengths, by 32.45% and 20.60% respectively, compared to the control group. Moreover, seedlings from seeds treated with S01 showed a 101.90% increase in total protein, whereas those treated with S02 experienced a 119.52% increase in carbohydrate content. These findings highlight the substantial improvements in growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, and metabolite levels in seedlings from treated seeds relative to controls. Total antioxidant capacity was boosted by CAP exposure. The activities of enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases were stimulated by S02 and exceeded control treatment by (177.48%, 137.41%, and 103.32%), respectively. Additionally, exposure to S04 increased the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants like flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, and tannins over the control group (38.08%, 30.10%, 117.19%, and 94.44%), respectively. Our results indicate that CAP-seed priming is an innovative and cost-effective approach to enhance the growth, bioactive components, and yield of tomato seedlings.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Gases em Plasma , Plantones , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/metabolismo
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(10)2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793849

RESUMEN

The origin of agricultural products is crucial to their quality and safety. This study explored the differences in chemical composition and structure of rice from different origins using fluorescence detection technology. These differences are mainly affected by climate, environment, geology and other factors. By identifying the fluorescence characteristic absorption peaks of the same rice seed varieties from different origins, and comparing them with known or standard samples, this study aims to authenticate rice, protect brands, and achieve traceability. The study selected the same variety of rice seed planted in different regions of Jilin Province in the same year as samples. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to collect spectral data, which was preprocessed by normalization, smoothing, and wavelet transformation to remove noise, scattering, and burrs. The processed spectral data was used as input for the long short-term memory (LSTM) model. The study focused on the processing and analysis of rice spectra based on NZ-WT-processed data. To simplify the model, uninformative variable elimination (UVE) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to screen the best wavelengths. These wavelengths were used as input for the support vector machine (SVM) prediction model to achieve efficient and accurate predictions. Within the fluorescence spectral range of 475-525 nm and 665-690 nm, absorption peaks of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH), riboflavin (B2), starch, and protein were observed. The origin tracing prediction model established using SVM exhibited stable performance with a classification accuracy of up to 99.5%.The experiment demonstrated that fluorescence spectroscopy technology has high discrimination accuracy in tracing the origin of rice, providing a new method for rapid identification of rice origin.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Oryza , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte , Oryza/química , Oryza/clasificación , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia/métodos , Riboflavina/análisis , NADP/química , NADP/análisis , NADP/metabolismo , Almidón/análisis , Almidón/química , Semillas/química
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 211: 108664, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703498

RESUMEN

Water stress is a major cause of yield loss in peanut cultivation. Melatonin seed priming has been used to enhance stress tolerance in several crops, but not in peanut. We investigated the impact of seed priming with melatonin on the growth, development, and drought tolerance of two peanut cultivars, TUFRunner™ '511', a drought tolerant cultivar, and New Mexico Valencia A, a drought sensitive cultivar. Peanut seed priming tests using variable rates of melatonin (0-200 µM), indicated that 50 µM of melatonin resulted in more uniform seed germination and improved seedling growth in both cultivars under non stress conditions. Seed priming with melatonin also promoted vegetative growth, as evidenced by higher whole-plant transpiration, net CO2 assimilation, and root water uptake under both well-watered and water stress conditions in both cultivars. Higher antioxidant activity and protective osmolyte accumulation, lower reactive oxygen species accumulation and membrane damage were observed in primed compared with non-primed plants. Seed priming with melatonin induced a growth promoting effect that was more evident under well-watered conditions for TUFRunnner™ '511', whereas for New Mexico Valencia A, major differences in physiological responses were observed under water stress conditions. New Mexico Valencia A primed plants exhibited a more sensitized stress response, with faster down-regulation of photosynthesis and transpiration compared with non-primed plants. The results demonstrate that melatonin seed priming has significant potential to improve early establishment and promote growth of peanut under optimal conditions, while also improve stress tolerance during water stress.


Asunto(s)
Arachis , Deshidratación , Melatonina , Semillas , Melatonina/farmacología , Melatonina/metabolismo , Arachis/efectos de los fármacos , Arachis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Arachis/metabolismo , Arachis/fisiología , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agua/metabolismo , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sequías , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo
13.
Food Chem ; 451: 139395, 2024 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703736

RESUMEN

Amaranth is a pseudocereal that contains between 50 and 60% starch, gluten-free protein, and essential amino acids. This study investigates the physicochemical changes in Amaranthus spp. grains, flour, isolated starch and nanocrystals during germination and malting. The moisture content increased from 8.9% to 41% over 2 h of soaking. The percentage of germination increased rapidly, reaching 96% after 60 h, a remarkable advantage over other cereals. The nutrient composition varied, including protein synthesis and lipid degradation. Lipid concentration decreased during malting, except for soaking, which increased by 62%. Scanning electron microscopy shows that germination does not cause morphological changes on the outer surface of the grains, while transmission electron microscopy indicates the presence of isolated nanocrystals with orthorhombic crystal structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The viscosity profile shows a decrease in peak viscosity. Therefore, amaranth is a potential pseudocereal that can be used as an additive in the production of fermented beverages.


Asunto(s)
Amaranthus , Harina , Germinación , Nanopartículas , Almidón , Amaranthus/química , Amaranthus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Harina/análisis , Almidón/química , Almidón/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Viscosidad , Semillas/química , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/metabolismo , Manipulación de Alimentos
14.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 106: 106904, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749102

RESUMEN

Ultrasound processing is an emerging green technology that has the potential for wider application in the food processing industry. While the effects of ultrasonication on isolated macromolecules such as protein and starch have been reported, the effects of physical barriers on sonication on these macro-molecules, for example inside whole seed, tissue or cotyledon cells, have mostly been overlooked. Intact chickpea cells were subjected to sonication with different ultrasound processing times, and the effects of sonication on the starch and protein structure and digestibility were studied. The digestibility of these macronutrients significantly increased with the extension of processing time, which, however was not due to the molecular degradation of starch or protein but related to damage to cell wall macro-structure with increasing sonication time, leading to enhanced enzyme accessibility. Through this study, it is demonstrated that ultrasound processing has least effect on whole food structure, for example, whole seeds but can modulate the nutrient bioavailability without changing the properties of the macronutrients in seed fractions e.g. intact cells, offering new scientific knowledge on effect of ultrasound in whole foods at various length scales.


Asunto(s)
Cicer , Nutrientes , Sonicación , Cicer/química , Almidón/química , Almidón/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Digestión , Semillas/química
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11673, 2024 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778037

RESUMEN

Designing machines and equipment for post-harvest operations of agricultural products requires information about their physical properties. The aim of the work was to evaluate the possibility of introducing a new approach to predict the moisture content in bean and corn seeds based on measuring their dimensions using image analysis using artificial neural networks (ANN). Experimental tests were carried out at three levels of wet basis moisture content of seeds: 9, 13 and 17%. The analysis of the results showed a direct relationship between the wet basis moisture content and the main dimensions of the seeds. Based on the statistical analysis of the seed material, it was shown that the characteristics examined have a normal or close to normal distribution, and the seed material used in the investigation is representative. Furthermore, the use of artificial neural networks to predict the wet basis moisture content of seeds based on changes in their dimensions has an efficiency of 82%. The results obtained from the method used in this work are very promising for predicting the moisture content.


Asunto(s)
Redes Neurales de la Computación , Semillas , Agua , Zea mays , Semillas/química , Agua/química , Zea mays/química , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Grano Comestible/química
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11747, 2024 05 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778119

RESUMEN

In winter, the paddy residues become wet during morning and late evening due to dew, which restricts the operation of sowing machines (Happy Seeder and Super Seeder) into paddy residues, as wet residues do not slide on furrow openers/tines. A PAU Smart Seeder (PSS) was developed and evaluated for a four-wheel tractor that can sow wheat with optimum crop establishment in combined harvested rice fields. The PSS were evaluated for its performance under varying straw load, forward speed, and rotor speed in terms of fuel consumption, field capacity, seed emergence, and grain yield. The crop establishment and wheat yield of PSS was also compared with the existing straw management machines Happy Seeder (HS) and Super Seeder (SS) under heavy paddy residue conditions. The effect of the straw load was more pronounced on dependent variables than the effect of the speed index. PSS performance was best at a forward speed of 2.6 km h-1, rotor speed of 127.5 rpm, and a straw load of 6 t ha-1. Average fuel consumption using PSS was lower than SS but higher than HS. Wheat emergence was higher by 15.6 and 25.7% on the PSS plots compared to HS and SS, respectively. Average wheat grain yield in PSS plots was significantly higher by 12.7 and 18.9% than SS and HS, respectively in one experiment, while the grain yield was similar for both PSS and HS in other experiments. PSS has a novel mechanism to manage paddy straw and simultaneously sow wheat into a heavy straw load (> 8 t ha-1) mixture of anchored and loose straw. In conclusion, PSS showed promise for in-situ management of rice straw as it eliminates most of the operational problems encountered by the existing seeders (HS and SS).


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Semillas , Triticum , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , India , Triticum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agricultura/métodos , Grano Comestible , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Producción de Cultivos/métodos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791407

RESUMEN

Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding to specific sequences on DNA through their DNA-binding domain (DBD), a universal process. This update conveys information about the diverse roles of TFs, focusing on the NACs (NAM-ATAF-CUC), in regulating target-gene expression and influencing various aspects of plant biology. NAC TFs appeared before the emergence of land plants. The NAC family constitutes a diverse group of plant-specific TFs found in mosses, conifers, monocots, and eudicots. This update discusses the evolutionary origins of plant NAC genes/proteins from green algae to their crucial roles in plant development and stress response across various plant species. From mosses and lycophytes to various angiosperms, the number of NAC proteins increases significantly, suggesting a gradual evolution from basal streptophytic green algae. NAC TFs play a critical role in enhancing abiotic stress tolerance, with their function conserved in angiosperms. Furthermore, the modular organization of NACs, their dimeric function, and their localization within cellular compartments contribute to their functional versatility and complexity. While most NAC TFs are nuclear-localized and active, a subset is found in other cellular compartments, indicating inactive forms until specific cues trigger their translocation to the nucleus. Additionally, it highlights their involvement in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced programmed cell death (PCD) by activating the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) gene. Moreover, this update provides a comprehensive overview of the diverse roles of NAC TFs in plants, including their participation in ER stress responses, leaf senescence (LS), and growth and development. Notably, NACs exhibit correlations with various phytohormones (i.e., ABA, GAs, CK, IAA, JA, and SA), and several NAC genes are inducible by them, influencing a broad spectrum of biological processes. The study of the spatiotemporal expression patterns provides insights into when and where specific NAC genes are active, shedding light on their metabolic contributions. Likewise, this review emphasizes the significance of NAC TFs in transcriptional modules, seed reserve accumulation, and regulation of seed dormancy and germination. Overall, it effectively communicates the intricate and essential functions of NAC TFs in plant biology. Finally, from an evolutionary standpoint, a phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is highly probable that the WRKY family is evolutionarily older than the NAC family.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Semillas , Factores de Transcripción , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Semillas/genética , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/metabolismo , Familia de Multigenes , Evolución Molecular , Estrés Fisiológico , Filogenia , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791411

RESUMEN

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global commercial crop that is sensitive to seed-borne wilt infections caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom). To address the challenge of detecting Fom contamination, we designed a probe-based real-time PCR method, TDCP2, in combination with rapid or column-based DNA extraction protocols to develop reliable molecular detection methods. Utilizing TDCP2, the detection rate reached 100% for both artificially Fom-inoculated (0.25-25%) and pod-inoculated melon seeds in conjunction with DNA samples from either the rapid or column-based extraction protocol. We performed analyses of precision, recall, and F1 scores, achieving a maximum F1 score of 1 with TDCP2, which highlights the robustness of the method. Additionally, intraday and interday assays were performed, which revealed the high reproducibility and stability of column-based DNA extraction protocols combined with TDCP2. These metrics confirm the reliability of our developed protocols, setting a foundation for future enhancements in seed pathology diagnostics and potentially broadening their applicability across various Fom infection levels. In the future, we hope that these methods will reduce food loss by improving the control and management of melon diseases.


Asunto(s)
Fusarium , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Semillas , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/aislamiento & purificación , Semillas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Cucurbitaceae/microbiología , ADN de Hongos/genética , ADN de Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Cucumis melo/microbiología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791463

RESUMEN

Mitochondrial protein homeostasis is crucially regulated by protein degradation processes involving both mitochondrial proteases and cytosolic autophagy. However, it remains unclear how plant cells regulate autophagy in the scenario of lacking a major mitochondrial Lon1 protease. In this study, we observed a notable downregulation of core autophagy proteins in Arabidopsis Lon1 knockout mutant lon1-1 and lon1-2, supporting the alterations in the relative proportions of mitochondrial and vacuolar proteins over total proteins in the plant cells. To delve deeper into understanding the roles of the mitochondrial protease Lon1 and autophagy in maintaining mitochondrial protein homeostasis and plant development, we generated the lon1-2atg5-1 double mutant by incorporating the loss-of-function mutation of the autophagy core protein ATG5, known as atg5-1. The double mutant exhibited a blend of phenotypes, characterized by short plants and early senescence, mirroring those observed in the individual single mutants. Accordingly, distinct transcriptome alterations were evident in each of the single mutants, while the double mutant displayed a unique amalgamation of transcriptional responses. Heightened severity, particularly evident in reduced seed numbers and abnormal embryo development, was observed in the double mutant. Notably, aberrations in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) and oil bodies were evident in the single and double mutants. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses of genes concurrently downregulated in lon1-2, atg5-1, and lon1-2atg5-1 unveiled a significant suppression of genes associated with brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and homeostasis. This downregulation likely contributes to the observed abnormalities in seed and embryo development in the mutants.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Autofagia , Brasinoesteroides , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Mitocondrias , Semillas , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/genética , Semillas/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Brasinoesteroides/metabolismo , Proteasas ATP-Dependientes/metabolismo , Proteasas ATP-Dependientes/genética , Mutación , Proteínas Mitocondriales/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriales/genética , Regulación hacia Abajo , Fenotipo , Serina Endopeptidasas
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791475

RESUMEN

Amaranth species are C4 plants that are rich in betalains, and they are tolerant to salinity stress. A small family of plant-specific TCP transcription factors are involved in the response to salt stress. However, it has not been investigated whether amaranth TCP1 is involved in salt stress. We elucidated that the growth and physiology of amaranth were affected by salt concentrations of 50-200 mmol·L-1 NaCl. The data showed that shoot and root growth was inhibited at 200 mmol·L-1, while it was promoted at 50 mmol·L-1. Meanwhile, the plants also showed physiological responses, which indicated salt-induced injuries and adaptation to the salt stress. Moreover, AtrTCP1 promoted Arabidopsis seed germination. The germination rate of wild-type (WT) and 35S::AtrTCP1-GUS Arabidopsis seeds reached around 92% by the seventh day and 94.5% by the second day under normal conditions, respectively. With 150 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment, the germination rate of the WT and 35S::AtrTCP1-GUS plant seeds was 27.0% by the seventh day and 93.0% by the fourth day, respectively. Under salt stress, the transformed 35S::AtrTCP1 plants bloomed when they grew 21.8 leaves after 16.2 days of treatment, which was earlier than the WT plants. The transformed Arabidopsis plants flowered early to resist salt stress. These results reveal amaranth's growth and physiological responses to salt stress, and provide valuable information on the AtrTCP1 gene.


Asunto(s)
Amaranthus , Arabidopsis , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Germinación , Proteínas de Plantas , Estrés Salino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Amaranthus/efectos de los fármacos , Amaranthus/genética , Amaranthus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Germinación/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/efectos de los fármacos , Arabidopsis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Arabidopsis/fisiología , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/genética , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/genética , Tolerancia a la Sal/genética , Cloruro de Sodio/farmacología
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