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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809562

RESUMEN

Adzuki seed ß-vignin, a vicilin-like globulin, has proven to exert various health-promoting biological activities, notably in cardiovascular health. A simple scalable enrichment procedure of this protein for further nutritional and functional studies is crucial. In this study, a simplified chromatography-independent protein fractionation procedure has been optimized and described. The electrophoretic analysis showed a high degree of homogeneity of ß-vignin isolate. Furthermore, the molecular features of the purified protein were investigated. The adzuki bean ß-vignin was found to have a native size of 146 kDa, and the molecular weight determined was consistent with a trimeric structure. These were identified in two main polypeptide chains (masses of 56-54 kDa) that are glycosylated polypeptides with metal binding capacity, and one minor polypeptide chain with a mass 37 kDa, wherein these features are absent. The in vitro analysis showed a high degree of digestibility of the protein (92%) and potential anti-inflammatory capacity. The results lay the basis not only for further investigation of the health-promoting properties of the adzuki bean ß-vignin protein, but also for a possible application as nutraceutical molecule.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vigna/química , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Células CACO-2 , Fraccionamiento Químico , Harina , Globulinas/química , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Inflamación/patología , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/aislamiento & purificación , Semillas/química , Solubilidad
2.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 79, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750820

RESUMEN

The seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana become encapsulated by a layer of mucilage when imbibed. This polysaccharide-rich hydrogel is constituted of two layers, an outer layer that can be easily extracted with water and an inner layer that must be examined in situ in order to study its properties and structure in a non-destructive manner or disintegrated through hydrolysis or physical means in order to analyze its constituents. Mucilage production is an adaptive trait and we have exploited 19 natural accessions previously found to have atypical and varied outer mucilage characteristics. A detailed study using biochemical, histological and Time-Domain NMR analyses has been used to generate three related datasets covering 33 traits measured in four biological replicates. This data will be a rich resource for genetic, biochemical, structural and functional analyses investigating mucilage constituent polysaccharides or their role as adaptive traits.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis/genética , Polisacáridos/genética , Semillas/química , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Semillas/genética
3.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116796, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740601

RESUMEN

Grape pomace (GP) is a low-value by-product that contains a significant amount of high value-added products. The huge amount of non-edible residues of GP wastes (seeds, skins, leaves and, stems) produced by wine industries causes' environmental pollution, management issues as well as economic loss. Studies over the past 15-20 years revealed that GP could serve as a potential source for valuable bioactive compounds like antioxidants, bioactive, nutraceuticals, single-cell protein, and volatile organic compounds with an increasing scientific interest in their beneficial effects on human and animal health. However, the selection of appropriate techniques for the extraction of these compounds without compromising the stability of the extracted products is still a challenging task for the researcher. Based on the current scenario, the review mainly summarizes the novel applications of winery wastes in many sectors such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, livestock fields, and also the bio-energy recovery system. We also summarize the existing information/knowledge on several green technologies for the recovery of value-added by-products. For the promotion of many emerging technologies, the entrepreneur should be aware of the opportunities/techniques for the development of high-quality value-added products. Thus, this review presents systematic information on value-added by-products that are used for societal benefits concerning the potential for human health and a sustainable environment.


Asunto(s)
Vitis , Vino , Antioxidantes/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Semillas/química , Vino/análisis
4.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672019

RESUMEN

Putrajeevak (Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.; synonym Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurus) seeds have been used since ancient times in the treatment of infertility in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. In this study, the oil component of Putrajeevak seeds (PJSO) was extracted using the supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) method using liquid CO2 and the constituents were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionized detectorand high-performance thin-layer chromatography. PJSO contained trace amounts of ß-sitosterol with oleic and linoleic acids as the major fatty acid constituents. Male and female zebrafish were mutagenized with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and fish that produced less than 20 viable embryos were selected for the study. SCFE oil extracts from the P. roxburghii seeds were used in this study to reverse fertility impairment. The mutant fish were fed with PJSO for a period of 14 days and the rates of fertility, conception, and fecundity were determined with wild-type healthy fish as a breeding partner. Treatment with PJSO increased the ovarian follicle count as well as the number of mature eggs, while reducing the number of ovarian cysts. Sperm count as well as sperm motility were greatly enhanced in the ENU-mutagenized male zebrafish when treated with PJSO. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the effectiveness of P. roxburghii seed oil in reversing impaired fertility in both male and female zebrafish models.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía con Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fertilidad/fisiología , Semillas/química , Pez Cebra/fisiología , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/química , Femenino , Fertilidad/efectos de los fármacos , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/patología , Masculino , Ovario/fisiología , Óvulo/fisiología , Pelvis/patología , Aceites Vegetales/química , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Sitoesteroles/análisis , Sitoesteroles/química , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Testículo/patología
5.
Food Chem ; 352: 129333, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662916

RESUMEN

Intelligent packaging with a pH indicator has been a hot research topic due to its extra active role compared with traditional ones. Considering the possible toxicity of synthetic pH sensitive pigments, natural pigments are promising alternative indicators. This work aimed to develop and characterize active and pH sensitive films based on psyllium seed gum (PSG) incorporated with free and microencapsulated mulberry pomace extracts (MPE). Compared with PSG control film, PSG-MPE films showed an increase in total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity, and decrease in surface hydrophobicity, lightness, and tensile strength. The molecular interactions between PSG and MPE were confirmed by thermal and microstructure analysis. Moreover, PSG-MPE films displayed wide color differences from red to blue at pH 2.0 - 12.0. PSG-based films containing 10% free and microencapsulated MPE demonstrated better overall performance and economy in packaging applications, which could be used as promising active and pH-sensitive food packaging materials.


Asunto(s)
Embalaje de Alimentos/métodos , Morus/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Gomas de Plantas/química , Psyllium/química , Semillas/química , Cápsulas , Color , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Resistencia a la Tracción
6.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669143

RESUMEN

A new type of multigrain snack has been designed containing varied additions of Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) seeds. The antioxidant properties and the general health benefits of this plant material have already been widely acknowledged. The research discussed herein aimed to investigate the influence of the formulation and expansion method (frying) on the content of polyphenolic compounds, individual phenolic acids, and antiradical properties of innovative snacks enriched with dragonhead seeds. The highest content of polyphenols (0.685 mg GAE/mL), free phenolic acids (47.052 µg/g of dry matter), and highest radical scavenging activity (96.23% towards DPPH) were found in the fried snacks enriched with 22% of seeds. In these samples, 11 phenolic acids were detected. Strong positive correlations were seen between the addition of dragonhead and the polyphenol content (r = 0.989) and between the quantity of the enriching additive and the content of free phenolic acids (r = 0.953). The research has shown that such innovative snacks have the potential to supply health-benefiting free phenolic acids, e.g., salicylic, isoferulic, ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic. Our studies provide an introduction to the development of a new range of functional foods.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bifenilo/análisis , Alimentos Funcionales/análisis , Hidroxibenzoatos/análisis , Lamiaceae/química , Picratos/análisis , Polifenoles/análisis , Bocadillos , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Semillas/química
7.
Food Chem ; 352: 129399, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662918

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of cottonseed peptides. Results indicated that cottonseed peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation both showed antioxidant properties. The cottonseed protein enzymatic hydrolysate with molecular weight less than 3 kDa exhibited excellent DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and ferrous ion chelating activity with EC50 values of 0.49 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.02, 2.21 ± 0.12, and 0.99 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis revealed that cottonseed protein hydrolysates are rich in acidic/basic and aromatic amino acids. In addition, among the 19 identified cottonseed protein-derived peptides, YSNQNGRF had the lowest CDOCKER energy and formed hydrogen bonds with Tyr334, Arg380, Arg415, Ser508, and Ser602, and van der Waals interactions with Asn382, Tyr525, Gln530, and Ser555, which all located in the binding site of Keap1-Nrf2 interaction. These findings suggested that the antioxidant peptides from cottonseed protein had the potential as functional ingredients in foods.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Gossypium/química , Péptidos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Semillas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Sitios de Unión , Enlace de Hidrógeno , Hidrólisis , Radical Hidroxilo/química , Peso Molecular
8.
Food Chem ; 352: 129377, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711730

RESUMEN

In this study, protein isolate (PI) and purified phenolic extract (PPE) were prepared from Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel (CCSK). The effects of covalent modification of PI by PPE at different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%, w/w) were investigated with respect to structural properties and antioxidant activities of protein. Fifteen bioactive compounds in PPE were tentatively identified by UPLC-ESI-MSn. With the increase of PPE concentration, the turbidity, covalent binding rate, phenolic content and color intensity of the PI-PPE complexes were gradually increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis showed that the secondary and tertiary structures of the complexes were changed and became greater order than PI. Furthermore, the complexes exhibited stronger thermal stability and antioxidant activities than those of PI. These results suggested that the protein-phenolic covalent complexes obtained from CCSK may have great potential to be used in food formulations as functional ingredients.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Fenoles/química , Preparaciones de Plantas/química , Semillas/química
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4679-4687, 2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749272

RESUMEN

Neonicotinoids from insecticidal seed coatings can contaminate soil in treated fields and adjacent areas, posing a potential risk to nontarget organisms and ecological function. To determine if cover crops can mitigate neonicotinoid contamination in treated and adjacent areas, we measured neonicotinoid concentrations for three years in no-till corn-soybean rotations, planted with or without neonicotinoid seed coatings, and with or without small grain cover crops. Although neonicotinoids were detected in cover crops, high early season dissipation provided little opportunity for winter-planted cover crops to absorb significant neonicotinoid residues; small grain cover crops failed to mitigated neonicotinoid contamination in either treated or untreated plots. As the majority of neonicotinoids from seed coatings dissipated shortly after planting, residues did not accumulate in soil, but persisted at concentrations below 5 ppb. Persistent residues could be attributed to historic neonicotinoid use and recent, nearby neonicotinoid use. Tracking neonicotinoid concentrations over time revealed a large amount of local interplot movement of neonicotinoids; in untreated plots, contamination was higher when plots were less isolated from treated plots.


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas , Insecticidas , Insecticidas/análisis , Neonicotinoides , Semillas/química , Suelo
10.
Food Chem ; 349: 129162, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550017

RESUMEN

Coffee is among the most consumed beverages worldwide. The present study reports on the aroma composition associated with coffee seeds brewing. Aroma of authentic coffee specimens of Coffea arabica and C. robusta alongside with typical products consumed in the Middle East were analyzed using HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS. In addition, multivariate data analysis (MVA) was employed. Results revealed for 102 volatiles with a distinct aroma profile between the different brewing methods. Infusion demonstrated higher esters level, while decoction and maceration were more abundant in sesquiterpenes and terpene alcohols, respectively. Besides, heat-induced products, i.e., 4-vinyl guaiacol was identified as potential roasting index in instant coffee and roasted C. robusta brews. Blending with cardamom further masked the smoky odor of such compounds by its fragrant terpinyl acetate. This study provides the first report on the chemical sensory attributes of Middle Eastern coffee blends and further reveal for the impact of brewing, roasting on its aroma composition.


Asunto(s)
Coffea/química , Café/química , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Informática , Odorantes/análisis , Semillas/química , Coffea/crecimiento & desarrollo , Análisis de los Alimentos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Calor , Medio Oriente
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(3): 545-556, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638675

RESUMEN

Heavy metals pollution and salinization of soils are widely distributed in agricultural soils. This study investigated the effects of five heavy metals and five heavy metals-contaminated salt on seed germination and seedling growth of halophyte Halogeton glomeratus (H. glomeratus). The results showed that seed germination, fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), radicles relative viability and ion contents (Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+) of H. glomeratus were affected by different heavy metals and heavy metal-polluted 100 mM NaCl treatments. Ion contents in plumules increased with the increase of heavy metal concentrations with or without NaCl addition. Moreover, the accumulation levels of metals in the concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ supplying 100 mM NaCl were higher than that without NaCl treatment. This can provide new insights into the value of H. glomeratus for phytoremediation of soil affected by heavy metals and also in combination with salinity.


Asunto(s)
Chenopodiaceae , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Germinación , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Plantas Tolerantes a la Sal , Plantones/química , Semillas/química , Cloruro de Sodio , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
12.
Food Chem ; 350: 129231, 2021 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618092

RESUMEN

To investigate the effects of freeze-thaw cycle pretreatment (in one cycle, frozen samples were reheated to 50 °C and then frozen at -20 °C) on the structural properties and digestibility of lotus seed starch-glycerin monostearin complexes, their complex index, crystal structure, molecular structure, micro-morphology, and digestibility were analyzed. The results showed that an appropriate number of freeze-thaw cycles facilitated the helical assembly of lotus seed starch and glycerin monostearin. Specifically, six cycles of freeze-thaw pretreatment were favorable for forming V6I-type complexes with high microcrystalline proportion. This contributed to the high stability of crystalline region and order arrangement of molecular structure. Moreover, V6I-complexes were in the form of lamellar debris in micro-morphology, and their total digestion and digestion rates were lower than those of other samples. These results were of significance for developing slowly digesting lotus seed starch-based food.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Congelación , Glicéridos/química , Lotus/química , Semillas/química , Almidón/química , Almidón/metabolismo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112061, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636466

RESUMEN

Maize seed treatment with chemicals to control underground pests is a common agricultural practice, but inappropriate use of insecticides poses a considerable threat to plant development and soil nontarget organisms. In this study, the availability of tetraniliprole seed dressing to control the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the maize seeding stage and its safety to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The selective toxicity (ST) of tetraniliprole between E. fetida and A. ipsilon was greater than 4000. No significant adverse effect of tetraniliprole seed treatment on the germination of maize seeds was observed at concentrations of 2.4-9.6 g a.i. /kg seed. Compared with the untreated control, seed treatment with tetraniliprole at 9.6 g a.i. /kg seed greatly reduced the percentage of damaged plants from 88.73% to 26.67%, and achieved the highest control effect of 69.91%. Tetraniliprole of 2.4 g a.i. /kg seed can effectively inhibit A. ipsilon until 14 days after seed germination, with the lowest mortality rate of 44.44%. During the entire exposure period, the maximum residual concentration of tetraniliprole detected in the soil (5.86 mg/kg) was considerably lower than the LC50 value of tetraniliprole to E. fetida (>4000 mg/kg). According to the low-tier risk assessment, the highest risk quotient (RQ) of tetraniliprole seed treatment to earthworms at test concentrations was 2.8 × 10-3, which was evaluated as acceptable. This study provided data support for tetraniliprole seed treatment to control underground pests in maize fields.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas/toxicidad , Pirazoles/toxicidad , Piridinas/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Tetrazoles/toxicidad , Animales , Insecticidas/análisis , Mariposas Nocturnas , Oligoquetos , Pirazoles/análisis , Piridinas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Semillas/química , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Tetrazoles/análisis , Zea mays
14.
Food Chem ; 348: 128921, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540299

RESUMEN

The seeds of dried longan, one of the major processed fruits in Thailand, contain several bioactive compounds. In this study, we developed longan wine by incorporating its seeds during juice preparation and evaluated the antioxidant activities and volatile compounds in different conditions. The results suggested that Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC-1118 was suitable for fermentation of longan juice supplemented with 50% seed and 20% initial soluble solids at an optimal temperature of 30 °C. Different yeast strains showed various extents of antioxidant activities; however, the fermentation temperature and initial soluble solids of longan juice had little effect on the inhibition of reactive species. Antioxidant activities were significantly increased with increasing seed content. Dominant volatile compounds, which were independent of the winemaking conditions, were found to be phenethyl alcohol, 2,3-butylene glycol, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, ethyl hydrogen succinate, and 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol. These compounds highly influenced the antioxidant activities of longan wine produced by incorporating the seeds.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Sapindaceae/química , Semillas/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Vino/análisis , Fermentación , Frutas , Vino/microbiología
15.
Food Chem ; 348: 129108, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540300

RESUMEN

Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a major enzyme responsible for the deamination of neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT) in the central nervous system. The decrease in 5-HT levels is accompanied by disorders at the affective and somatic levels, leading to depression and disorders of the satiety center. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of MAO-A inhibition by chlorogenic acids, as well as green, light-, and dark-roasted coffee extracts and bioactive compounds from beans of the species Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Data for analysis was obtained using isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking. The results showed that caffeine and ferulic acid, as well as green Robusta coffee, demonstrated the greatest inhibition of MAO-A activity, which may increase the bioavailability of serotonin. We believe that green coffee shows potential antidepressant activity by inhibiting MAO-A, and may be used for treating depression and potentially, type 2 diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Café/química , Inhibidores de la Monoaminooxidasa/farmacología , Monoaminooxidasa/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Cafeína/análisis , Ácido Clorogénico/análisis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Monoaminooxidasa/química , Semillas/química
16.
Animal ; 15(3): 100004, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526406

RESUMEN

Pumpkin seed cake (PSC), a byproduct of pumpkin seed oil processing, is used in ruminant feed as a beneficial protein source. Experiments were conducted to evaluate PSC as a substitute for soybean meal in the diets of lactating cows based on performance, rumen fermentation, antioxidant function and nitrogen partitioning. Six multiparous lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment with 27-day periods. The cows were randomly divided into three treatment groups: group (1) was fed a diet containing no PSC (0PSC), and groups (2) and (3) were fed diets in which soybean meal was replaced with PSC and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) at levels of 50% (50PSC) and 100% (100PSC), respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous and contained identical roughage but different proportions of PSC and DDGS. Replacement of soybean meal with PSC and DDGS did not influence rumen degradation, milk performance, rumen fermentation, DM intake or apparent total tract digestibility, and nitrogen partitioning between milk, feces and urine did not differ in the animals fed the three diets. However, compared with a diet containing no PSC, the total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and antioxidant enzymes (total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activities (P < 0.05) were increased in the animals that received the 50PSC and 100PSC diets. In contrast, addition of PSC significantly reduced concentrations of aspartate transaminase (P < 0.05), alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (P < 0.05) in the plasma. These results demonstrate that PSC can be completely substituted for soybean meal in the diet of dairy cows without any negative impact on milk performance, rumen fermentation or apparent digestibility and that this dietary change improves antioxidant functions and blood parameters in dairy cows, indicating that PSC has the potential for use as a feed source for dairy cows.


Asunto(s)
Cucurbita , Leche , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Femenino , Fermentación , Lactancia , Leche/metabolismo , Rumen/metabolismo , Semillas/química , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 351: 129262, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626466

RESUMEN

In present study we explored powder of mucilaginous polysaccharides obtained from seeds of Cassia uniflora by determining its physicochemical, thermal, phytochemical, spectrophotometric and micrometric properties. The probable structure of isolated mucilaginous polysaccharide was determined using FTIR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, which demonstrated that the Cassia uniflora seed mucilage is rich in the polysaccharides residues (ß-d-glucose) in the pyranose form. The mucilage was also explored for its gelling ability. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the mucilage was amorphous in nature. This enables its application as a gelling agent in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. It exhibits gelling ability at 1% w/w concentration. The mucilage exhibited swelling as well as pseudo plastic behaviour and good micrometric properties. Texture profile analysis of (3% w/w) prepared gel showed comparable properties of hardness, adhesiveness, gumminess and springiness to standard tragacanth. These features allow its application in food matrices and in pharmaceutical as a gelling and thickening agent.


Asunto(s)
Cassia/química , Mucílago de Planta/química , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Semillas/química , Industrias
18.
Food Chem ; 351: 129263, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631614

RESUMEN

Nowadays, the use of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is reduced to its seeds. In fact, the food additive E410, locust bean gum, is obtained from its endosperm. However, the available information regarding the bioactive potential of carob seeds is limited and, often, with poorly established terminologies, not allowing the reader to know if the studied samples included seedless or seeded samples. So, the present study intended to carry out a chemical characterization of carob seeds focused on their bioactive compounds and test their bioactive properties. Carob seeds proved to be a source of tocopherols and organic acids, including phenolic compounds. Its antioxidant potential was demonstrated in vitro, as well as its antimicrobial capacity. This work proves that carob seeds have other functions in addition to those associated with E410. Thus, another potential can be given to the locust bean seed, namely the function of food preservative.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Semillas/química , Antioxidantes/análisis , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/análisis , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación
19.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573256

RESUMEN

The aim of this study, focused on the nutritional value of wild berries, was to determine the contents of macronutrients, profiles of fatty (FAs) and amino acids (AAs), and the contents of selected elements in red arils (RA) of Taxus baccata L., grown in diverse locations in Poland. Protein (1.79-3.80 g/100 g) and carbohydrate (18.43-19.30 g/100 g) contents of RAs were higher than in many cultivated berries. RAs proved to be a source of lipids (1.39-3.55 g/100 g). Ten out of 18 AAs detected in RAs, mostly branched-chain AAs, were essential AAs (EAAs). The EAAs/total AAs ratio approximating were found in animal foods. Lipids of RA contained seven PUFAs, including those from n-3 family (19.20-28.20 g/100 g FA). Polymethylene-interrupted FAs (PMI-FAs), pinolenic 18:3Δ5,9,12; sciadonic 20:3Δ5,11,14, and juniperonic 20:4Δ5,11,14,17, known as unique for seeds of gymnosperms, were found in RAs. RAs may represent a novel dietary source of valuable n-3 PUFAs and the unique PMI-FAs. The established composition of RAs suggests it to become a new source of functional foods, dietary supplements, and valuable ingredients. Because of the tendency to accumulate toxic metals, RAs may be regarded as a valuable indicator of environmental contamination. Thus, the levels of toxic trace elements (Al, Ni, Cd) have to be determined before collecting fruits from natural habitats.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/aislamiento & purificación , Ácidos Grasos/química , Lípidos/aislamiento & purificación , Taxus/química , Aminoácidos/química , Animales , Dieta , Ácidos Grasos/aislamiento & purificación , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/química , Humanos , Lípidos/química , Valor Nutritivo , Polonia , Semillas/química
20.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562414

RESUMEN

Major lignans of sesame sesamin and sesamolin are benzodioxol--substituted furofurans. Sesamol, sesaminol, its epimers, and episesamin are transformation products found in processed products. Synthetic routes to all lignans are known but only sesamol is synthesized industrially. Biosynthesis of furofuran lignans begins with the dimerization of coniferyl alcohol, followed by the formation of dioxoles, oxidation, and glycosylation. Most genes of the lignan pathway in sesame have been identified but the inheritance of lignan content is poorly understood. Health-promoting properties make lignans attractive components of functional food. Lignans enhance the efficiency of insecticides and possess antifeedant activity, but their biological function in plants remains hypothetical. In this work, extensive literature including historical texts is reviewed, controversial issues are critically examined, and errors perpetuated in literature are corrected. The following aspects are covered: chemical properties and transformations of lignans; analysis, purification, and total synthesis; occurrence in Seseamum indicum and related plants; biosynthesis and genetics; biological activities; health-promoting properties; and biological functions. Finally, the improvement of lignan content in sesame seeds by breeding and biotechnology and the potential of hairy roots for manufacturing lignans in vitro are outlined.


Asunto(s)
Benzodioxoles/química , Furanos/química , Lignanos/química , Fenoles/química , Sesamum/química , Benzodioxoles/síntesis química , Dioxoles/química , Lignanos/síntesis química , Oxidación-Reducción , Fenoles/síntesis química , Semillas/química , Sesamum/genética
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