Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.401
Filtrar
1.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102482, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673233

RESUMEN

Dirofilaria spp. nematodes are accidental parasites of humans causing mild to serious, superficial or visceral infections. Superficial dirofilariosis is rather common in Europe and is typically manifested as subcutaneous form. Herein we report 46 new cases of human dirofilariosis (19 patients with subcutaneous, 18 patients with ocular, 4 patients wih genital, 2 patients with submucosal, 2 patients with pulmonary and 1 patient with intramuscular form of infection) that were recorded from the beginning of 2015 to May 2021 on the Balkan Peninsula with a goal to update the prevalence of this parasitosis and point out potential problems in diagnosis and treatment. Besides, given the high possibility of misinterpretation as tumor, our second aim was to encourage the inclusion of this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules. Although quite common forms, subcutaneous and ocular dirofilariosis can be very often misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to the absence of specific clinical manifestations. Therefore, raising awareness of clinicians about this zoonosis is needed as well as closer collaboration between physicians and veterinarians.


Asunto(s)
Dirofilariasis , Zoonosis , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Peninsula Balcánica/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Dirofilariasis/diagnóstico , Dirofilariasis/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Serbia , Adulto Joven , Zoonosis/diagnóstico , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/parasitología
3.
Zootaxa ; 5047(3): 273-299, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810846

RESUMEN

The glomerid genus Trachysphaera Heller, 1858 in Serbia is revised, based on recently collected specimens and historical material. Six species are presently recorded from Serbia, viz., Trachysphaera corcyraea (Verhoeff, 1900), T. cristangula (Attems, 1943), T. schmidtii Heller, 1858, and T. similicostata (Radu Ceuca, 1951), all new to the fauna of the country, as well as T. costata (Waga, 1857a) and T. lobotarsus (Attems, 1943). All of these species are richly illustrated and mapped. To verify the identity of some species, historical material from the Natural History Museum in Vienna, including syntypes, is also studied, and two lectotypes have been designated. Some misidentifications from the literature have been corrected. Trachysphaera acutula (Latzel, 1884) syn. n., T. cultrifera (Verhoeff, 1906) syn. n. and T. multiclavigera (Verhoeff, 1898) syn. n. are all considered as junior subjective synonyms of T. schmidtii. Trachysphaera attemsi Golovatch, 1976 syn. n. is transferred from the list of synonyms of T. costata to the list of synonyms of T. corcyraea. One species, T. similicostata, is resurrected from synonymy. Relationships between some congeners and the taxonomic problems within the genus are briefly discussed.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Animales , Serbia
4.
Zootaxa ; 5003(1): 1-64, 2021 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811338

RESUMEN

We present a checklist of 86 valid freshwater mollusc species of Serbia (65 gastropods and 21 bivalves) belonging to 19 families (15 gastropods and four bivalves). The list is based on our latest research and includes data from published sources and personal communications. The most diverse family among gastropods is Planorbidae (16 species), while Sphaeriidae are most diverse within the bivalves (10 species). Ten species are local endemics (all of them gastropods), while eight are introduced species (three gastropods and five bivalves). The Danube River and its smaller tributaries harbour the most diverse gastropod community, with a total of 61 species (41 gastropods and 20 bivalves). The snail Theodoxus transversalis (Pfeiffer, 1828) and the bivalve Unio crassus Philipson, 1788 are listed as EN (endangered) on the global (IUCN) level, while the snail Plagigeyeria gladilini Kuer, 1937 and the bivalves Pseudanodonta complanata (Rossmssler, 1835) and Sphaerium rivicola (Lamarck, 1818) are considered as VU (vulnerable) species. Of those IUCN taxa, only U. crassus is listed as protected on the national level (along with 12 mostly local endemic gastropod species). In comparison with the previous checklist of gastropods by Karaman Karaman (2007), a total of seven species are added here: Belgrandiella serbica Gler 2008, Bythinella istoka Gler Pei 2014, B. nonveilleri Gler 2008, B. pesterica Gler 2008, Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758), Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Mller, 1774) and Armiger crista (Linnaeus, 1758). In view of global and regional trends in taxonomy, ecology and invasive biology, an even richer diversity of the Serbian freshwater malocofauna can be expected.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos , Agua Dulce , Animales , Ríos , Serbia , Caracoles
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259062, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705857

RESUMEN

This study aimed to generate a linguistic equivalent of the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) in the Serbian language and examine its psychometric characteristics. Data were collected from September to December 2020 among the general population of three cities in Republic of Serbia and Republic of Srpska, countries where the Serbian language is spoken. Participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, followed by the CSS and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The CSS was validated using the standard methodology (i.e., forward and backward translations, pilot testing). The reliability of the Serbian CSS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega coefficients and convergent validity was evaluated by correlating the CSS with PSS. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the construct validity of the Serbian CSS. This study included 961 persons (52.8% males and 47.2% females). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Serbian CSS was 0.964 and McDonald's omega was 0.964. The Serbian CSS with 36 items and a six-factorial structure showed a measurement model with a satisfactory fit for our population (CMIN/DF = 4.391; GFI = 0.991; RMSEA = 0.025). The CSS total and all domain scores significantly positively correlated with PSS total score. The Serbian version of the CSS is a valid and reliable questionnaire that can be used in assessing COVID-19-related distress experienced by Serbian speaking people during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future epidemics and pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Lenguaje , Pandemias , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Serbia
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 56, 2021 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627295

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Traditional knowledge is key for sustainability, but it is rapidly disappearing. Pig keeping in forests and marshes is an ancient, once widespread, now vanishing practice, with a major economic and ecological potential. The knowledge of pig keepers and the foraging activity of pigs are hardly documented. METHODS: We studied the knowledge of traditional pig keepers (svinjars) on wild plants and pig foraging on the Sava-Bosut forest-marsh complex in Serbia. We conducted picture-based interviews about 234 locally common and/or salient plant species, and participatory fieldwork (11 days) and visual observation (21 days) on pig foraging. RESULTS: 181 wild plant species were known by svinjars and 106 taxa were consumed by pigs. Svinjars knew well and could name most regularly foraged species. 98 species were reported by svinjars as foraged and 56 as not eaten. 28 species were observed by the authors as eaten regularly, while 21 were nibbled and 17 avoided. Contradictory information on foraging was rare both among svinjars (8 species) and between svinjars and researchers (7 species); several of these species were rare. Leaves of 92, fruits or seeds of 21 and 'roots' of 20 species were reported or observed as eaten, usually with high seasonality. Svinjars were overall observant, but knew little about some less salient species (e.g. Veronica, Circaea). The most common forages (reported and/or observed) were fruits (Quercus, fleshy fruits), grasses (Agrostis, Glyceria), herbs (Ranunculus ficaria, Circaea), nutritious 'roots' (Carex spp., Iris), young shrub leaves (Crataegus, Carpinus) and 'tame' plants growing in the sun (Persicaria dubia, Erigeron annuus). Traditional, now extinct pig breeds were reported as less selective and more 'knowledgeable' about plants, as they received less additional fodder. Svinjars learnt their knowledge since childhood, from community members, but long-term personal observations and everyday encounters with pigs were also important sources of knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: A deeper understanding of pig foraging could contribute to using pigs in nature conservation management, resource management and organic farming, and to a better understanding of wild boar foraging. The knowledge of svinjars is a disappearing intangible cultural heritage of European importance. Knowledge holders deserve recognition, and legal and financial support to continue this tradition.


Asunto(s)
Etnobotánica , Bosques , Humedales , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Herbivoria , Conocimiento , Fitomejoramiento , Serbia , Porcinos
7.
Work ; 70(2): 419-431, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633344

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that work often causes stress in employees and even in occupational safety experts. Occupational stress can lead to serious health consequences for employees. As the job of occupational safety experts is very responsible, they are more exposed to workplace stress and more vulnerable to its consequences. This study resulted with expertise on the work related stress of safety experts in Croatia and Serbia. OBJECTIVE: This study examined workplace stress of occupational safety experts in Croatia and Serbia. METHODS: Surveys were used to collect original data and statistical methods were used for data processing and analysis. RESULTS: There was a correlation between the level of stress on safety expert's jobs and stress levels related to the status of safety experts as dependent variables and the organization profile related with safety experts' employment as independent variables. Stress of safety experts related to activities and the status of safety experts were of medium level. CONCLUSION: There is a need for preventive protection from stress in this profession. Continuous education of safety experts plays a key role in stress prevention, not only for the safety experts but it also plays a key role in stress management throughout the organization.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Estrés Laboral , Croacia/epidemiología , Humanos , Serbia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Lugar de Trabajo
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640837

RESUMEN

The territory of the Republic of Serbia is vulnerable to various natural disasters, among which forest fires stand out. In relation with climate changes, the number of forest fires in Serbia has been increasing from year to year. Protected natural areas are especially endangered by wildfires. For Nature Park Golija, as the second largest in Serbia, with an area of 75,183 ha, and with MaB Reserve Golija-Studenica on part of its territory (53,804 ha), more attention should be paid in terms of forest fire mitigation. GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis are indispensable when it comes to spatial analysis for the purpose of natural disaster risk management. Index-based and fuzzy AHP methods were used, together with TOPSIS method for forest fire susceptibility zonation. Very high and high forest fire susceptibility zone were recorded on 26.85% (Forest Fire Susceptibility Index) and 25.75% (fuzzy AHP). The additional support for forest fire prevention is realized through an additional Internet of Thing (IoT)-based sensor network that enables the continuous collection of local meteorological and environmental data, which enables low-cost and reliable real-time fire risk assessment and detection and the improved long-term and short-term forest fire susceptibility assessment. Obtained results can be applied for adequate forest fire risk management, improvement of the monitoring, and early warning systems in the Republic of Serbia, but are also important for relevant authorities at national, regional, and local level, which will be able to coordinate and intervene in a case of emergency events.


Asunto(s)
Incendios , Incendios Forestales , Bosques , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Serbia
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639706

RESUMEN

The objective of this research was to examine the capacity development of local self-governments in the field of disaster risk management (DRM). This quantitative research examines the degree of implementation of strategic, legislative, and institutional frameworks, as well as the capacity of local authorities to apply related policies through five analytical scopes: (1) degree of preparedness and legal framework; (2) financial framework; (3) policy aspects; (4) cooperation and partnership; (5) communication. The ability of municipalities and towns to respond to disasters was also analyzed and compared. In this paper, our initial hypothesis was that the effective implementation of the concept of DRM policy in towns of Serbia requires the continual strategic, tactical, and operational transformation of the public administration and public management system in order to strengthen the capacity of local self-governments for disaster prevention, preparation, response, and recovery. This multimethod research was conducted over the period of 2014-2017 and included the following two target groups: (a) heads of disaster sectors in local self-government units (mayor) and (b) employees of the DRM sector in local self-government units. The results of this research will enable decision makers to successfully respond to challenges and help to improve the capacity of local self-governments and public local administrations within the scope of DRM in the Republic of Serbia, based on the principles of prevention and proactive action, coordination, cooperation, partnership, and responsibility.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres , Desastres , Ciudades , Gobierno Local , Gestión de Riesgos , Serbia
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1286-1292, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669598

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of COVID-19 has had an impact on global healthcare as well as on radiotherapy practice in many countries. This study aimed to identify clinical characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected cancer inpatients, as well as what impact this infection had on radiation treatment of the patients. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, we included cancer inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection during the radiotherapy or chemoradiation in April 2020 in National Cancer Research Center in Serbia. Data were obtained from the medical records between 1 April and 1 July 2020. RESULTS: A total of 49 COVID-19 infected cancer inpatients were included. The most frequently reported cancers were head and neck cancers, in twenty-three patients (46.8%). Lymphopenia was present in 77.5% of the patients. Red blood cells, haemoglobin and platelets were significantly lower during incubation or diagnosis of COVID-19. Twenty-seven (55.1%) patients did not finish radiotherapy. The age of patients who finished radiotherapy after COVID-19 infection was significantly lower compared to the patients who did not finish radiotherapy (60.5 ± 7.8 vs. 68.6 ± 11.2; p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infected cancer patients in radiotherapy practice show similar symptoms and demographic characteristics as the general population infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. Patients with head and neck cancers may be susceptible to infection with COVID-19. Old age and male gender may be risk factors for discontinuation of radiotherapy in COVID-19 infected cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Serbia
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639551

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Informal patient payments continue to persist in the Serbian health care system, exposing vulnerable groups to private spending on health care. Migrants may in particular be subject to such payments, as they often experience barriers in access to health care. Little is known about migrants paying informally to access health care in Serbia. The study aims to explore pathways of accessing health care, including the role of informal patient payments, from the perspectives of civil servants and non-western migrants in Serbia. (2) Methods: Respondents (n = 8 civil servants and n = 6 migrants) were recruited in Belgrade in 2018, where semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analysed applying the grounded theory methodological steps. (3) Results: Data reveal different pathways to navigate the Serbian health care system, and ultimately whether paying informally occurs. Migrants appear less prone to paying informally and receive the same or better-quality health care. Locals experience the need to pay informal patient payments, quasi-formal payments and to bring medicine, materials or equipment when in health facilities. (4) Conclusions: Paying informally or using private care in Serbia appear to have become common. Despite a comprehensive health insurance coverage, high levels of out-of-pocket payments show barriers in accessing health care. It is highly important to not confuse the cultural beliefs with forced spending on health care and such private spending should be reduced to not push people into poverty.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Personal , Gastos en Salud , Teoría Fundamentada , Instituciones de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Percepción , Serbia
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e053835, 2021 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548371

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a prolonged impact on mental health (MH); however, the long-term MH effects of the COVID-19 pandemic remain unknown. The Serbian national survey-CoV2Soul.RS-was launched to document the MH status of the Serbian population following the COVID-19 pandemic and to contribute to an international evidence base about MH prevalence rates during different phases of the pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This cross-sectional study was designed to collect a nationally representative sample (N=1200; age 18-65 years; estimated start/end-June/November 2021) using multistage probabilistic household sampling. Trained staff will conduct in-person diagnostic interviews. A battery of self-report instruments will be administered to assess the quality of life (QoL), general distress and associated protective and harmful psychological and societal factors. Analyses will be conducted to delineate the prevalence rates of MH disorders, how MH conditions and QoL vary with respect to sociodemographic variables, personality, health status and traumatic events during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to test how these relations depend on geographical region. Moreover, this study was designed to explore mechanisms linking personality and the perception of pandemic consequences and associated distress. Prevalence rates of MH disorders will be calculated using descriptive statistics. For additional analyses, we will use correlations, analysis of variance and regression analyses. The hierarchical structure of the data will be explored using multilevel random coefficient modelling. Structural equation modelling will be used to investigate the indirect effects of personality on distress through relevant variables. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical Committees of the Faculty of Medicine (1322-VII/31) and Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade (02-33/273) and Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad (05-27, br.893/1) approved the protocol. Only respondents able to provide informed consent will participate in the study. Research reports will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and the results will be placed on the website www.cov2soul.rs to be available to funders, researchers, policy-makers and interested laypeople, and will be advertised through social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04896983.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Serbia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(10): 1302-1316, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581643

RESUMEN

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent one of the growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances and valuable materials focus on how it is handled. However, there are differences between countries regarding e-waste management system in Europe. This paper analyses and presents data regarding the e-waste management system in Italy, one of the founding countries of the EU and Serbia - EU candidate country. Within this work, the following aspects were considered: legislative framework and EU directive goals in terms of e-waste, institutional setup, collection system, and existing recycling and treatment technologies. In addition, material flow analysis is used to model mass balance within WEEE treatment plants in both countries. Finally, through assessment and comparison of current systems in both countries, problems and shortages of Serbia's e-waste management system are addressed.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Electrónicos , Administración de Residuos , Residuos Electrónicos/análisis , Electrónica , Italia , Reciclaje , Serbia
14.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(1): 75-81, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588725

RESUMEN

Hoarseness occurs in children of both genders, from the earliest age and beyond, and is caused by improper use or overuse of vocal apparatus. The study included 91 hoarse children aged 6-12 (study group) and 243 healthy children (control group) of the same age. The study group underwent detailed medical history, phoniatric examination, larynx fiber endoscopy, allergy treatment, audiologic treatment, and pulmonary treatment. Pediatric Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaire, Serbian version (PVRQOL) was completed by parents of both groups of children. We did not find statistically significant differences in the hoarse children based on diagnosis (muscle tension disorder and vocal fold nodules) and age in physical domain, socio-emotional and global domain score (p>0.01). The results showed that parents did not recognize hoarseness as a health problem in children. There were significant gender differences in the group of children with hoarseness, i.e. parents in all three PVRQOL questionnaire domains recognized hoarseness as a significant health problem in girls, but not in boys. The presence of hoarseness impairs the quality of life in pediatric population. Social and emotional domains indicated greater impact in boys.


Asunto(s)
Disfonía , Calidad de Vida , Niño , Disfonía/diagnóstico , Disfonía/epidemiología , Disfonía/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Serbia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Calidad de la Voz
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(Suppl 2): 794, 2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517821

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: National testing strategy, including monitoring and evaluation, is critical in responding to HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Community-based voluntary counselling and testing contributes to early HIV diagnoses among key populations. Countries providing community-based testing, should integrate some core data on testing and linkage to care in these services into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems. This study aimed to support the integration of community-based voluntary counselling and testing data into respective national surveillance and M&E systems for those infections. METHODS: Preliminary consensus on indicators for the integration of community-based voluntary counselling and testing data into respective national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems was reached. Pilot studies were conducted in Estonia, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. After pilot activities were implemented, the final consensus on indicators was reached. An analysis of the facilitators and barriers faced during pilot studies was conducted to inform the final recommendations for implementation. RESULTS: The minimum set of six indicators to be integrated into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems were: number of tests, number of clients tested, reactivity rate for tests and clients, positivity (active infection) rates for tests and clients, linkage to care rates for clients with reactive and/or positive test result, proportion of all new diagnoses in a country with first reactive test result at community-based voluntary counselling and testing service. Seven additional indicators were identified. Each indicator should be disaggregated by key population, sex and age group. A list of 10 recommendations for the collection and integration of community-based voluntary counselling and testing data into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems for HIV, sexually transmitted infections and viral hepatitis was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of some community-based voluntary counselling and testing monitoring and evaluation data into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems in all pilot countries was achieved. The recommendations will support such integration in other European countries. European Centre for Prevention and Control of Diseases included questions from the minimum list of indicators into their Dublin Declaration questionnaire 2020 to contribute to evidence based community testing policies in European countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Hepatitis Viral Humana , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Consejo , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatitis Viral Humana/epidemiología , Hepatitis Viral Humana/prevención & control , Humanos , Serbia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(Suppl 2): 800, 2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Community-based voluntary counselling and testing contributes to early HIV diagnoses among key populations. Testing data from such decentralized services is however often not standardized nor linked to national surveillance systems. This study aimed to support the integration of community testing data into respective national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems for those infections. We present results from three national pilots, focused on improved data collection and transfer. METHODS:  Within the Joint Action INTEGRATE different pilot activities were planned and implemented according to the local context. In Slovakia, standardised data collection tools were implemented in three community testing services. The data generated was used to calculate the proposed indicators. In Poland, positive test results from the community testing database were linked to the national case-based surveillance database using confirmatory test number, to improve the completeness of behavioural data in the national database. In Serbia, voluntary counselling and testing forms were improved enabling identification of community-based testing. A system to generate unique client identifiers was initiated in the National registry of HIV cases to monitor linkage to care. RESULTS: All three sites were able to estimate most of the agreed indicators. In Slovakia during the study period 675 people were tested for HIV, 410 for hepatitis C and 457 for syphilis, with reactivity rates of 0.4, 2.5 and 1.8%, respectively. For HIV, 66.7% of reactive cases were confirmed and linked to care. In Poland, 28.9% of the community testing sites' records were linked to the national surveillance database (and accounted for 14.3% of all new diagnoses registered here during 2017-2018). Reactivity rate ranged between 1.9% and 2.1%. In Serbia, 80 persons were tested at community sites, from which two had a reactive HIV test result. By linking unique client identifiers from voluntary counselling and testing and National Registry of HIV cases databases, linkage to care within a two-month period was observed for one of two people with reactive HIV test result. CONCLUSIONS:  Pilot activities in the three countries demonstrate that integration of community-based testing data into surveillance systems is feasible and can help improve national surveillance data by providing key information.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Tamizaje Masivo , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Polonia/epidemiología , Serbia/epidemiología , Eslovaquia/epidemiología
17.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(3): 274-281, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506299

RESUMEN

In the present study, 64 golden jackals were examined for intestinal helminths in three regions of Vojvodina, Serbia. Among the examined jackals 57.8% were infected with at least one parasite species. Using the intestinal scraping technique (SCT), eight species of intestinal helminths were found: Alaria alata (7.8%), Toxascaris leonina (9.4%), Toxocara canis (4.7%), Uncinaria stenocephala (20.3%), Echinococcus multilocularis (14.1%), Mesocestoides sp. (42.2%), Taenia pisiformis, and Taenia hydatigena (the overall prevalence of Taenia infection was 6.3%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. leonina in jackals from Serbia. In comparison with the SCT results, coprological tests were less sensitive and specific for parasite identification, as only two nematode species (T. leonina and T. canis) as well as ancylostomatid and taeniid eggs were identified. The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was higher in males (71.9% males, 45% females), but the difference was not statistically significant (χ 2 = 3.76; P = 0.052). Co-infection with two species of intestinal helminths was found in 35% of the examined golden jackal individuals, three-species co-infection was demonstrated in 21.6%, whereas four-species co-infection was detected in 2.7% of the golden jackals examined. Echinococcus multilocularis has previously been recorded in jackals and foxes in Serbia, but only in Vojvodina. Our results corroborate the findings of previous studies, and indicate that the Vojvodina Province, more specifically the Srem region, is probably a high-risk area for E. multilocularis transmission to humans.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis Animal , Helmintos , Animales , Equinococosis , Femenino , Zorros , Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Chacales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Serbia/epidemiología , Yugoslavia
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574420

RESUMEN

While previous research has indicated that increasing tobacco excises is a crucial instrument for lowering tobacco demand, this policy has been criticized for its alleged regressive impact on the poor. However, this critique does not take into account the behavioral response, i.e., decrease in consumption that occurs after excises and prices increase. In this paper, we examine the effect of cigarettes' price increase on tobacco consumption, household expenditures, and tax burdens in three income groups and provide empirical arguments on the regressivity/progressivity effects of tobacco tax increase. Estimated elasticities indicate that all groups decrease their cigarettes demand with increasing prices, with demand decrease stronger for low- than for middle- and high-income households. Results further suggest that increasing tobacco excises (1) decreases tobacco expenditure of low-income households, which increases their productive consumption, such as on food, clothes, etc., and (2) redistributes the tobacco tax burden from low- to high-income households. Therefore, excise increase policies do not have an adverse effect on the position of the low-income households; on the contrary, they lower their cigarettes expenditure and their tax burden, while lower cigarettes consumption has an additional, positive effect on their health, which attenuates future inequalities.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco , Tabaco , Comercio , Serbia , Impuestos
19.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(3): 405-407, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584535

RESUMEN

Exiguobacterium aurantiacum is isolated from a variety of environmental samples but rarely from patients. The aim of the study was to represent isolation of unusual bacterial strains that could cause infection in patients. Final identification was performed using matrix-assisted description/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Two isolates strains of E. aurantiacum were isolated, one isolate from distilled water used during surgical treatment and the second one from a patient with bacteremia after radical prostatectomy, both sensitive to all tested antimicrobials. Environmental strains could cause infection, especially in immunocompromised patients; therefore, rare bacteria testing is required, in which identification special assistance is provided by an automated system MALDI-TOF.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Exiguobacterium/efectos de los fármacos , Exiguobacterium/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/microbiología , Serbia , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción , Resultado del Tratamiento , Microbiología del Agua
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17984, 2021 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504218

RESUMEN

Habitat fragmentation and loss have contributed significantly to the demographic decline of European wildcat populations and hybridization with domestic cats poses a threat to the loss of genetic purity of the species. In this study we used microsatellite markers to analyse genetic variation and structure of the wildcat populations from the area between the Dinaric Alps and the Scardo-Pindic mountains in Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and North Macedonia. We also investigated hybridisation between populations of wildcats and domestic cats in the area. One hundred and thirteen samples from free-leaving European wildcats and thirty-two samples from domestic cats were analysed. Allelic richness across populations ranged from 3.61 to 3.98. The observed Ho values ranged between 0.57 and 0.71. The global FST value for the four populations was 0.080 (95% CI 0.056-0.109) and differed significantly from zero (P < 0.001). The highest FST value was observed between the populations North Macedonia and Slovenia and the lowest between Slovenia and Croatia. We also found a signal for the existence of isolation by distance between populations. Our results showed that wildcats are divided in two genetic clusters largely consistent with a geographic division into a genetically diverse northern group (Slovenia, Croatia) and genetically eroded south-eastern group (Serbia, N. Macedonia). Hybridisation rate between wildcats and domestic cats varied between 13% and 52% across the regions.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/genética , Variación Genética , Hibridación Genética , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Alelos , Animales , Gatos , Croacia , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Filogeografía/métodos , República de Macedonia del Norte , Serbia , Eslovenia
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...