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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(1): 19-25, feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET2-3432

RESUMEN

Objetivo. La correcta identificación en el primer contacto médico de los pacientes con un síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) es esencial. No existe ninguna escala predictiva para el diagnóstico de SCA en los centros de coordinación de emergencias (CCE) que facilite la toma de decisiones al equipo médico. El objetivo primario es construir y validar una escala de estas características. Método. Estudio prospectivo, observacional, unicéntrico, realizado durante 1 año (2016). Se incluyeron los pacientes que consultaron telefónicamente por dolor torácico no traumático en un CCE. Los pacientes incluidos se repartieron en las muestras de derivación y validación de forma aleatoria. La escala predictiva –escala SCARE– se construyó mediante regresión logística, la discriminación y calibración del modelo se realizó con el cálculo del área bajo la curva (ABC) de la característica operativa del receptor y el test de Hosmer-Lemeshow. Resultado. La muestra de derivación incluyó 902 pacientes y 7 de las variables recogidas se relacionaron con un diagnóstico final de SCA: sexo masculino, edad, tabaquismo, dolor torácico de características típicas, primer episodio de dolor torácico, diaforesis y la intuición del médico que realizó la entrevista telefónica. La utilización de la escala desarrollada en los 465 pacientes de la muestra de validación obtuvo un ABC de 0,81 (intervalo de confianza al 95% 0,76-0,87) y el test de Hosmer-Lemeshow fue de 5,18 (p = 0,74). Conclusión. La escala SCARE mostró una correcta discriminación y calibración. Es necesaria una validación externa multicéntrica antes de implementar su uso en los CCE


Background and objective. Correctly identifying patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on first contact is essential, yet emergency dispatchers currently lack a risk scale that can help predict an ACS diagnosis. Our main aim was to develop and validate such a risk scale. Methods. Prospective, observational single-center study in 2016 (January 1 to December 31). We included patients who called our emergency dispatch center to report nontraumatic chest pain. Included patients were randomly assigned to a development or a validation sample. The predictive SCARE scale was built with logistic regression analysis. Discrimination and calibration were analyzed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results. The development sample included 902 patients. The regression model identified 7 variables associated with a final diagnosis of ACS: male sex, age, smoking, typical pain characteristics, first episode of chest pain, diaphoresis, and physician intuition (the teledispatcher’s suspicion). When we applied the scale in the validation sample of 465 patients the area under the curve was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76-0.87). The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was 5.18 (P=.74). Conclusions. The SCARE scale had good discrimination and calibration properties. The scale should be further validated in an external sample from a multicenter study before it is implemented by emergency dispatch centers


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/diagnóstico , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Dolor en el Pecho/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Teléfono/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Intuición , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17752, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689831

RESUMEN

Dispatcher assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DACPR) by Emergency medical services has been shown to improve rates of early out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) recognition and early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for OHCA. This study measures the impact of introducing DACPR on OHCA recognition, CPR rates and on patient outcomes in a pilot region in Kuwait.EMS treated OHCA data over 10 months period (February 21-December 31, 2017) before and after the intervention was prospectively collected and analyzed.Comprehensive DACPR in the form of: a standardized dispatch protocol, 1-day training package and quality assurance and improvement measures were applied to Kuwait EMS central Dispatch unit only for pilot region. Primary outcomes: OHCA recognition rate, CPR instruction rate, and Bystander CPR rate. Secondary outcome: survival to hospital discharge.A total of 332 OHCA cases from the EMS archived data were extracted and after exclusion 176 total OHCA cases remain. After DACPR implementation OHCA recognition rate increased from 2% to 12.9% (P = .037), CPR instruction rate increased from 0% to 10.4% (P = .022); however, no significant change was noted for bystander CPR rates or prehospital return of spontaneous circulation. Also, survival to hospital discharge rate did not change significantly (0% before, and 0.8% after, P = .53)In summary, DACPR implementation had positive impacts on Kuwait EMS system operational outcomes; early OHCA recognition and CPR instruction rates in a pilot region of Kuwait. Expanding this initiative to other regions in Kuwait and coupling it with other OHCA system of care interventions are needed to improve OHCA survival rates.


Asunto(s)
Reanimación Cardiopulmonar/educación , Operador de Emergencias Médicas/educación , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario/terapia , Anciano , Reanimación Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Femenino , Implementación de Plan de Salud , Humanos , Kuwait , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos Piloto , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18170, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770267

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: The umbilical cord is the way to exchange gas, supply nutrients, excrete metabolized. Thrombosis of the umbilical cord leads to fetal hypoxia, which jeopardizes fetal health and can cause fetal death. Umbilical vessel thrombosis, which is rarely reported, is difficult to detect prenatally. PATIENT CONCERNS: Both pregnant women had an unremarkable pregnancy course until a routine ultrasound scan in the third trimester showed a single umbilical artery. However, one umbilical vein and 2 umbilical arteries were seen during an ultrasound examination at 32 weeks. Case 2 had a better pregnancy outcome because of the timely discovery of this complication. DIAGNOSIS: Both cases were diagnosed as umbilical artery thrombosis. INTERVENTIONS: The first patient received no interventions until they reported decreased fetal movements and gradually disappear. The second patient underwent an emergency cesarean section. OUTCOMES: In Case 1, an emergency ultrasound examination showed intrauterine fetal death, and the patient vaginally delivered a stillborn child weighing 3300 g in a day. In Case 2, a female neonate weighing 2860 g was delivered by cesarean section, and exhibited Apgar scores of 10 and 10 at 1 and 5 minutes. CONCLUSION: In the late-term abortions, obstetricians should be vigilant if ultrasound imaging shows suspected umbilical vascular thrombosis or shows 1 umbilical artery when there had previously been 2. The fetus should be closely monitored and interventions implemented as early as possible to improve the prenatal detection rate of umbilical vessel thrombosis and avoid adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea/métodos , Intervención Médica Temprana/métodos , Muerte Fetal , Complicaciones Cardiovasculares del Embarazo , Trombosis , Arterias Umbilicales , Adulto , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Femenino , Muerte Fetal/etiología , Muerte Fetal/prevención & control , Monitoreo Fetal/métodos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Complicaciones Cardiovasculares del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Cardiovasculares del Embarazo/fisiopatología , Resultado del Embarazo , Mortinato , Trombosis/complicaciones , Trombosis/diagnóstico , Trombosis/fisiopatología , Ultrasonografía Prenatal/métodos , Arterias Umbilicales/diagnóstico por imagen , Arterias Umbilicales/patología
5.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 89, 2019 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578145

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Making ethically sound treatment limitations in prehospital care is a complex topic. Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) physicians were surveyed on their experiences with limitations of care orders in the prehospital setting, including situations where they are dispatched to healthcare facilities or nursing homes. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre study was conducted among all HEMS physicians in Finland in 2017 using a questionnaire with closed five-point Likert-scale questions and open questions. The Ethics Committee of the Tampere University Hospital approved the study protocol (R15048). RESULTS: Fifty-nine (88%) physicians responded. Their median age was 43 (IQR 38-47) and median medical working experience was 15 (IQR 10-20) years. All respondents made limitation of care orders and 39% made them often. Three fourths (75%) of the physicians were often dispatched to healthcare facilities and nursing homes and the majority (93%) regularly met patients who should have already had a valid limitation of care order. Every other physician (49%) had sometimes decided not to implement a medically justifiable limitation of care order because they wanted to avoid conflicts with the patient and/or the next of kin and/or other healthcare staff. Limitation of care order practices varied between the respondents, but neither age nor working experience explained these differences in answers. Most physicians (85%) stated that limitations of care orders are part of their work and 81% did not find them especially burdensome. The most challenging patient groups for treatment limitations were the under-aged patients, the severely disabled patients and the patients in healthcare facilities or residing in nursing homes. CONCLUSION: Making limitation of care orders is an important but often invisible part of a HEMS physician's work. HEMS physicians expressed that patients in long-term care were often without limitations of care orders in situations where an order would have been ethically in accordance with the patient's best interests.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias Aéreas , Aeronaves , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Médicos/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Finlandia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
6.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 304-310, oct. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184119

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Investigar la calidad asistencial en los episodios de exposición a monóxido de carbono (CO) asistidos por unidades prehospitalarias mediante indicadores de calidad (IC) y las variables relacionadas con el uso del pulsicooxímetro para medir de forma incruenta el porcentaje de saturación de la hemoglobina con CO (SpCO). Método. Estudio de cohorte de los episodios de exposición a CO atendidos por las unidades de soporte vital avanza-do (SVA) del Sistema de Emergencias Médicas de Cataluña. Se seleccionaron 11 IC y se diseñó un análisis multivariante para investigar las variables relacionadas con el uso del pulsicooxímetro.Resultados. Se recogieron 1.676 episodios de exposición a CO. En 1.108 (66,1%) se registró la SpCO con pulsicooxímetro, siendo SpCO > 10% en 358 (32,3%). De los 11 IC, cinco no alcanzaron el estándar recomendado. El análisis multivariante mostró un menor uso del pulsicooxímetro cuando había asociación con otro tóxico, OR 0,34 (IC 95% 0,11-1,00) y cuando la primera asistencia era realizada por SVA médico, OR 0,43 (IC 95% 0,31-0,59). Hubo mayor uso del pulsicooxímetro ante la presencia de antecedentes psiquiátricos OR 3,01 (IC 95% 1,27-7,17), la cefalea OR 2,13 (IC 95% 1,22-3,72) y el uso de oxigenoterapia OR 10,33 (5,46-19,53). Conclusión. En la asistencia prehospitalaria de los episodios de exposición al CO existe una falta de cumplimiento de algunos IC. Hay variables relacionadas con la infrautilización del pulsicooxímetro, con puntos de mejora


Objective. To describe health care quality indicators in cases of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure attended by prehospital services and to explore factors associated with the use of pulse CO-oximetry (SpCO) for the noninvasive estimation of CO saturation of arterial blood. Method. Cohort study of patients exposed to CO and transported by advanced life support units of the Emergency Medical Services of Catalonia between January 2015 and December 2017. We selected 11 applicable quality indicators and used multivariate analysis to explore factors associated with the recording of SpCO. Results. We studied 1676 cases of CO exposure. SpCO was recorded in 1108 cases (66.1%). CO saturation exceeded 10% in 358 patients (32.3%). Adherence was deficient in 5 of the 11 applicable quality indicators. Multivariate analysis showed less use of pulse CO-oximetry when another toxic exposure was present (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.11-1.00) and when the first responder was from the advanced life support service (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.31-0.59). SpCO was used more in the presence of a history of mental health problems (OR, 3.01; 95% CI,1.27-7.17), headache (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.2-3.72), and along with use of oxygen therapy (OR, 10.33; 95% CI, 5.46-19.53). Conclusion. Prehospital attendance of episodes of CO exposure is marked by failure to comply with some health care quality indicators. We detected factors associated with under use of SpCO as well as areas to target for improvement


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Atención Prehospitalaria/organización & administración , Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Atención Prehospitalaria/normas , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Cohortes , Oportunidad Relativa
7.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 341-345, oct. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184124

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Conocer la epidemiología de las consultas en urgencias por amnesia global transitoria (AGT), ya sea pura, asociada al consumo de tóxicos o en el contexto de una agresión sexual. Método. Estudio retrospectivo de enero a diciembre de 2018. Se revisaron las AGT atendidas en intoxicados (AGTtox), en víctimas de agresiones sexuales (AGTsex) y las amnesias puras (AGTpur), evaluando la presencia de tóxicos. Resultados. Se identificaron 287 AGT: 169 AGTsex (58,9%), 62 AGTpur (21,6%) y 56 AGTtox (19,5%). De ellas, 218 (76%) fueron mujeres y la edad osciló entre 16 y 90 años (60,6% menores de 30 años). Reconocieron consumo de alcohol 201 casos (72,8%), con etanolemia positiva en 105 (49,1%) (media de 0,74 g/l y máxima de 3,9 g/l). Admitieron consumo de cannabis 20 pacientes (7,1%), con analítica positiva en 39 casos (17,3%); cocaína 14 (4,9%), con analítica positiva en 28 (12,4%), y anfetaminas 5 (1,7%), con analítica positiva en 20 (8,8%). Presentaron sínto-mas de intoxicación 58 casos (20,1%). Cuatro pacientes ingresaron en coma. Se realizó una tomografía computariza-da (TC) craneal a 66 pacientes (23%), se hospitalizaron 7 y no hubo ningún fallecimiento. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de AGT es mayor si se incluyen los intoxicados y las agresiones sexuales, modificando la determinación de tóxicos la epidemiología de la AGT en urgencias


Objectives. To study the epidemiology of emergency department visits for transient global amnesia (TGA) by itself or associated with substance abuse or sexual assault. Methods. Retrospective study of cases treated from January to December 2018. Data for all patients with TGA were extracted, and cases were classified as associated with substance abuse (TGASUB), sexual assault (TGASEX), or neither (TGAONLY). Results. A total of 287 TGA cases were found: 169 (58.9%) were TGASEX, 62 (21.6%) TGAONLY, and 56 (19.5%) TGASUB. Two hundred eighteen (76%) were female and 69 (24%) were male. Ages ranged from 16 to 90 years; 174 (60.6%) were under the age of 30 years. Two hundred one patients (72.8%) reported consuming alcohol; and 105 (49.1%) were positive on testing (mean blood alcohol concentration, 0.74 g/L; maximum, 3.9 g/L. Twenty patients (7.1%) reported using cannabis, and 39 (17.3%) had positive test results; 14 reported using cocaine (4.9%) and 28 (12.4%) tested positive; 5 (1.7%) reported using amphetamines and 20 (8.8%) tested positive. Fifty-eight (20.1%) had symptoms of intoxication. Four were admitted in coma. A computed tomography scan was ordered for 66 patients (23%), 7 patients were hospitalized, and none died. Conclusions. The prevalence of TGA is higher if cases of substance abuse and sexual assault are counted. Toxicolgy testing changes the epidemiology of TGA in emergencies


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Amnesia Global Transitoria/complicaciones , Amnesia Global Transitoria/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Delitos Sexuales , Síntomas Toxicológicos/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Coma/complicaciones , Coma/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión , Etanol/toxicidad , Cocaína/toxicidad , Cannabis/toxicidad , Anfetaminas/toxicidad , Análisis de Varianza
8.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 346-352, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184125

RESUMEN

Aunque son muchos los indicadores de calidad (IC) definidos para establecer un sistema común, homogéneo y fiable de evaluación sobre la actividad en los servicios de urgencias, es escasa la información acerca de los IC relacionados con las emergencias atendidas en el ámbito extrahospitalario. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar y analizar, a través de la literatura científica publicada, los IC específicos de dicha atención ante emergencias fuera del contexto hospitalario. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura según las recomendaciones PRISMA. Se exploraron 5 bases de datos y se elaboraron protocolos de búsqueda para localizar estudios que aportasen información sobre IC para evaluar la atención en emergencias extrahospitalarias, entre noviembre de 2017 y julio de 2018, tanto en inglés como en español. Se analizaron un total de 22 estudios y se identificaron un total de 333 IC en emergencias extrahospitalarias que fueron clasificados en clínicos y no clínicos, con sus subdominios correspondientes para cada grupo. El número de IC no clínicos identificados en la búsqueda fue superior, pudiendo concluir que son los más utilizados para evaluar la atención en las emergencias extrahospitalarias en la actualidad y dejando la puerta abierta para el diseño e implementación de nuevos IC capaces de evaluar la actividad fuera del contexto hospitalario


Although many health care quality indicators have been defined for establishing a common, homogeneous, and reliable system for assessing emergency department care, less information is available on the use of indicators of quality in attending emergencies outside the hospital. We aimed to identify and analyze quality indicators that have appeared in the literature on out-of-hospital emergencies. This systematic review of the literature followed the ations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We developed protocols for searching 5 databases to locate studies using quality indicators to evaluate care in out-of-hospital emergencies. Studies were published between July 2017 and July 2018 in either English or Spanish. We identified 22 studies naming 333 quality indicators in out-of-hospital emergencies. The indicators were classified as clinical or nonclinical; within each of these 2 sets, we also identified domains, or subcategories. As nonclinical quality identifiers were more numerous in the literature, it seems that they are the ones most often used to assess out-of-hospital emergency care at this time. This finding leaves the door open to designing and implementing new indicators able to measure quality of care in this clinical setting


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Seguridad del Paciente , Gestión de la Calidad Total/métodos , Gestión de la Calidad Total/normas , Ambulancias/organización & administración
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 333-336, 2019 Jul 23.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544421

RESUMEN

Earthquake is a serious natural disaster. The earthquake that occurs in schistosomiasis-endemic areas not only causes direct human and economic losses, but also induces secondary disasters that greatly threaten public health safety in affected areas. This paper analyzed the impact of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and 2013 Lushan Earthquake on schistosomiasis transmission in Sichuan Province, and proposed emergency measures and assessment activitiesresponding to schistosomiasis following earthquake disasters. The experiences from schistosomiasis control after two earthquake disasters in Sichuan Province may provide insights into the emergency control in other regions or after other natural disasters.


Asunto(s)
Terremotos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Salud Pública , Esquistosomiasis , China , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Humanos , Salud Pública/métodos , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Esquistosomiasis/transmisión
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012177, 2019 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549741

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preparing healthcare providers to manage relatively rare life-threatening emergency situations effectively is a challenge. Training sessions enable staff to rehearse for these events and are recommended by several reports and guidelines. In this review we have focused on interactive training, this includes any element where the training is not solely didactic but provides opportunity for discussions, rehearsals, or interaction with faculty or technology. It is important to understand the effective methods and essential elements for successful emergency training so that resources can be appropriately targeted to improve outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interactive training of healthcare providers on the management of life-threatening emergencies in hospital on patient outcomes, clinical care practices, or organisational practices, and to identify essential components of effective interactive emergency training programmes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and ERIC and two trials registers up to 11 March 2019. We searched references of included studies, conference proceedings, and contacted study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials and cluster-randomised trials comparing interactive training for emergency situations with standard/no training. We defined emergency situations as those in which immediate lifesaving action is required, for example cardiac arrests and major haemorrhage. We included all studies where healthcare workers involved in providing direct clinical care were participants. We excluded studies outside of a hospital setting or where the intervention was not targeted at practicing healthcare workers. We included trials irrespective of publication status, date, and language. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included trial. Due to the small number of studies and the heterogeneity in outcome measures, we were unable to perform the planned meta-analysis. We provide a structured synthesis for the following outcomes: survival to hospital discharge, morbidity rate, protocol or guideline adherence, patient outcomes, clinical practice outcomes, and organisation-of-care outcomes. We used the GRADE approach to rate the certainty of the evidence and the strength of recommendations for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies that reported on 2000 healthcare providers and over 300,000 patients; one study did not report the number of participants. Seven were cluster randomised trials and four were single centre studies. Four studies focused on obstetric training, three on obstetric and neonatal care, two on neonatal training, one on trauma and one on general resuscitations. The studies were spread across high-, middle- and low-income settings.Interactive training may make little or no difference in survival to hospital discharge for patients requiring resuscitation (1 study; 30 participants; 98 events; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if emergency training changes morbidity rate, as the certainty of the evidence is very low (3 studies; 1778 participants; 57,193 patients, when reported). We are uncertain if training alters healthcare providers' adherence to clinical protocols or guidelines, as the certainty of the evidence is very low (3 studies; 156 participants; 558 patients). We are uncertain if there were improvements in patient outcomes following interactive training for emergency situations, as we assessed the evidence as very low-certainty (5 studies, 951 participants; 314,055 patients). We are uncertain if training for emergency situations improves clinical practice outcomes as the certainty of the evidence is very low (4 studies; 1417 participants; 28,676 patients, when reported). Two studies reported organisation-of-care outcomes, we are uncertain if interactive emergency training has any effect on this outcome as the certainty of the evidence is very low (634 participants; 179,400 patient population).We examined prespecified subgroups and found no clear commonalities in effect of multidisciplinary training, location of training, duration of the course, or duration of follow-up. We also examined areas arising from the studies including focus of training, proportion of staff trained, leadership of intervention, and incentive/trigger to participate, and again identified no clear mediating factors. The sources of funding for the studies were governmental, local organisations, or philanthropic donors. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain if there are any benefits of interactive training of healthcare providers on the management of life-threatening emergencies in hospital as the certainty of the evidence is very low. We were unable to identify any factors that may have allowed us to identify an essential element of these interactive training courses.We found a lack of consistent reporting, which contributed to the inability to meta-analyse across specialities. More trials are required to build the evidence base for the optimum way to prepare healthcare providers for rare life-threatening emergency events. These trials need to be conducted with attention to outcomes important to patients, healthcare providers, and policymakers. It is vitally important to develop high-quality studies adequately powered and with attention to minimising the risk of bias.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Adhesión a Directriz , Personal de Salud/educación , Urgencias Médicas , Hospitales , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 132, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558931

RESUMEN

Introduction: Studies have reported that emergency medical care practitioners (EMCPs) encounter challenges when attending to psychiatric emergencies. The EMC provider's ability to understand, assess and manage psychiatric emergencies has been reported to be poor due to limited knowledge and insufficient training. In South Africa (SA), little is known about the knowledge of EMCPs on pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of EMCPs working in the Free State province on aspects of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. Methods: This descriptive study used a questionnaire survey to obtain data on the knowledge of EMCPs on aspects of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. Results: Only 159 of the initial 192 questionnaires distributed were returned, giving a response rate of 82.8%. The majority (87.4%) of the participants reported inadequate knowledge of pre-hospital management of psychiatric emergencies. More than a third of the participants reported that they are not knowledgeable on how to assess a psychiatric patient (P < 0.01), 64.2% and 73.6% (P < 0.001 in both cases) could not perform mental status examination and lack the knowledge of crisis intervention skills for managing a psychiatric emergencies. The majority (76.7%; P < 0.001) of the participants are not conversant with the Mental Health Care Act 2002 (Act no. 17 of 2002). Finally, participants (94.3% and 86.8%, respectively; P < 0.001) agree that teaching and prior exposure to a psychiatric facility, as in work integrated learning, will empower EMC graduates with skills required to effectively manage psychiatric emergencies. Conclusion: EMC practitioners are often the first healthcare professionals arriving at any scene of medical emergencies including psychiatric emergencies. To avoid malpractices, which could be detrimental to patient's health, it is of utmost importance that EMCPs are well trained and equipped to manage any form of medical emergency including those involving psychiatric patients.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Socorristas/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Adulto , Competencia Clínica , Urgencias Médicas , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
Croat Med J ; 60(4): 325-332, 2019 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483118

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess the effect of the time for emergency medical services (EMS) arrival on resuscitation outcome in the transition period of the EMS system in Istra County. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the data from 1440 patients resuscitated between 2011 and 2017. The effect of demographic data, period of the year, time for EMS arrival, initial cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provider, initial cardiac rhythm, and airway management method on CPR outcome was assessed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Survivors were younger than non-survivors (median of 66 vs 70 years, P<0.001) and had shorter time for EMS arrival (median of 6 vs 8 min, P<0.001). The proportion of non-survivors was significantly higher when initial basic life support (BLS) was performed by bystanders without training (83.8%) or when no CPR was performed before EMS team arrival (87.3%) than when BLS was performed by medical professionals (66.8%) (P<0.001). Sex, airway management, and tourist season had no effect on CPR outcome. CONCLUSION: Since the time for arrival and level of CPR provider training showed a significant effect on CPR outcome, further organizational effort should be made to reduce the time for EMS arrival and increase the number of individuals trained in BLS.


Asunto(s)
Reanimación Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Reanimación Cardiopulmonar/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario/mortalidad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/métodos , Croacia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 86, 2019 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492193

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A reduction in pre-hospital scene time for patients with penetrating trauma is associated with reduced mortality, when combined with appropriate hospital triage. This study investigated the relationship between presence of pre-hospital enhanced care teams (ECT) (Critical Care Paramedics (CCPS) or Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS)), on the scene time and triage compliance, of penetrating trauma patients in a UK ambulance service. The primary outcome was whether scene time reduces when an ECT is present. A secondary outcome was whether the presence of an ECT improved compliance with the trust's Major Trauma Decision Tree (MTDT). METHODS: All suspected penetrating trauma incidents involving a patient's torso were identified from the Trust's computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system between 31st March 2017 and 1st April 2018. Only patients who sustained central penetrating trauma were included. Any incidents involving firearms were excluded due to the prolonged times that can be involved when waiting for specialist police units. Data relevant to scene time for each eligible incident were retrieved, along with the presence or absence of an ECT. The results were analysed to identify trends in the scene times and compliance with the MTDT. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-one patients met the inclusion criteria, with 165 having complete data. The presence of an ECT improved the median on-scene time in central stabbing by 38% (29m50s vs. 19m0s, p = 0.03). The compliance with the trust's MTDT increased dramatically when an ECT is present (81% vs. 37%, odds ratio 7.59, 95% CI, 3.70-15.37, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an ECT at a central stabbing incident significantly improved the scene time and triage compliance with a MTDT. Ambulance services should consider routine activation of ECTs to such incidents, with subsequent service evaluation to monitor patient outcomes. Ambulance services should continue to strive to reduce scene times in the context of central penetrating trauma.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias Aéreas/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Triaje/normas , Heridas Punzantes/terapia , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 36(3): 122-129, jul.-sept. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183951

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Describir las características de las urgencias hipertensivas atendidas en un Servicio de Urgencias, así como las variables asociadas a reconsulta precoz (< 7 días) y al mes (< 30 días). Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de todos los pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Urgencias de un hospital de tercer nivel durante el año 2013. Posteriormente se realizó un análisis de casos-control para analizar el grupo de pacientes con reconsulta. Resultados: Se analizaron un total de 398 urgencias hipertensivas (32,4% hombres, edad media 67,8 años) lo que representó una incidencia de 3,28/1.000 visitas. Un 80,9% eran hipertensos previamente, siendo 2,23 la media de Índice de Charlson. La cefalea fue el síntoma más frecuente (49,1%), seguida del mareo/inestabilidad (29,5%) y las náuseas/vómitos (17,1%). Un 80,7% de los pacientes recibieron tratamiento farmacológico. Las tasas de eventos cardiovasculares o mortalidad al mes fueron bajas (2,26% y 0,25% respectivamente). Pese a ello, un 7,53% y un 11,31% de los pacientes reingresaron antes de 7 días o 30 días, respectivamente. Las variables asociadas a reconsulta en el análisis multivariante fueron la presión arterial sistólica elevada en la primera determinación, la hipertensión arterial previa y la presencia de palpitaciones. Conclusiones: Las urgencias hipertensivas son entidades de elevada incidencia en los Servicios de Urgencias. En nuestro estudio, los individuos con diagnóstico previo de hipertensión arterial y la presión arterial sistólica elevada en la primera determinación tienen mayor riesgo de reconsulta y serían candidatos a un seguimiento más estrecho al alta


Objectives: To describe the characteristics of hypertensive urgencies at the emergency department, as well as the variables associated with early re-admission (<7 days) and re-admission at one month (<30 days). Methods: We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study of all patients who were admitted to the emergency department of a third level hospital during 2013. Subsequently, a case-control analysis was performed to analyze the group of patients with readmission. Results: A total of 398 hypertensive urgencies were collected (32.4% men, mean age 67.75 years), which led to an incidence of 3.28/1000 visits. Eighty point nine percent had a previous history of hypertension, and the mean Charlson Index was 2.23. Headache was the most frequent symptom (49.1%), followed by dizziness/instability (29.5%) and nausea/vomiting (17.1%). Eighty point seven percent of the patients were prescribed pharmacological treatment. The rates of cardiovascular events or mortality at one month were low (2.26% and 0.25% respectively). Despite this, 7.53% and 11.31% of patients were readmitted in under 7 days or 30 days, respectively. The variables associated with readmission in the multivariate analysis were elevated systolic blood pressure in the first determination, previous hypertension and the presence of palpitations. Conclusions: Hypertensive emergencies are high-incidence conditions in the Emergency Department. In our study, patients with a prior diagnosis of hypertension and elevated systolic blood pressure at the first determination had a higher risk of re-entry and would be candidates for closer follow-up on discharge


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/tendencias , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Precoz , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Análisis Multivariante , Análisis Estadístico , Modelos Logísticos , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 223(4): 202-212, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430789

RESUMEN

Acute obstetric complications may occur in any situation and at any time during pregnancy. Patients transported to a hospital may require more time than available, so in these cases emergency care must at least begin outside an inpatient perinatological facility. Although diverse maternal threats require different emergency-treatment strategies, rescue teams are particularly challenged when a prehospital delivery appears to be imminent. Under the terms of emergency medical services professional perinatal options (diagnostics, therapy) are generally not available. This makes clinical knowledge of the specific symptoms, differential diagnoses, hazard profiles and their handling mandatory for the emergency medical physician. When limitations concerning the prehospital setting are considered, a systematic management pathway along the obstetrical ABCDE-scheme - gebABCDE -guides the perinatologically inexperienced emergency physician safely from step to step. Complementary telemedical support is offered by perinatological specialists who can be called directly over an obstetrical telephone hotline for emergency physicians (24/7) - gebHOTLINE.


Asunto(s)
Parto Obstétrico , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Obstetricia , Algoritmos , Urgencias Médicas , Femenino , Humanos , Parto , Atención Perinatal , Embarazo
17.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 40: e20180431, 2019 Jul 29.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365737

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To know the profile of service and satisfaction of users served by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (SAMU). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of the 854 services performed by the Advanced Life Support (SAV) teams from SAMU of Porto Alegre/RS, in the first quarter of 2016. A total of 164 users or respondents answered by phone to the questions regarding the service performed. Analysis performed using the Spearman and Chi-square tests. Study approved in Ethics and Research Committee of the Institutions involved. RESULTS: A higher percentage of clinical visits (48.2%) followed by trauma care (32.8%). Regarding telephone calls, 71.4% of respondents rated the service as 'very good' while the service was classified by 76.8% of the respondents. From them, 81.1% stated that the service was resolving. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical type stands out among the assistances and the users reveal satisfaction with the service provided, considering that it serves the population resolutely.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades Móviles de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción del Paciente , Atención de Apoyo Vital Avanzado en Trauma/organización & administración , Estudios Transversales , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Humanos , Teléfono/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(3): e20192163, 2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389523

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to describe the teaching strategy based on the Multiple Victims Incident (MVI) simulation, discussing and evaluating the performance of the students involved in the initial care of trauma victims. METHODS: a cross-sectional, and quantitative study was performed. A realistic MVI simulation involving students, and professionals from nursery and medical schools, as well as a prehospital care team was performed. RESULTS: it was possible to notice that the classification according to the START method (Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment) was correct in 94.1% of the time from the analysis of 17 preestablished checklists. Following the primary evaluation with the ABCDE mnemonic, all steps were performed correctly in 70%. However, there was only supply of oxygen in high flow in 64.7% of the examination. The search for visible and hidden bleeding was performed in 70.6% of the examination. The neurological evaluation with the Glasgow coma scale and pupillary evaluation occurred in 70.6% of the victims. The victims exposure was performed in 70.6% of the examination. CONCLUSION: a simulated environment allows the consolidation and improvement of professional skills, especially when we are talking about a poorly trained area during the undergraduate program, such as the MVI. Early training and teamwork encourage clinical thinking, integration and communication, essential abilities when facing chaotic situations.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Simulación de Paciente , Entrenamiento Simulado/métodos , Triaje/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Universidades
19.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 37(3): 493-505, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337480

RESUMEN

Older people are the fastest growing segment of the population and over-represented among people requiring emergency general surgery. Independent of comorbid and procedural factors, perioperative risk increases with increasing age. This effect is amplified with frailty or sarcopenia. Multidisciplinary perioperative care aligned with goals of care is most likely to achieve optimal patient and health system outcomes; however, substantial knowledge gaps exist in emergency general surgery for older people. Anesthesiologists are uniquely positioned to address these knowledge gaps, including optimizing goal-directed intraoperative care, appropriate provision of acute postoperative monitoring, and integration of principles of geriatric medicine in perioperative care.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Cirugía General/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Anestesiólogos , Humanos , Atención Perioperativa
20.
Emerg Med Pract ; 21(8): 1-28, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339254

RESUMEN

Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) agents have become commonly used over the last 9 years for treatment and prophylaxis for thromboembolic conditions, following approvals by the United States Food and Drug Administration. These anticoagulant agents, which include a direct thrombin inhibitor and factor Xa inhibitors, offer potential advantages for patients over warfarin; however, bleeding emergencies with DOACs can present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges because, unlike traditional anticoagulants, their therapeutic effect cannot be easily monitored directly with common clotting assays. This review examines the growing body of evidence on the uses and risks of DOACs in the emergency department, including initiation of therapy and reversal strategies.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Administración Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Antitrombinas/efectos adversos , Antitrombinas/uso terapéutico , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/efectos adversos , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Tiempo de Protrombina/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Ultrasonografía/métodos
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